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INDIGENOUS 
FOSSORIAL HYMENOPTERA. 



On the \st of May will he published, vnij'orm u-ith the present Work, 

THE BEES OF GREAT BRITAIN; 

Containing the Description and Synonymy of all the Species hitherto dis- 
covered to be Natives of this Country, as far as the Metropolitan and Pro- 
vincial Cabinets to which the Author can obtain access, will admit j with 
remarks on their Habits and Economy. 

By W. E. S H U C K a R D, M. E. S. 

LIBRARIAN TO THE ROYAL SOCIETY. 

+ 4t The expenses of publication being very great, and the sale of works of 
this description limited, the Author will feel obliged by those Entomologists, 
who may wish to have the above, signifying their intention to him prior to the 
15th of March, as the number printed will be influenced by the probability 
of the extent of the sale. Part I., containing the Andrenid*, will be first 
published. 



ESSAY 

ON THE 

INDIGENOUS 
FOSSORIAL HYMENOPTERA; 



COMPRISING 



A DESCRIPTION OF ALL THE 
BRITISH SPECIES OF BURROWING SAND WASPS 



CONTAINED IN THE 



METROPOLITAN COLLECTIONS ; 



THEIR HABITS AS V ML AS THEY HAVE BEEN OBSERVED. 



By W. E. SHUCKARD, M.E.S. 

LIBRARIAN TO THE ROYAL SOCIETT. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED BY 

THE AUTHOR, 31, ROBERT STREET, CHELSEA. 
SOLD ALSO BY M. BAILLIERE, 219, REGENT STREET. 

1837. 



C'- 



QL 
SU7.4 

35-7 



e. ROWORTH AND SONS, BELL YAUD, 
FLEET STREET. 



TO 



THE REV. FREDERICK WILLIAM HOPE, M.A. 

PRESIDENT OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 
F. R. L. Z. G. SS. &c. &.C. &c. 



A TRIBUTE OF RESPECT 

FOR 

THE ZEAL AND LIBERALITY WITH WHICH HE CULTIVATES, 
AND PROMOTES THE CULTIVATION, 

OF 

THE SCIENCE OF ENTOMOLOGY, 

THIS ESSAY 
IS DEDICATED 

BY 

THE AUTHOPx. 



444633 



PREFACE 



It is with diffidence that I present myself before the En- 
tomological public; but having paid much attention for 
some time past to the aculeate Hymenoptera, and having 
assiduously collected our native species, a collection has 
grown upon my hands, and observations have accumu- 
lated upon their habits and distinctions, that I have been 
induced to yield, perhaps too easily, to the persuasions of 
friends to present British Entomologists with the fruits 
of my labour, — truly a labour of love, — with the hope 
that it may incline them to look about, and give some 
portion of their zeal to a tribe of insects which merit 
it certainly as much as many others that have hitherto 
almost exclusively absorbed their attention. 

My own success within a limited district justifies the con- 
clusion that our country is much richer in these insects than 
has been suspected. I feel convinced that when distant 
and different localities are well searched many decidedly 
new species will be discovered, as I have seldom examined 



VIM PREFACE. 

a Cabinet, witli any pretension to possess this tribe, without 
finding something new. This is an additional inducement 
to collect, for the stimulus to exertion is increased by the 
prospect of making discoveries, thereby extending our 
knowledge of Nature and of her productions. Every 
species is an important link in the great chain, without 
which its consecution is necessarily broken. The futility 
of all theories of natural arrangement is therefore self- 
evident, until we shall possess an absolutely perfect know- 
ledge of species ; for even the most elaborate, and best 
conceived, may, by the introduction of a new creature, 
be totally subverted. 

Another inducement to attend to these insects may be 
urged in the exceedingly interesting nature of their economy, 
and the peculiarities of their structure. Amongst them ex- 
clusively, at least with but one exception, we find social 
tribes governed by a peculiar polity, and they appear gene- 
rally gifted with an instinct very superior to that of the 
adjacent groups : and with respect to their structure, as in 
the works of the Omniscient Artist, the means are always 
fitted to the end, it consequently follows, that where we 
find a complexity and peculiarity of habits and economy, 
we invariably discover the organs adapted. 

This work, however, embraces only a portion of the tribe. 
I originally intended it to comprise solely the fossorial 



Aculeates of Latreille, but possessing all but one of the yet 
discovered indigenous species of the family Mutillidcc of the 
Heterogyna, I have been induced to add their description ; 
consequently, to complete the first half of the aculeate 
Hymenoptera, the FormicidcB and the VespidcB, — the first 
and the last families, — are alone wanting. These I how- 
ever purpose publishing, accompanied by an English de- 
scription of the Bees of Great Britain, containing all the 
discoveries made since the Rev. Mr. Kirby published his 
admirable ' Monographia Apum Angliae,' in 1804. This 
I hope to accomplish in the course of the spring, and 
which, in conjunction with the present work, will place 
in the hands of British Collectors a description of all the 
aculeate Hymenoptera yet discovered in these islands. 

The present work, as the title indicates, contains a full 
description of all the species of the Mutillidcs, and of the 
fossorial Hymenoptera, known to be inhabitants of Britain, 
at least as far as they are contained in the Metropolitan 
Cabinets to which I could have access. To avoid the 
possibility of mistake, I have given very detailed descrip- 
tions, and I trust that I shall render some service to the 
science by having fully determined several pi-eviously very 
doubtful species. In the generic descriptions, I have 
omitted the cibarial organs, with the exception of the man- 
dibles, and sometimes of the labrum, — other parts, but the 
wings chiefly, furnishing, for the fossorial tribe at least, 



cliaracters much less difficult to examine, and also less 
liable to vary specifically. The correctness of this mode 
of distribution is proved by the correspondence of their 
general habit and of their economy. 

To make the book as complete as possible, for I con- 
sider every book should be as complete as is possible in 
itself, I have VN^orked out the synonymy as fully as the 
materials in my possession would admit : in doing this, I 
have had occasion frequently to correct the inaccuracies 
and oversights of my predecessors ; but I wish it to be 
fully understood, that this has been done solely for the 
sake of the science, and that it was never prompted by 
illiberal captiousness. My views of synonymy may pos- 
sibly differ from that of the majority ; for I cannot con- 
sider a mere citation as a synonym, having frequently 
detected, when a description was given, that the insect of 
the author referred to differed from that of the author 
writing. How is it therefore possible to ascertain the 
correctness of a reference, when nothing but the latter is 
given ? I have, however, sometimes diverged from the 
strictness of this rule, when I had no doubt, arising from 
the collateral evidence of the invariable correctness of the 
author. The specific character I have moulded to my own 
occasions, it being necessarily variable according to the 
views pursued, and the specific descriptioyis have always 
been made from an autoptical examination of native spe- 



PREFACE. XI 

cimens; but sometimes, when no British specimen of one 
sex was known, I have inserted the best foreign descrip- 
tion in inverted commas, that it may be recognised when 
found. 

I have only further to remark, that as a portion of this 
book, viz. as far as sheet h inchisive, to page 112, was 
printed as long back as August, 1835, and the six fol- 
lowing pages were then in type, to which no alteration 
was made upon resuming the work within these two 
months, all subsequent discoveries, and remarks, upon the 
insects previously described, are, unavoidably, thrown into 
an appendix at the end. 

In the use of terms, I have almost exclusively restricted 
myself to those employed by Messrs. Kirby and Spence, 
unless obliged by paramount considerations to deviate 
from them ; and it is necessary to observe, that all the 
insects were examined under a lens of a moderately high 
power, which, as sculpture very generally constitutes the 
specific distinction, will be found essential to the removal 
of all doubt as to their identity and determination. 

In the drawings of the wings I have endeavoured to give 
the relative proportions as accurately as possible; but should 
I have failed therein it is not of much moment, as the course 
of all the nervures is correctly indicated, and thus a com- 



paiison of the entire system of the neuration facilitated, 
which will be found sometimes necessary to detect their 
differences when resembling. The generic descriptions 
will, however, at once correct any inadvertent error that 
may be made, by displaying the combination of characters 
which corroborate the differences traced in those organs, 
and which I have selected by preference as their most 
simple expression. 

To add to the convenience of Entomologists, I have 
given, at the end, two copies of the nomenclature of the 
genera and species, printed upon hard paper ; the one for 
the purpose of labelling their collections, and the other as 
an index to their possessions : and I hope I have added to 
its utility by introducing the sexual signs, for no species 
can be considered complete with but one sex only. 

In conclusion I beg to return my sincere thanks to my 
numerous Entomological friends, for it is impossible to 
enumerate them here, both for the facilities they have 
afforded me in describing the rarities of their respective 
Collections, and the liberality with which they have con- 
tributed to my own ; and to my friend Mr. Frederick 
Smith I am indebted for engraving my plates. 



31, RoiiEHT StIIKET, ClIIiLSliA, 

December, 1836. 



CONSPECTUS or THE GENEIlvV 



. , , confluent mill the 2d iliscoidal. 
One submarginal J 
cell 'not confluent 



marginal cell slightly appcndiculalcd 

acuminate and joining the costal ncrvure at its extremity . 



. 19. OxvEELt-S. 

.21. Chabro. 
.20. Trypoxylox. 



one recurrent nervure . 



'wo sobmar«inal 
cells 



' two 



recurrent neriures . 



S anastomosing with the first transvcrso-culiital 23. 

i joining the cubital about the middle of the 1st subraarginal cell 22. 

1st submargiual receiving boili recurrent nervurcs 27. 

. marginal ceil largely appendiculated 16. 

/ second snbmarginal cell petiolated IS. 

) ( apex of the marginal cell parallel with that of 2d submarginal.. 4. 

1 apex of the marginal cell 



1st and 2d submarginal ( 
cells receiving each a ' 

recurient nervuie ) marginal cell not .^ ».,„„.• of ih 

^ appendiculated J 2d submarginal not 7 •^ .. 

V petiolated ■) '■"lending -.,■■ — .j ^^ transverse . 

(oS ....'".'.' i a truncated triangle 

- 2d submargiual receiving both recurrent nervures 



- 1 11 f '^^ submarginal quadrate 
, " , ^ > transverse 



Celta. 
Sticmds. 

CCMONUS. 
DrNETUS. 
MiSCOPHfS, 
TiPHIA. 

PEMPriREDON 

XvLacus. 

DlODONTUS. 



/the lit and 2d, 



; each a recurrent ncrvure 



I the 2d receiving both 
I recurrent nervurcs 



S the second petiolated 29. 

\ . . . . not petiolated, and the 3d apical 3. 

'and petiolated 18. 



Tbree submarginal 
cells ' 



- not petiolated 



/■ marginal cell S '^'^ submarginal of the usual form 17, Astata. 

\ annpnfliciilntml i -» i i ■ ii i^ k mctathorax lonffcr than the dofsolum 13. Larra. 

« appenaiLumiea (3,] submaremal lunu ate ! * 1 .1 ^ 1 i V ' " 

J =* I .. .. not so long as tbedorsolum 14. Taciiytes. 

i ^3d submarginal petiolated 10. Miscus. 

f marginal cell not ? o 1 k ■ 1 » C smaller than the second 9. Ammophila. 

V I- I . 1 ^ 3d submarginal not ) r.u ■ r.u 01 01 4 "'^"'^-^* 

^ appendiculated / .• 1 » 1 i . ' of the size of the 2d 31. Ahpactus. 

^^ <- petiolated, but larger than the 2d 33. M,.„es... 

e 2d submarginal petiolated 34. Cerceris. 

the 2d and 3d receiving | , marginal cell almost S 3d submarginal having a short pseudo-nervure from the middle of its terminal transverse one . . 1. AIutilla. 

each a recurrent nervurej 2d submarginal not J semicircular ( either triangular or subquadrate and without the pseudo-nervure 6. Pompilus. 

V petiolated \ marginal cell forming an elongate triangle 32. Psen. 



\ obtuse at its extremity 11. Sp 



t the Island 3il, receiving each a lecurrenl nervure 28. Mel 

Four submarginal * the 2d receiving both recurrent nervu 



celU i the 2d and 3d 



'ing \ " pseudo-nervure originating from the centre of the 1st transverso-cubital and returning backwards. 



30. GORYTES. 
12. DoLlCHURl 



each a recuirent nervure ( „„ pseudo-nervure 



^ the second subraarginal triangular 2. 

J , , t nearly square 5. 

( tjuadiangular J . . ^ ' 



Mv 



J oblong 7. CEnoraLES. 



One submarginal 

cgll I not confluent 



confluent with the 2d discoidal. 



Two submargin 
cells . . 



A 



one recurrent nervure 



two recurrent nervures 



1st submarginal n 

1st and 2d subm 
cells receiving < 
recurrent nervure 



2d submarginal n 



19. OXYBELUS. 

■21. CuABno. 

20. Trypoxylon. 



23. Celia. 

22. Stigmus. 

27. C'emonus. 

16. DrNETus. 

15. Miscopnus. 

4. TipiiiA. 



26. Pemphredon. 
25. Xyi.cecus. 

24. DiODONTUS. 

8. Aporus. 



'the 1st and 2d, receiving each a recurrent m 
• and petiolated 



the 2d receiving 
recurrent nervures 



Three submarginal 
cells 



both) 



not petiolated 



the 2d and 3d receiving) 
each a recurrent nervure^ 2d submarginal 
C petiolated . . . . , 



29. Alvson. 

3. Metiioca. 
18. Nysson. 

Ll7. ASTATA. 

Ll3. Laura. 
Ll4. Taciiytes. 
1. 10. Miscus. 
. 9. Ammopiiila. 
.31. Arpactus. 

j.33. MiMESA. 

.34. Cerceris. 
2d submarginal ^. 1. Mutilla. 

6. Po.MPILUS. 
32. PSEN. 
35. PniLANTHUS. 

, 11. Sphex. 



the 1st and 3d, receiving each a recurrent n 



Four su 



( the isi ana isa, receiving eacu a. icv-unci 
bmarginal ) the 2d receiving both recurrent nervures 

i the 2d and 3d receiving S ^ pseudo-ner 

v each a recurrent nervure (. no pseudo-nervu 



.28. Mellinus. 
.30. Gorytes. 

. 12. DoLICHURUS. 

. 2. Myrmosa. 
. 5. Sapyca. 
. 7. Ceropales. 



INTRODUCTION. 



§ 1- 

A LIST of the most useful books upon this tribe, or to 
which any reference is made in the following pages ; a few 
words upon the history of these insects since the period at 
which Mr. Kirby published his " Monographia Apum 
Angliae ;" an account of their external structure ; and a few 
observations of a more general nature, will not perhaps be 
thought superfluous here. 

§ 2. 

Ca. Lin'N/eus. — Fauna Suecica. Edit, altera. Stockholmiae. 1761. 8vo. 
Systema Naturae. Edit. 12a. Holmiae. 1766—1768. 

Tom. 3. Bvo. 
Caroli de Villers. — Caroli Linnaei Entomologia, fauna suecicae descriptioni- 

bus aucta, &c. Lugduni. 1789. 4 Tom. 8vo. 
Ch. de Geer. — Memoires pour servir a rHistoire des Insectes. 7 Vols. 4to. 

Stockholm. 1752—1778. 
A. J. Retzius. — Car. de Geer Genera et Species Insectorum, extraxit digessit, 

&c. Lipsiae. 1783. 8vo, 
J. C. Fabricius. — Systema Entomologiae. Flensburgi et Lipsiee. 1775. 8vo. 
Species Insectorum. Hamburgiet Kilonii. 1781. Tom. 2. 

8vo. 

Mantissa Insectorum, &c. Hafniae. 1787. Tom. 2. 8vo. 

■ Entomologia Systematica emendata et aucta. Hafniae. 

1792—1794. 4 Tom. 8vo. Et Supplementum. 1798. 

8vo. 

Systema Piezatorum. Brunsvigae. 1804. 8vo. 

P. Rossii.— Mantissa Insectorum. Tom. 2. 4to. Pisis. 1792 — 1794. 
Fr. Klug. — Monographia Siricum Germaniae atque generum illis adnumera- 

torum. Berolini. 1803. 4to. Cum lab. color. 
B 



( 2 ) 

C. Illiger. — Petri Rossii Fauna Etrusca, iterum edita et annotationibus per- 

petuis aucta. Tom. secundus. Ilelrastadii. 1807. 8vo. 
J. L. Christ. — Naturgeschichte, Klassification, &c. der Bienen, Wespen und 

Ameisengeschlecht. Francfurt am Maia. 1791. 4to. 
W. KiRiiY. — Monographia Apum Angliaj. (Vol. 1. Introductory Remarks.) 

Ipswich. 2 Vols. Bvo. 1802. 
■ Transactions of the Linnean Society. Vol. 4. London. 1798. 

(Ammophila, a new genus of insects.) 
L. JuRiNE. — Nouvelle Methode de Classer les Hymenopteres. Tom. 1 . Geneve. 

1807. 4to. 
P. A. Latheille. — Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces et des Insectes. Tom. 13. 

1805. 8vo. 
Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum. Tom. 4. 8vo. 

Parisiis et Argentorati. 1809. 
Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle. 2d Edit. 

36 Tom. 8vo. Paris. 1816—1819. 
Max. Spinola. — Insectorum Ligurise species novae aut rariores, &c. Tom. 2. 

4to. Genua;. 1806—1808. 
Olivier. — Latreille et Lepelletier de St. Fargeau. — Encyclopedie Me- 

thodique, partie de I'Histoire Naturelle; Entomologie. 

Tom. 4— 10. 1789—1825. 4to. 
J. C. D. Schreber. — Der Naturforscher. St. xx. 8vo. 
G. W. F. Panzer. — Faunae Insectorum Germania; initia. Nurnberg. Fascicul. 

110. 1795—1805. 12o. 
Kritische Revision der Inseliten-faune Deutschlands. 

2e band. Nurnberg. 1806. 
Franc, de P. Schrank. — Fauna Boica. Tom. 3. 8vo. 1798—1803. 

Nurnberg, Ingolstadt, Landshut. 
C. A. Walckenaer. — Memoires pour servir a I'Histoire Naturelle des Abeilles 

Solitaires qui composentle genre Halicte. 1 Tom. 8vo. 

Fig. Paris. 1817. 
P. L. Vander Linden. — Observations sur les Hym6nopteres d'Europe de la 

Famille des Fouisseurs. 4to. Bruexelles. 1829. 
J. Curtis, — British Entomology, or Illustrations and Descriptions of the 

Genera of Insects found in Great Britain, with figures 

from nature of the most rare and beautiful species. 

11 Vols. 8vo. London. 1824—1835. 
Le Pelletier de St. Fargeau. — Aunales de la Societe Entomologique de 

France. Tom. 1. Prem. Trim, sur le genre Goryte, et 

Tom. 3. 4 Trim. Monographie du genre Crabro. 1834. 
Nees AB. EsENBECK. — Hymenoptcroium Ichneuraonibus affinium Monographiae. 

Volumen Secundum. Stuttgart et Tubing. 1834. 



( 3 ) 

§ 3. 
For the determination of genera, J urine's work will 
be found the most useful of all the preceding books, that is 
to say, as far as it refers to the Fossorial Aculeates. He 
merits great praise for the application of a system — the 
utility of which had not been fully recognised by its dis- 
coverer either Harris or Frisch — to a tribe of insects which 
still remained, notwithstanding the labours of Fabricius, 
Latreille and Oliver, in detail a confused mass very difficult 
to ascertain with perfect accuracy or satisfaction. The 
characters derived from the organs of the mouth, made use 
of by the former writer, are, perhaps, as good and as per- 
fectly distinct as any that could be adopted, were they not 
in the majority of cases too recondite for easy investiga- 
tion, exclusive of the excessive labour of inspecting them 
fully. But we shall even then find the number of their 
parts frequently the same, differing only in form, and that 
so slightly that recourse must still be had to external 
characters to substantiate and confirm them. But when 
characters are pointed out to us in a group of insects already 
combined by one still more important, which are so simple, 
that the first glimpse will inform us, even when we have not 
the clue of habit* to guide us, whether an insect be of the 
same or of a different genus with those with which it is 
compared, should we not be grateful to the individual who 
discovered or applied it ; and this is due to Jurine. He saw 
in the neuration of the superior wings of the majority 
of the Hymenoptera differences, which he found would 
separate them generically from the circumstance of its 
assembling together such which perfectly agreed in all 

• This word, in the singular, I always apply to the general appearance, the 
fades of the insect. 

b2 



( 4 ) 

otlier respects. He limited his use of the nervures to 
those placed beyond the stigma, (pi. 1, fig. 1, s.) and which 
are dotted in the second figure of the first plate and the 
spaces or cells formed by them, marked 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, in 
the first figure of the same plate.* The names which he 
applied to the genera thus distinguished have not been 
allowed always to stand, owing to the too rigid application of 
the law of priority, which retained the names of Fabricius and 
Latreille, &c. to the conglomerate genera they had formed, 
when their types were subsequently discovered to be iden- 
tical with any of the insects contained in the genera con- 
structed by him. But this he can well afford, for his fame 
is permanent. No subsequent discovery has as yet invali- 
dated his system when rigidly applied, although sometimes 
in exotic genera it derives perspicuity from other external 
characters, viz. from general habit, the form of the eyes, 
&c. &c. Latreille's merits have been considerably obscured 
by the publication of the preceding work, which lent its 
lustre to all his subsequent performances. St. Fargeau's 
generic descriptions in the work above mentioned merit 
great praise, and the introductory remarks of Mr. Kirby 
will be found exceedingly instructive. For the description 
of species we must cite Vander Linden. He first has drawn 
the attention of Entomologists to the value of sculpture as 
a specific distinction in this tribe, and by means of which 
the confusion that has hitherto prevailed as to the specific 
identity or differences of these creatures promises to be re- 
moved. Colour has hitherto been resorted to as the best 
specific character, but it is of so variable a nature in the 
majority, that I have not found it safe to depend upon : I 

* See below for the detailed nomenclature of the nerves and cells of the 
wing, which I have extracted from my paper to be published in a forthcoming 
number of the Entomological Transactions. 



( 5 ) 

have extended Vander Linden's application of sculpture to 
all the species, and I find it the safest guide to their true 
determination. The custom has been hitherto to describe 
the varieties of colour as alphabetical varieties of the species 
— this plan is extensively adopted by St. Fargeau — but I 
find it produce less confusion, when very variable, to indi- 
cate its latitude in a parenthesis than particularly to describe 
every distinction, for in those species liable to vary we shall 
seldom find two that perfectly agree, it consequently tends 
to engender doubt in the minds of those who have not seen 
multitudes of individuals as to their specific identity. This 
plan I have adopted throughout the following work, unless 
the variations were very marked and very constant, and 
consequently probably the effect of locality or other influ- 
ences. After the above named writers, we may instance 
Christ, Spinola, Rossi and Illiger, as perhaps the most 
satisfactory describers of species. None could surpass 
Linne and Fabricius, were they not so brief, which, although 
sufficing for the paucity of their materials, makes the 
majority of their species doubtful now that collections have 
so much accumulated. Olivier is also admirable in detect- 
ing the errors of his predecessors, and his laborious works 
must ever remain monuments to his memory, perseverance, 
and assiduity. All the authors named above will be found 
more or less useful ; it would be as idle to repeat the list as 
it would be invidious to give further preference. 

It would not be in place, nor can I be expected to enter 
into an elaborate history of this tribe in a book devoted 
merely to the description of British genera and species. 
Without an extensive reference to foreign forms, it would 
be absurd to attempt it, and as the majority of British En- 
tomologists are barely interested in them, and as it would 
besides occupy much space, I reserve my notes upon the 



( G ) 

subject, as well as my own particular views, for another op- 
portunity. A very few words will give a broad outline of 
the chief improvements that have been made, which is all 
that can be required here. 

It is to Latreille that we owe the division of these in- 
sects into flimilies, which collocate into distinct groups such 
genera as possess characters in common. It was in his 
" Precis" that he first sketched this distribution which he 
has successively remodified in every subsequent work. It 
is that which he published in his " Families Naturelles du 
Regne Animal, 1825," that I follow in the following pages, 
adapting it to the limits of our genera; but although I do 
so, it is merely temporary, until 1 can complete my re- 
searches upon the subject, and not because I fully agree in 
his arrangement. I have adopted the names applied by 
Dr. Leach to those families, on account of the uniformity 
of their termination. The comparision of the works of 
Latreille consequently will show his progression to the pre- 
sent comparatively natural arrangement of them : beyond 
which he has done nothing to advance this tribe since his 
establishment of a few genera in his earlier books. The 
description of species has begun to receive some attention, 
and I hope that the solid characters laid down by Jurine 
for the determination of genera, and by Vander Linden 
for species, will continue to receive the attention pre-emi- 
nently due to them. The Comte le Pelletier de St. Far- 
geau has recently described and subdivided the extensive 
genus Crabro; but the majority of the genera he has sepa- 
rated from it are removed upon much too trivial characters, 
for there is scarcely a genus which would not equally 
admit of being broken up in the same spirit of super refine- 
ment, and which would tend to generate as much confu- 
sion and perplexity as the establishment of genera upon 



( 7 ) 

firm and general principles is intended to remove. I ques- 
tion therefore whether his generic names can be treated 
otherwise than as synonymes of the genus he has di- 
vided. The same observations will also apply to what he 
has done in the genus Gorytes; but the value of his spe- 
cific descriptions is not at all affected by it. He is the 
first who has commenced seriously to monograph the ma- 
terials before him which have been accumulating since Fa- 
bricius wrote, since when but little attention has been paid 
to specific description, unless the insect presented charac- 
ters which rendered the construction of a new genus impe- 
rative. But I must be always understood as implying the 
exception of Vander Linden, and it must be kept in mind 
that I speak only of the aculeate Hymenoptera. I could 
dilate much upon this subject, but as it would lead me 
wide into the field of exotic Entomology, for the reasons 
named above, I will here terminate my remarks. I regret 
that I shall have occasion to differ frequently in opinion 
from the Comte de St. Fargeau, but when I do so, it is 
from the strictest conviction of his being in error, and with 
no other view than to prevent its diffusion ; and I therefore 
trust it will not be misconstrued into any want of due re- 
spect for so veteran and able an Entomologist. 



§ 4. 

The following generalization of the external structure of 
these insects I have inserted for the purpose of enabling 
me to make such remarks as have occured to me in their 
investigation, which could not have been well introduced 
elsewhere, and which I hope will not be entirely without 
their use. 

The HEAD is generally transverse, sometimes wider than 



( 8 ) 

the thorax (Ammophila, Cerceris), occasionally subglobose, 
{Methoca, Tiphid), or large and subquadrate {Crabro, Pem- 
phredon, Sec), rarely triangular (Crabro vexillatus, male), 
and as rarely armed with a spine beneath the cheek ( Cra- 
bro subjmnctatus, (fee), or with an acute one in the middle 
of the face between the base of the antennae {Xyloecus cor- 
niculus) ; sometimes a longitudinal (Cerceris) or triedral {Psen 
atratus) carina in the same situation ; or a tubercle to which 
the antennae are laterally attached {Dolichurus). The eyes 
are generally oval, sometimes subglobose, frequently pro- 
minent, very rarely contiguous {Astata, male), the canthus 
occasionally entering deeply, giving them a kidney shape 
{Sapyga, Trypoxylon). The stemmata are placed upon the 
vertex generally in a triangle, which is sometimes very 
open, forming only a slight curve;* the posterior pair are 
nearly confluent or obsolete in Zarra and Tachytes, and they 
are deficient in the female Mutilla. The antenna inva- 
riably consist of thirteen joints in the male, and twelve in 
the female. f The bulbus or radicle has been, by mistake. 



* This is one of those anomalies of stmcluie for which, unless it be to con- 
stitute a specific distinction, to which it admirably subserves, I cannot ac- 
count; it is most remarkable in the black species of the genus Crabro. 

t St. Fargeau, at p. 693 of the Third Volume of the Annales de la Society 
Entomologique de France, doubts this as being general in the aculeate Hyme- 
noptera, and instances Ceramius (which I suppose he intends for Celunites) and 
Masaris, as having fewer, but all the three genera have decidedly those numbers, 
which I know positively from ocular demonstration. Mr. Hope's rich cabinet 
possesses a specimen of the rare genus Masaris, which I have had the oppor- 
tunity of inspecting, and in my own collection I possess the others. I should not 
here have made this reference to foreign insects, had not St. Fargeau cited 
them to support his opinion that some male Crabros have but twelve, which I 
can assure him, if he will use a lens of a high power, he will find to be a mis- 
take. I was in doubt myself, until I inspected them in a flexible state, or in 
recent insects, the two first joints of the clavolet being very closely connected 



( 9 ) 

occasionally counted as one, but as it forms a component 
part of the scape, and does not articulate with it, it must be 
necessarily included with it as one. They vai'y in length 
in the sexes ; they are generally filiform and slightly curved, 
sometimes much so {Mutilla, female, Tiphia, female, some 
of the Pompili, females, and Arpactus), rarely porrect (^5- 
tata, male), and as rarely capitate {Sapyga prisma, 
male), often subclavate {Sapyga, Nysson, Mimesa, Try- 
poxylon clavicerum, Cerceris, Philanthus), distinctly geni- 
culated in Mutilla, Crahro, Pemphredon, &c. ; the joints 
vary in shape, generally cylindrical, sometimes subarcuate 
{Methoca, male), in the males of some species of Nysson 
the apical joint, and in some Crabros the basal joints of the 
clavolet are emarginate, in some males of the latter also the 
entire clavolet is occasionally fringed with curled hairs, 
sometimes merely at its base, and in the latter case it is 
generally compressed (C. crihrarius, patellatus). They are 
usually inserted in the middle of the face, frequently very 
near the clypeus, sometimes upon a slight protuberance, 
often approximate but occasionally distant. Their uses 
have been so often sought, and so vainly hypothesis* has 
been heaped upon hypothesis, that my own conjectures it 
is fruitless to state. They have been considered as organs 

together. Some further observations of mine upon this subject will be found 
below, in the descriptions of those male Crabros which have tlie basal joints 
of the clavolet emarginate. 

• Mr. Newman's ingenious hypothesis of their fuller development at the ex- 
pense of the eyes in insects that fly by night, and the great development of the 
eyes and decrease of the antennae in those which fly in a bright light, is hap- 
pily conceived and illustrated in the instance of the Melolonthidce, Sijrphus and 
Libellula, but it is not supported by our insects, which are invariably lovers of 
the brightest sunshine, so much so, that if but a transitory cloud flit before the 
sun, they as suddenly disappear; but still, except in one insect, the male of As- 
tatn, they do not entirely contradict his theory, from the position of their eyes 
being lateral. 



( 10 ) 

of smell, touch and hearing. It is evident they play a most 
important part in the intercourse of the sexes, for we inva- 
riably find them most strongly developed in the male. 
Observation teaches us that among the ants they commu- 
nicate intelUyence ; — experiments confirm their service as 
organs of touch and hearing : — what a complex sense this 
combination produces! — but I fear their true function will 
be for ever concealed from us, for it is doubtlessly one to 
which it is proved by the organ that we do not possess any 
analogue. Their importance in the economy, particularly 
of the Hymenoptera, is distinctly proved by the complex 
apparatus provided for keeping them clean, and placed in 
the anterior leg, of which I shall speak in detail below. 
The FACE is generally flat, sometimes slightly convex (the 
MutiUidcB, Sajjyga), or sulcated (Crabro). The clypeus, 
although never articulated, is sometimes distinctly separated 
by suture, but very generally by a mere impression, which 
also is frequently obsolete. It undergoes a great variety 
of form, but is most generally transverse; frequently emar- 
ginate in front, the apices of which are sometimes pro- 
duced into tubercles {Ox ybelus, Diodontus, some Cerceris,) in 
the latter it is laterally lobate, and has very frequently a 
longitudinal carina in the centre, which in Oxyhelus is pro- 
duced in an aquiline form. In the majority of males, and 
in the female Crahros, it, as well as the face, is covered 
with a dense silvery or golden pubescence. 

I have now arrived at the true oral organs, the investigation 
whereof Fabricius considered as essentially necessary to the 
determination of genera, in which he has been much too 
servilely followed by several eminent men. In the Fossorial 
group of the aculeate Hymenoptera, experience and J urine 
have proved that their examination is of minor importance. 
I have consequently made no constant use of them in my 



( 11 ) 

generic descriptions, wherein I have only noticed the labrum 
and mandibles, which sometimes yield a subsidiary character, 
as in Diodontus, Tachytes, See ; but even these might be 
dispensed with, for the alary system strictly applied will be 
found to bring together insects of the same habit and 
economy, or when there is a discrepancy of habit it may be 
sometimes useful to make it subgeneric. The advantages 
derivable from the use of external characters are too appa- 
rent to require further justification, and the investigation of 
the cibarial apparatus is of consequence only to the com- 
parative anatomist, to display the gradual divarication of 
form from an original type ; but they will still doubtlessly 
be deemed of importance to all who wish to make diflScult 
and obscure what nature has rendered so simple and clear. 
It is very evident that generic subdivisions are extremely 
artificial, for the leaps nature is thereby caused to make, and 
the great difference in the value of genera, prove what 
extensive discoveries we have yet before us, and which, I 
conceive, when made, and all the created species fully ascer- 
tained, that the true system will be found to be neither 
circular, square, nor oval, neither dichotomous, quinary, 
nor septenary, but a uniform meshwork of organisation, 
spread like a net over the universe. But what gaps remain 
to be filled ! We are truly as yet scarcely upon the threshold 
of the great temple and consequently still remote from the 
adytum where the veiled statue reposes. We have not yet 
learnt our alphabet, for species are the letters whereby the 
book of nature is to be read. 

But to prove that I have not neglected what has been 
unduly considered of so much importance I will insert a 
few generalities upon the oral organs. They consist of the 
labrum, mandibles, maxillae and its palpi, the tongue, and 
the labium with its appendages. The labrum is always 



( 12 ) 

present, although in a state of repose frequently concealed 
beneath the clypeus ; it is very various in form, in Oxyhelus 
it is lunulate; in Pompilus transverse, rounded in front 
and slightly eraarginate ; in Ceropales triangular ; in Phi- 
lanthus it is laterally reflexed, sinuate anteriorly, witii a lobate 
appendage beneath ; in Cerceris and Diodontus distinctly 
emarginate ; in Mellinus transversely quadrate ; and in 
Pemphredon lugubris bilobate. In the majority it is ante- 
riorly fringed with long hair, and the general rule is, that 
when concealed beneath the clypeus it is membranaceous, 
and only when fully exposed is it horny. The structure of 
the mandibles will frequently determine their use, as in 
Sapyga, Pemphredon, &c. where they are very broad, and 
armed with several teeth. We thus see their adaptation 
to the specific purpose of forming their cylindrical cells in 
wood. Their analogous conformation in the wood-boring 
bees {Megachile, Saropoda, &c.) corroborates this conclu- 
sion; but still this is not uniformly the case, for in several of 
the CrabronidcB, which are distinctly wood burrowers, the 
mandibles are merely bi dentate at their apex. May not this 
disparity arise from the different nature of the wood they 
are instinctively led to form their nests in? for I have 
always found that the insects with this shaped mandible 
make their cells in sub-putrescent and soft woods, chiefly 
decaying willows ; but the object of nature in giving to some 
of the true Fossores such immense arcuate mandibles as we 
perceive in Ammophila, Sphex, &c. is less obvious. The 
only apparent use to which I have observed them applied, 
is, in the female, to assist her in conveying her prey, and in 
the male, to seize the female. I have never observed any of 
the tribe feed with them ; in fact their only sustenance, and 
that taken but rarely, appears to consist of the nectar of 
flowers. In the instance of Mutilla there is a great sexual 



( 13 ) 

disparity in the form of the mandibles, for in the male they 
are particularly strong, and approach much to those of the 
genus Pemphredon ; in the genus Diodontus also there is a 
sexual difference. The processes or teeth are generally 
apical, yet we sometimes observe them basal internally, as 
in some Crahros and in Tachytes ; and in the latter genus 
and Larra, 8ic. there is an external process towards the 
base. The form which most generally obtains is bidentate, 
with the exterior tooth the longest; but in some, as in the 
Crahros, it is the shortest ; in some however it is unidentate 
and acuminate at its apex. When closed they are fre- 
quently forcipate ; they then pass over the labrum, and thus 
inclose the whole internal cibarial apparatus. The interior 
PALPI are always four jointed and the exterior six, they vary 
much in their form both in the genera and species. The 
TONGUE, which I consider to be that portion of the cibarial 
apparatus, which is thrust forward to lap the nectar of 
flowers, or as it is more apparent in the bees, the hairy tube 
through which they suck it, is in this tribe very variously 
formed — sometimes indeed it is so short as to be scarcely 
evident ; in Tiphia, it is very short and rounded, it is very 
generally bifid or emarginate with the lateral edges reflect- 
ed; in Ammophila, it is elongate, still bifid, and in closing 
reflected backwards, which induced Mr. Kirby to consider 
that this genus ought to come near the bees. This circum- 
stance strongly exhibits a prominent defect of the cibarial 
system, as it would bring together insects of so great a dis- 
parity of habit and economy. In Crabro, it is truncated 
anteriorly and laterally produced, and to this form Oxyhelus 
closely approaches. In Pompilus, it is trilobate, the lateral 
lobes having each, near their base, a pilose spot. In Phi- 
lanthus, it is deeply emarginate, and the sides are produced 
into pilose angles. 



( 14- ) 

The VALVULE are variously shaped, generally coriaceous; 
they form a sheath, or case for the tongue in repose, and it 
is to them that the exterior palpi are attached, the interior 
being affixed to the apex of the tube of the tongue (mentum, 
M'Leay). 

The comparative investigation of the structure of the 
THORAX throughout the order of the Hymenoptera, is a 
subject that well merits strict attention, and which, in its 
connection with their organs of locomotion, would be rich 
in its results towards advancing a philosophical knowledge 
of the order, and more fully determining their natural 
arrangement.* Much doubt and confusion still exists upon 
the subject although we possess two or three essays, which, 
as far as they go, are admirable in execution. This work 
being restricted to a small tribe only of the order, it would 
not be in place, nor is it my intention, to enter into it here : 
I shall satisfy myself, and I hope my readers, with a few 
generalities, going only into those parts which are at all 
dwelt upon in the following pages. I shall consider the 
organs of locomotion after the general view of the thorax, 
which, although not the most correct mode of proceeding, 
is the most convenient to my purpose. 

The thorax is generally ovate, seldom cylindrical {Sapyga), 

* It is a subject that would require the accompaniment of a series of plates, 
Mr. Newman will doubtlessly enter into it, but as his treatise is general I fear 
he will not be able to give it all the space it requires, for the admirers of the 
other orders have equal claims upon him. Its progressive development should 
be faithfully recorded, unbiassed by any theory, and nothing should be seen but 
what absolutely exists. In reference to it the following works will be found 
useful : — 

Burmeister's Manual of Entomology — (a tabular view of the terms used by 
the several writers at p. 90,) — and the writers to whom he refers. 

Jurine, L., Observations sur les Ailes des Hymenopteres. Transactions of 
the Academy of Turin. Vol. 24. 4to. 1820. 



( 15 ) 

rarely longer than the abdomen (male Astata). The collar* 
in the first families, is laterally prolonged as far as the 
origin of the wings, embracing the mesothorax in a semi- 
circle, it is rarely truncated anteriorly {Mutilla, Sapyga), and 
occasionally prolonged into a kind of neck {Ammophila, 
Miscus). In the last families it is very narrow and trans- 
verse. The clavicula of M'Leay and Chabrier appears to 
me to be distinct from the tubercle of Kirby. In the 
thorax of the two insects, which the former author has 
figured to elucidate his and Audouin's theory, the tubercle 
is almost obsolete, as is the case in the Vespadce generally, 
and in all which have the collar extending laterally to the 
origin of the wings. Its situation also varies with the form 
of the collar, it is most remote from the wings and most 
developed in such as have the collar narrow and transverse, 
and its colour sometimes affords a subsidiary specific 
character. I consider that it forms a cover or case for the 
anterior spiracle, the aperture to which varies in the several 
genera and is always indicated by the cilia or short stiff 
hairs with which one of its margins is fringed. It is always 
smooth and shining, frequently coloured, and is, I think, 
the coi'ps calleux of St. Fargeau; it is always attached by 
one side to the sutural separation from the collar, I suspect 
it has some slight degree of motion and that it articulates 
with it. The tegul^e also afford frequently a subsidiary 
specific character, but their colour, as well as that of the 
tubercles, is not constant ; they are very large in the male 
of Mutilla, moderately so in Tiphia, and very small in 
Pompilus. But the metathorax will be found a more im- 
portant portion of this division of the body in this tribe, 

* I always use this term with Mr. Kirby, it is synonymous with Burmeister's 
pronotuin and well explains the part in this order, the terms of other writers are 
too circumlocutory. 



( 16 ) 

from its frequently furnishing in its sculpture undeviating 
specific characters in several genera, wherein colour either 
affords none or very unsatisfactory ones. I understand it 
similar to Kirby and Spence, to comprise the w^hole of the 
thorax beyond the post dorsolum. It is frequently sepa- 
rated into two divisions, the anterior portion forming a 
semicircular, triangular or subcordate plate with an elevated 
margin. It is generally obtuse at its extremity, but occa- 
sionally truncated, and then sometimes armed on each side 
with a spine {Nysson, Alyson). In Oxyhelus it has a central 
curved mucro in its centre at its origin, with a lanceolate 
process on each side, and it is occasionally pubescent. The 
MESOSTERNUM has in some species a spine on each side 
posteriorly, and this not sexual but common to both ; the 
uses of these tubercles and spines is exceedingly difficult 
to imagine, no satisfactory explanation of them has ever 
suggested itself to me. Of the organs of locomotion the 
WINGS must decidedly rank foremost in these insects. I have 
already shown above their importance in the generic division 
of this tribe, but it is only a portion of them which has 
hitherto been thus applied, viz. those nervures marked in 
dots in the second figure of the first plate of this book, 
which will be found quite suflficient for all the purposes of 
British Entomology. In a paper of mine recently read at 
the Entomological Society, I have examined the distribu- 
tion of the nervures upon the superior wing and the rules 
which seem to regulate it. In the nomenclature I adhere 
to that of my predecessors, unless at all at variance with 
the course nature seems to have pursued in their structure, 
which I follow as closely as the clue admits. I refer, con- 
sequently, to that paper for the detail of my investigation, 
and shall retain here merely the names of the parts, to illus- 
trate which, I have added a coloured figure, which shows 



( n ) 

the extent and direction of the nervures to which the 
references are made. 

The contour of the wing is formed by — a. the costal 
nervure, which forms the anterior margin; h. the apical 
margin, which has no nervure accompanying it ; and c. the 
posterior margin, which also is without a nervure — it is along 
this margin that the little hooklets are placed which connect 
the superior and inferior wings together in flight. The 
nervures found upon the superficies of the wing are the fol- 
lowing : d. the post costal nervure ; e. the externo-medial 
nervure; f. the anal nervure; g. the transverso-medial 
nervure; h. the radial nervure; i. the cubital nervure; 
k. the discoidal nervure; I. the sub-discoidal nervure; 
m. the transverso-cuhital nervures — these vary in number in 
the genera, from one to three being found ; n. the recurrent 
nervures — these also vary in number, there being either one 
or two, in all the British genera there is one ; s. the stigma, 
which appears to be a dilatation of the cubital nervure. The 
spaces indicated by numbers show the cells or areas found 
upon the surface of the wing: 1. the costal cell; 2. the 
externo-medial cell; 3. the interno-medial cell; 4. the anal 
cell ; 5. the radial or marginal cell — when this is crossed 
by a nervure there are either two marginal cells, or the one 
is appendiculated, according to the situation of the nervure 
dividing it, whether it be placed towards its centre or its apex; 
6 — 9. the cubital, or sitb-marginol cells — these vary from one 
to four according to the number of the transverso-cubital 
nervures which cross the space enclosed between the radial 
and cubital nervures : when the latter does not reach the 
apical margin, the boundary cell is called incomplete ; and 
if either of the transverso-cubital nervures furcate after 
quitting the radial, the cell enclosed by the fork is called 
petiolated, as in Miscophus, Nysson, Cerceris, Alyson, and 



( 18 ) 

the cubital cells are named in the order of their appearance, 
counting from the stigma; 10. 11. 12. are the discoidal 
cells ; 13 and 14. the apical cells, which are frequently con- 
fluent together as well as with the third discoidal. 

The conspectus at the end of this introduction gives a 
tabular view of the neuration of the wings ; but I may be 
allowed to remark here upon the singularity of one genus 
only {Cemouus*) receiving both the recurrent nervures in the 
first sub-marginal cell, and that but two insects {Stigmus 
and Celio) have but one recurrent nervure. Only those just 
mentioned and those which have but one sub-marginal cell, 
viz. Oxyhelus, Crabro, and Trypoxylon, receive the recurrent 
nervure in the first sub-marginal cell. Three sub-marginal 
cells seem to be the most prevalent number. I am acquainted 
with but one sexual disparity in the nervures of the wings, 
which is the open marginal cell in the females of Tiphia, 
it being closed in the males. The size of the wing is not 
always in direct connection with the power of flight, but 
all these insects are rapid fliers, and most active during the 
greatest heat of the day. In one genus (Pompilus) how- 
ever the wings do not seem always used for flight, for it 

• I know only in this instance, in Mellinus and in the exotic genus Lorrheum, 
Leach (type, Chlorion compressum, Fab.), that where more than one sub-marginal 
cell is present, the second does not receive a recurrent nervure. In Lorrheum 
and Mellinus it is the more remarkable, as it neglects the second to be received 
by the third ; but the former insect is extraordinary in other respects, — it is the 
only fossorial insect whose tarsi have foot cushions, and the two projecting spines 
at the apex of its metathorax are singular appendages. The foot cushions would 
indicate a more fully developed power of walking against gravity, and, conse- 
quently, refer to some extraordinary peculiarity in its economy. The approximate 
group, the Vespadae, have it also. Is it like them social in its habits 1 I apply 
Leach's MS. name to this genus instead of Jurine's Ampulex; for, notwith- 
standing what the latter says, there is a great difference in the neuration of the 
wings if his figure and the C. compressum be closely compared together. British 
Entomologists must pardon me this exotic morsel. 



( 19 ) 

seldom quits tlie ground, rapidly skipping along, which 
makes it difficult to capture. The inferior wings are ge- 
nerally narrower than the superior, but in the male Astata 
hoops they are wider. The flight of this insect also is sin- 
gular. It rapidly makes a wide gyration in the air, and re- 
turns to settle upon the same clod it started from, and this 
it will repeat a dozen times in the course of five minutes. 
It is rarely that these insects, which are so powerfully 
armed, and so very bold, simulate death, upon the ap- 
proach of danger, by closing up their legs and wings and 
falling down; this is however the case frequently in the 
genus Nysson. The legs are very variously formed; 
they are generally of a moderate length, but in some they 
are very short in proportion to the body, as in Tip hia, 
Philanthus, Cerceris, Crdbro, and very robust in the latter. 
In others (the Pompilida: and Sphecidce), they are very long 
and adapted for running; in Ceropales, in particular, they are 
disproportionately so. Their tibiae are sometimes armed 
with spines, and their anterior tarsi with cilia on the exte- 
rior, and upon this structure, or the absence of it, St. Far- 
geau proposed a theory for the distribution of these insects 
into parasites or non-parasites, but which I have shown 
elsewhere in detail,* that howsoever ingenious it may ap- 
pear, it is nevertheless not correct. In the paper referred 
to, I suggested that it might distribute them into those 
which nidificate in wood or sand, which St. Fargeau seems 
to have adopted, for in a monograph of the genus Crabro^f 
he says, " La presence ou V absence de cils aux tarses ante- 
rieures fee qui indigue que ces insectes travaillent dans la 
terre ou dans le hois)," and has consequently dropped his 

• See Entomological Transactions, my paper upon the Aculeate Hymenop- 
tera, vol. i. pt. 1, p. 52. 

t Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, torn. iii. p. 692. 

c2 



( 20 ) 

original hypothesis ; but neither will his new view bear this 
general application, as I have indicated in the paper referred 
to, and which further experience has confirmed. We often 
detect a sexual difference in the form of the tibiae, or the 
tarsi, but which is confined chiefly to the anterior pair, and 
to the genus Crahro. A dilatation in the form of a con- 
vexo-concave scale of either the anterior tibiae or tarsi is 
found in several males of that genus, and in others we per- 
ceive a peculiarity in the structure of the intermediate tibiae 
and the first joint of their tarsi. The apex of the tibiae is 
always armed with a pair of moveable spines, called cal- 
caria, except the anterior pair, which have but one. One 
is sometimes pectinated, as in Ammophila. Mr. Kirby has 
supposed them to be for the purpose of assisting the in- 
sect in burrowing, but I consider them as designed to sup- 
port the leg, and to prevent its slipping, as they always 
stand off at an angle with the tibiae, and they are move- 
able, that they may be adapted to the position of the limb. 
Those of the anterior pair are singularly formed, having a 
curved incision fringed with short hair in the interior, 
which is made to close over a corresponding incision, also 
fringed, at the base of the first joint of the tarsi, and they 
thus together form a circular aperture, through which the 
insect passes its antennae when it wishes to clean them, 
as it were combing them ; or may not the friction be sub- 
servient to their receiving atmospheric impressions ? for I 
have observed them thus occupied when there was not the 
least appearance of soil upon the antennae, and after long 
confinement in a box. 

The ABDOMEN is composed of seven joints in the male, 
and six in the female :* it is either sessile, subsessile, or 

• The female of Crahro vexillatus, according to Vander Linden, forms an ex- 
ception, but I agree with St. Fargeau that Vander Linden has here made a 
mistake, and considered as the female of that species the male of another. 



( 21 ) 

petiolated, the petiole being an elongation of the first seg- 
ment, very rarely a distinct articulation (Ammopkila vul- 
garis and Miscus), frequently apparently distinct, but not 
so (Psen, Mimesa, Ammopkila, Stigmus, Pemphredon and 
Cemonus). It is generally longer than the thorax, rarely of 
the same length (female Methoca, Crabro brevis), and only 
in the instance of the male As fata boops shorter; it is ge- 
nerally elongate, ovate, and acuminate, at its apex, but in 
male insects frequently obtuse or truncated ; it is rarely 
linear (male, Methoca), or clavate {Ammopkila and Miscus), 
sometimes ovato-conic {Nysson, Gorytes, Oxybelus), and oc- 
casionally sub-clavate in Trypoxylon, and in some species of 
Crabro, in the latter genus frequently subcuneiform, but 
rarely triangular (Astata). The segments are subcoarctate 
in Oxybelus and Dolickurus, and fully so in Cerceris. The 
second ventral segment is produced anteriorly in Nysson, 
more slightly so in some species of Gorytes; the terminal 
ventral segments are emarginate in the males of some species 
of Pompilus, and the hypopygium in the male Metkoca and 
in Tipkia IS prolonged into a compressed upcurved spine; 
the last segment is truncated in the males of Nysson, Ta- 
chytes, and Larra, with two small processes at its lateral 
extremities, and in Ceropales an ovipositor is exserted. 
This last is the only instance of an ovipositor being exserted 
in an aculeate Hymenoptera. 

§5. 

My observations here upon the economy and habits of 
these insects will be very brief, as it would be merely an 
unnecessary repetition, for under each species will be 
found all that has as yet been observed ; I may refer to my 
paper on the subject in the Entomological Transactions* 

• Vol. i. part 1, p. 52, 



( 22 ) 

for a more extensive generalization. The question of pa- 
rasites, to which I have referred above in my notice of the 
legs of these insects, is one deserving attention, and I 
would therefore suggest to collectors the propriety of re- 
cording every fact which opportunity may throw in the 
way of their observation. With respect to the apparent 
anomaly of parasites being of the same order, or perhaps 
of the same genus, it may be remarked that these are not 
internal parasites, and that perhaps a greater resemblance 
was necessary between the individuals than in the case of 
internal parasites, which I believe are destroyers of eggs 
and larvae exclusively, or at least they are deposited within 
the insect in those stages of its existence, and consequently 
when in an indefensive state. But here, where the food 
only, which is stored up as provision for the young, is the 
object of attack, and the maternal solicitude of the parent 
insect for the nurture of her offspring is rendered fruitless 
by the presence of an interpolater secretly deposited, it re- 
quired all the sagacity of the insect introducing her intru- 
sive progeny to evade the instinctive apprehension of the 
laborious mother, and nature has furnished additional 
means to foil the latter in the parasite's resemblance to her- 
self. This appears plausible, but it is not yet substan- 
tiated, nor is it general; for we frequently observe a vast 
discrepancy between the two, although of the same order, 
for instance, between Odynerus and its parasite Chrysis, 
and between Osmia and its supposed parasite Sapyga punc- 
tata. Several Diptera are also found parasitic upon this 
tribe. The non-parasites among them provide their young 
with insects of several orders, and with Arachnides, but it 
is the Diptera chiefly upon which they prey, and I know 
but one instance in which a Coleopterous insect is subject 
to their attack, viz. Cerceris arenaria upon a Stropho- 
somus. 



( 23 ) 

It is seldom the case that one character, as we find it 
here, can be so extensively applied, and with so much pre- 
cision as to determine and separate ail the genera of a de- 
finite group ; it consequently makes the varying number of 
species congregated under each the more conspicuous, and 
we naturally ask, why are there so many of this peculiar 
structure here, or so few, or only one there ? what object 
had nature in view? The fertility of some species also is 
remarkable, as compared with others. These are ques- 
tions which constantly recur, but when will they be an- 
swered? The variations of individuals can be more plau- 
sibly accounted for, but why is it more frequent in some 
species than in others? But so many questions can be 
asked in Natural History, and so few as yet satisfactorily 
answered, that I can only repeat what I have before 
urged, that, if every special fact be recorded when observed, 
time will do the rest, for nature is communicative at in- 
tervals only, and she must consequently be assiduously 
watched. 

§ 6. 

I have enlarged above more than was perhaps desirable 
upon the differences of form in these insects, but some 
excuse may be found, possibly, in my wish to show that even 
in this small group there is much dissimilitude affording 
material for profound speculation and research, and that, 
consequently, whatever fragment we may pick up of the 
great book of nature, it becomes in the right minded, when 
diligently perused, the source and spring-head of a current 
of new thoughts, which, in their progressive development, 
deeply imbue us with the conviction that all is good, nothing 
has been created in vain; and that whatsoever of evil appa- 
rently exists, is to be found solely in our own moral turpitude 



( i^4 ) 

and the perversion of our faculties, and not in the vast 
scheme of nature, wlierein, were it not for the imperfection 
of our powers and the contractedness of our ideas, we 
should see nothing but what the Greeks so elegantly ex- 
pressed in the personification of their Graces, the mutual 
embrace of the Charities — Truth, Beauty, and Goodness — 
thus symbolising the magnificent harmony of universal 
nature. In comparison with the feelings thus engendered, 
and the sublime devotion to which they form the broad and 
rational basis, how insignificant is the taunt of the worldling, 
who gibes us with wasting our time in what he calls such 
frivolous pursuits ! 

Much still remains " debatable land," but the collision 
of opinions generally tends to elicit the truth ; yet it should 
be conducted in an amicable spirit — for should objects which 
display the immense variety of creation in the diversity of 
their structure, and its beautiful adaptation to their economy 
and habits, and which therefore raise us to the admiration 
of the skill displayed in their formation, and which ought 
to elevate us to the adoration of the Great Being, who, in 
the plenitude of His benevolence, has created such myriads 
of animal forms that the blessing of life may be as infinite 
as it is varied, be allowed to nurture the malevolent passions 
of the mind by fanning and adding fuel to their latent 
flame ? No ! Let us, if we cannot check such feelings, not 
disturb nature with them, but turn back from her fields into 
the dust and turmoil of the highways of life, where amidst 
its turbulence and bustle the love of contest may be indulged 
with impunity, without frightening the tranquil investigator 
of the wonders of creation from the objects of his admira- 
tion, by showing him that his course of study is but the 
broadway that leads to the arena, the gladiatorial combats 
of which, he, to his utter disgust, must necessarily witness. 



( 25 ) 

The surest test of a true love of nature is decidedly the 
superinduction of suavity of manners, benevolence of mind, 
and amiability of temper, without which we are but the 
pseudo-priests of its fane and our worship is but lip-worship, 
an ulterior object being the aim. There are numerous 
instances upon record of men retiring from the world with 
embittered feelings and excoriated hearts, loathing its deceit 
and treachery, and who, like the poor wounded deer, have 
left the herd and passed into the glade and have there 
found sanatives in the study of nature which have restored 
their minds to health and enjoyment ; for the true votary 
is wholly absorbed by its magnificence, — its order and 
harmony pass by inculcation into his soul and tranquillize its 
agitation, giving it a foretaste of its future state, one main 
occupation whereof, according to the opinion of sound and 
learned divines, will consist in the contemplation of the 
works of the Creator. 



Division II.* 

HYMENOPTERA ACULEATA. Lat. 

Antennae with thirteen joints in the males and twelve in the 
females. Wings always having nervures and presenting 
the various kinds of ordinary cells. Abdomen always 
petiolated and consisting of seven segments in the males 
and six in the females, and containing in the latter a sharp 
sting concealed within the anus. Their larvae are apodes, 
and are supplied by their parent with provisions for the 
time they remain in that state, or are else fed daily by 
neuters, (females whose ovaries are abortive,) or by the 
females ; in the two latter cases they are united in 
societies. Some are parasitic. 

Tribe I. 

HETEROGYNA. Lat. 

These Hymenoptera are generally burrowers or live upon 
the ground, sometimes assembled in societies, which are 
temporary in these latitudes. The antennae are geniculated. 

• The Hymenoptera are separated into two divisions. The first containing 
the Terebrantia. and the second the Aculeata ; the latter are subdivided into four 
tribes, viz. 1. the Heterogj'na ; 2. the Fossores; 3. the Diploptera ; and 4. the 
Mellifeia. It is only of the second family of the first tribe of the Aculeata and 
the whole second tribe that the following pages treat. 



28 MUTILLID.E. 

The females of those which are solitary, and the neuters of 
the social ones, are apterous and very frequently without 
stemmata. 

Family I. 

FORMICID^. Leach. 

Live in societies consisting of three kinds of individuals, 
the males and females of which have wings, which the latter 
lose after impregnation.* 

Family II. 
MUTILLID^. Leach. 
Are solitary and each species consists of but two indi- 
viduals. The females are apterous and generally differ in 
colour from the w^inged individuals or males. Their 
antennae are filiform or setaceous. The legs of the females 
are robust, their tibiae spinose and tarsi ciliated; and the 
males have generally one or more spines or obtuse teeth at 
the anus. 



(a) Thorax of the females continuous or almost cubital. 

Genus I. Mutilla. Lin. 

Head suborbiculate in the $, transverse and compressed in the 
i ; eyes very small and round in the $ , slightly emarginate 
in the $ , which has the three stemmata placed in a triangle 
upon the vertex, but wanting in the $ ; the antennce subfiliform, 
decreasing gradually towards their apex, which is acuminate, 
inserted in a cavity on each side of the base of the clypeus, which 
is convex and emarginate in front ; the mandibles arcuate, uni- 
dentate, and acuminate in the $ , and tridentate in the ^ , being 

• I have considered this brief definition sufficient, as this family is not treated 
of here. 



I. MUTILLA. '29 

much dilated at their apex and narrowed at the base. The 
THORAX longitudinal, nearly cubital in the $ , and truncated at 
both extremities; — in the $ the collar embraces the dorsolum 
and extends laterally to the origin of the wings, the tegidce 
very large, the scutellum semicircular ; in the $ an impression 
separates the collar from the mesothorax, which it embraces 
laterally; the superior roiwg-s o/" the $ w'xih a nearly semicircular 
marginal cell and three siibmarginal cells, subequal, the second 
and third rcceirnng each in their centre a recurrent nervure, the 
second being almost obsolete and the third transverso-cubital, 
having a psetido-nervure springing from its centre extending half 
nay to the apex of the 7ving j the legs moderately long in the 
$, somewhat robust and spinose in the $. The abdomen 
ovate, the first segment subpyriform, the second subcampanu- 
late, and the apical segments much curved in the S, 

Type, M. Europaea. 

f4-t This genus was first established by Liiine; its ety- 
mology is uncertain, but it is conjectured to be derived from 
its supposed want of wings. Linne placed the male in the 
genus y4pis. 

Sp. 1. EUROP.EA. Lin. 

nigra, thorace riifo, abdomine fasciis tribus albis posteriors in- 

terrupfa j . 
chalybea, thorace rufo, abdomine fasciis tribus albis suhinter- 
rupta $ . 

length 5 — 8 lines. 
Lin. S. N. 2. 966. 4 ; F. Suec. 1727 ; Rossi, 2. No. 939 ; Panz. 76. 20 ; 
Donov. 6. 77. pi. 212 ; Fab. Entoin. Sys. 2. 368, 9 ; Piez. 430 j Oliv. 
Ency. Meth. 8. 57. 1-5 ; Latr. Actes de la Societe de I'Hist. Nat. de 
Paris, p. 8; Hist. 13. 263; Nouv. Diet. 22. 98; Cuv. Regne 
Animal, 5. 315: Dumeiil, Diet, des Scienees Naturelles, 33. 459. 
Apis Aptera. UdiJm. Diss. 98. f. 17 ; Harris, Ex. 166. pi. 50. f. 18. 
simile. Harris, Ex. pi. 50. f. 19. J . 

Head black, coarsely punctured and pubescent ; the apex of 
the mandibles rufescent. 



30 MUTILLID^. 

Thorax red, deeply punctured, subpubescent, the whole disk 
shining ; the legs black, very hirsute and spinose. 

Abdomen black, very hirsute, somewhat shining, a broad band 
of griseous depressed hair upon the margin of the first, second, 
and third segments, in the two latter widely interrupted 5 . 

The $ differs in having the head chalybeous, the collar and 
sides of the mesothorax black, as also the sides and truncation of 
the metathorax ; the dorsolum, scutellum and a transverse lunate 
spot at the base of the metathorax red ; the tegulae piceous ; 
the wings deeply fuscous. The abdomen chalybeous, with the 
white bands on the second and third segments merely subinter- 
rupted or only slightly interrupted. In most Cabinets. 

-j--j--j- Abundant in some places ; the male is generally taken 
settling on flowers ; the female stings very severely : she has 
been described to me as making a harsh stridulous noise 
when impaled alive. My friend Mr. Pickering dug a female 
out of the ground, during the last winter, at Coombe Wood, 
and mixed in the sand he had removed he found the wings 
of flies ; it is therefore not improbable that the larva is fed 
upon Diptera. 

Sp. 2. CALVA. Vill. 

nigra, vertice thoraceque rufis, abdominis margine cinereo j . 
hirta, nigra, abdominis segmentis margine ciliatis $ . 

length $ 3 lines. 
Villers, 3. 343. No. 9. Tab. 8. f. 34 ; Fab. Ent. Syst. Suppl. 282 ; Piez. 
438 ; Latreille, Actes de la S. Hist. N. de Paris, p. 10. No. 8 ; Hist. 
13. 265 ; Oliv. Ency. M6th. 8. 64. 56. $ . 
$ M. nigrita. Panz. 80. 22 ; Oliv. Ency. M6th. 8. 65. 59. 

" Head black, pilose, with the vertex and occiput fulvous ; 
" antennae dark, fulvous ; beneath each there is an elevated line, 
•' which terminates at the internal angles, near their insertion, 
" with a pointed tubercle. Mandibles fulvous, their apex black. 



I, MUTILI.A. 31 

"Thorax fulvous, punctured with a few black hairs; legs 
" blackish, 

" Abdomen black, the base of the first segment fulvous, and 
" provided on each side with a fulvous tooth pointed obliquely 
" downwards, the margins of the remaining segments slightly 
" ciliated with white hairs ? ." 

The $ has the head black, deeply punctured, hirsute, man- 
dibles red in the centre, with their base and apex piceous. 
Thorax black, punctured, shining, covered with a dense gri- 
seous pubescence ; the metathorax rugose, with a smooth space 
at its base of the form of an isosceles triangle, with the sides a 
little rounded, and inclosed by an elevated ridge ; tegulae 
piceous, wings fuscous, and their nervures rufo-piceous. 

Abdomen with scattered punctures, and shining, covered with 
long griseous hair, having a band on the margins of the second 
and third segments formed by a short grey pubescence. 

^ in the Cab. of Brit, Mus. 

fit The female was in the cabinet of Mr. Stephens, but 
by some accident he has exchanged it away. I have given 
a description of it, which, as it is not made from the insect 
itself, but compiled from the works of Olivier and Latreille, 
I have inserted in inverted commas, to indicate that it is 
not made by myself from a British specimen. It is upon 
the authority of Latreille that I have placed them to- 
gether, although the male differs so widely from the female. 
It is doubtlessly correct, for both are found in great 
numbers upon the same spots in France, where no other 
species occur, and, as above shown, both have been found 
in England. 

Sp. 3. EPHIPPIUM. F. 

nigra, antennis, thorace, pedibiisque ntjis, ab.iomine puncto fas- 

ciisque duabas approjcimatis albis 5 . 
nigra, thoracis dorso rufo $ . 

$ length 2— 3| linej. ^ 3i lines. 



32 MUTILLID*. 

$ Fab. Ent. Syst. 2. 370. 18 ; Piez. 434 ; Oliv. F.ncy. M^th. 8. 63. 45 ; 

and $ Curtis, B. Ent. 2. PI. 77. 
Miit.seUata. Panz. 46. 19. 
J Mul.rufipes. Fab. Ent. Syst. 2. 372. 26 ; Piez. 439; Oliv. Ency. 

M6th. 8. 66. 68 ; Lat. Hist. 13. 264 ; Nouv. Diet, d' Hist. Nat. 2'2. 98. 

Head black, coarsely punctured ; antennae red, with their 
three or four apical joints piceous ; mandibles red, their apex 
piceous. 

Thorax hirsute, coarsely punctured, red ; legs red, very hairy. 

Abdomen black, punctured, hirsute ; a white patch of grey hair 
on the centre towards the base of the second segment, and a 
fascia composed of the same pubescence on its margin, and on 
the third, occupying nearly the whole of the latter, the last 
segment piceous ; the general pubescence griseous 5 . 

The $ differs in having the antennae black. The thorax 
black, with the collar, dorsolum, and scutellum red ; the wings 
darkly clouded, their margin having a still darker border, ex- 
tending inwardly as far as the apex of the marginal and sub- 
marginal cells ; the nervures piceous ; the legs black, hirsute, 
with the apex of the tarsi piceous. The abdomen with a white 
band at the base of the third segment, and a transverse line on 
the sides of the fourth and fifth, all formed of a silvery grey. 

$ In my own and other Cabinets, $ In those 
of Mr. Curtis, Rev. G. T. Rudd, Mr. Walker, 
and my own. 

■|-4.t The $ vi^as taken in the year 1822 by Mr. Curtis, at 
Shooter's Hill, in Kent, and the ? at Black Gang Chine, 
in the Isle of Wight, where also Mr. Walker has captured 
it ; and the Rev. G. T. Rudd found it at the same place 
last year, in June, in some numbers; he took also three 
males, and it is to his liberality that I am indebted for my 
specimen. He saw several others, and remarked that to- 
wards the heat of the day they ascend higher up the cliff, 
and are consequently accessible only early in the morning. 



II. MYRMOSA. 



33 



(b) Thorax of the 5 divided by sutures. 

Genus II. Myrmosa. Lat. 

Head subglobose ; stemmata in a triangle on the vertex ; eyes 
small, round, and lateral ; antennce subfiliform, inserted in the 
2 at each side of the base of the clypeus and approximate, 
in the $ they are wider apart ; the clypeus triangular and 
longitudinally carinated in the $, in the $ transverse and 
plane ; mandibles unidentate and acuminate in the $ , large and 
tridentate in the $ . The thorax longitudinally quadrangular, 
the angles in front rounded ; the collar subquadrate, and the 
metathorax truncated $ ; in the $ the thorax ovate ; collar 
transverse, and curving towards the base of the wings poste- 
riorly, but not reaching them ; the metathorax descending on 
an inclined plane, and having on each side two short teeth ; 
the superior wings with one marginal and four submarginal cells 
— the second submarginal triangular, receiving the first recurrent 
nervure near its centre — the third quadrate, receiving the second 
recurrent nervure at about one-third of its length — the fourth ex- 
tending to the apex of the wing ; the legs moderately long, and 
spinose. 5. Abdomen ovato-conic, the first segment some- 
what narrower than the second ; in the $ abdomen oblong, and 
the margins of the segments crenate, the last concave above, 
and tridentate at its apex, which is truncated. 

Type, M. melanocephala. 

■j-f-j- This genus was first established by Latreille, in 
1796. It was not adopted by Fabricius, but all subsequent 
Entomologists have received it. 

Sp. 1. melanocephala. Fab. 

rufa, capite abdominisque apice nigris 2 . 
tota nigra $ . 

length 5 I5— 3 lines. $ 3| lines. 
Lat. Hist. 13. 266 ; Gen. PI. 13. f. 6 $ ; Nouv. Diet. H. N. 22. 150. 
PI. G. 17. 11 ; Guerin, Icon, du Reg. An. Insectes, PI. 69. f, 6. 
d 



34 MUTILLID^. 

$ Mutilla melanocephala. Fab. Ent. Syst. 2. 372. 27 ; Piez. 439 ; 
Oliv. Ency. M6th. 8. 65. 4b ; Coquebert, 1. p. 26. PI. 6. f. 11. 

dimidiata. Lat. Actes Soc H. N. Paris, P. 11. No. 11. 

^ Myrmosa atra. Panz. 85. 14. 
ttigra. Lat. Gen. PI. 13. f. 6. 

Head black, coarsely punctured ; face frequently ferruginous ; 
the basal half of the antennae red, beyond which they are piceous ; 
mandibles red, their apex piceous. 

Thorax entirely ferruginous, deeply punctured, shining ; 
legs red, spinose, and pubescent. 

Abdomen black, hirsute, shining ; 'the first segment deeply 
punctured, the first, and sometimes the second, or its base and 
the margins of the rest, red ; the second and remainder covered 
with scattered punctures and a grey pubescence j . 

The ^ differs in being entirely black, deeply punctured, co- 
vered with scattered grey hair ; the wings slightly clouded, iri- 
descent, and their nervures black. 

In many Cabinets. 

fit The 5 has been found by myself at Hampstead, 
Highgate, and at Charlton, near Woolwich ; the S by Mr. 
Walker in the Isle of Wight, and on lime trees near 
London, by Mr. Newman at Birchwood, and Mr. West- 
wood at Coombe, and both sexes at Ripley, in Surrey, by 
Mr. Stephens. Its habits are not known ; the 5 is found in 
sandy places, where doubtlessly the $ would occasionally 
frequent. The S carries off the 5 and copulates while 
flying in this genus as well as in Methoca. 

(c) The thorax of the 2 nodose. 
Genus III, Methoca. Lat. 

5 . Head subglobose ; eyes oval and lateral ; stemmata in a 
triangle high upon tlie vertex ; nntennce filiform, inserted at 



III. METHOCA. 35 

the lateral posterior iTiargins of the clypeus, and of about the 
length of the head and the first node of the thorax, the scape 
very thick, the pedicle small, joints of the clavolet subequal 
and cylindrical, the basal ones with a few rigid hairs at their 
extremity ; clypeus triangular, convex, its anterior margin 
rounded ; mandibles arcuate, slender and bidentate at their 
apex, furnished on the exterior with rigid setse. $. Head 
transverse, flattened in front, convex behind ; eyes oval, pro- 
minent and lateral ; stemmata large and in a triangle on the 
vertex ; antennce filiform, decreasing towards their apex, 
longer than the thorax,' the scape short and robust, the pedicle 
very minute, the third joint shorter than the fourth, which is 
the longest of all, and from which they gradually decrease, 
and all the joints from the third subarcuate ; the clypeus and 
mandibles the same as in the female. 5 . Thorax composed 
of three nodes : the first and second ovate, the latter including 
a semicircular dorsolum and ovate scutellum ; the third, or 
metathorax, orbiculate ; legs long and slender ; coxce very 
robust ; femorce subclavate ; tarsi longer than the tibice. 
$ . Thorax oblong ; collar broad, and transverse, extending 
at the sides to the origin of the wings : scutellum triangular ; 
metatliorax obtuse ; the superior wings with one long narrow 
pointed marginal cell extending nearly to its apex, and three sub- 
marginal cells, the first nearly as long as the two following, 
narrow and receiving at about three-fourths of its length the first 
recurrent nervure, — the second quadrangular, larger than the 
third and receiving near its centre the second recurrent nervure, — 
the third extending to the ap>ex of the wing ; the legs mode- 
rately long, very slender ; the tarsi the same as in the female. 
$ . Abdomen ovato-conical, attached by a short petiole to 
the thorax, the first segment much narrower than the second, 
the sting long and slender, and when exserted much curved 
downwards. — $ . Abdomen linear, the segments subcrenate, the 
hypopygium produced laterally into two vertical plates acute 
at their extremity, and below into a central long upcurved 
d2 



CO MUTII.LID/E. 

acute spine, vvhicli does not extend beyond the apex of the 
plates. 

Type, M. Ichneumonides. 

f-j-f This genus was first established by Latreille, in his 
" Histoire," for the female ; the male which was afterwards 
sent to him by Monsr. de Sanvitali he formed into a genus 
by the name of Tengyra, in his Genera, in 1809, and which 
he placed with Tiphia in the first tribe of his Fossores ; 
but Monsr. Wesmael, of Liege, was led subsequently to 
suspect that it might possibly be the male of Methoca, as 
he always captured them on the same spot ; and this was 
afterwards confirmed by his repeatedly taking them in 
copula. The disparity of the sexes is so remarkable, that 
without this corroboration his supposition could never have 
been received. This fact Vander Linden communicated in 
the "Annales des Sciences Naturelles," Jan. 1829, and 
which he has also published in the preface to the second 
part of his " Observations sur les Hyraenopteres d'Europe." 
It is singular that since these observations have been made 
Nees should place the female in the genus Gonatopus of 
the family of the Dryini. 

Sp. 1. ICHNEUMONIDES. Lat. 

nigra, nit'ida, thorace pedibiisque rvfis 5 . 
nigra immaculata $ . 

length $ 2— 3| lines, $ 5i. 
$ Lat. Hist. 13. 269 ; Nouv. Diet. I. H. N. 20. 488 ; Genera, 4. 118 ; 
Guerin, Icon, du Reg. An. Insectes, PI. 69. f. 7 ; Curtis, Brit. Ent. 
V. 7. pi. 329. 
Mutilla formicaria. Jurine, Obs. Hymenop. P. 266. PI. 13. fig. 49. 
Gonatopus muti.llarhis. Neesab Esenbeck, Hym. Ichneu. Affin. toni. 2. 

384. 
^ Tengyra Sanvitali. Lat. Gen. 4. 116; Vander Linden, Obs. pt. 1. 
p. 13; Guerin, Icon. PI. 69. f. 8. 

Head black, smooth, shining, with a few scattered pimctures ; 



III. MEllIOfA. 



37 



antenna^ ferruginous, tlie three or four last joints piceous ; 
mandibles ferruginous. 

Thorax and legs ferruginous, the hitter sometimes piceous ; 
the anterior tarsi slightly ciliated, and all the tibiee spinose. 

The abdomen black, and shining ; the fifth segment piceous 
at its margin, and the last ferruginous at its extremity ? . 

The $ differs in being entirely black and villose, the head 
much punctured in front, shining at the vertex ; the mandibles 
rufescent at the apex. The thorax slightly punctured, shining ; 
the dorsolum with two central parallel longitudinal lines, extend- 
ing its whole length ; another on each side, parallel with these, 
commencing opposite the tegulae and reaching the apex ; the 
scutellum deeply punctured, shining ; the metathorax very 
rugose, with a longitudinal carina extending its whole length, 
sometimes obsolete ; the tegulae and tarsi piceous, the wings 
hyaline, sometimes subfuscous, with their nervures piceous. 
The abdomen slightly punctured, shining ; the base of the seg- 
ments much depressed, and their margins constricted. 

$ in my own Cabinet, 5 in many. 

flf The female was first taken in July, 1828, by Mr. 
Curtis, at Black Gang Chine, Isle of Wight; it has since 
been captured at the same place by Mr. Westwood, the 
Rev. G. T. Rudd, and Mr. Walker, who has also taken 
it in September at Lyme Regis, Dorset ; and by the Rev. 
F. W. Hope at Southend, Essex. I have taken it fre- 
quently on Hampstead Heath, where I captured in June, 
1833, also two specimens of the male, which I believe are the 
first and only instances of its being found in England. It 
is remarkable that both the days on which I caught those 
males turned out very boisterous before noon ; and both 
captures were made before 10 a.m. 



38 SCOLIAD/E, 

Tribe II. 

FOSSORES. Lat. 

Never more than two kinds of individuals, and both have 
wings ; — the superior ones not longitudinally folded. The 
tongue never lanceolate or filiform, the feet never adapted 
to collect pollen ; the posterior tibiae never either very 
hirsute like a brush, or hollowed like a basket ; the first 
joint of the tarsi attached to them is never much wider than 
the subsequent ones. The other parts of the body never 
present hairs suited to gather pollen. 

I. Some have the collar prolonged laterally as far as the 
origin of the superior wings, sometimes arched or qua- 
drate, sometimes nearly in the form of a node. 

1. The latter have their feet short and the antennae thick, with 
their joints very close and short. 

Family I. 
SCOLIAD.E. Leach. 

The legs of the 2 are robust, very spinose or densely 
ciliated; the femorae are arcuate towards their extremity, and 
compressed; the antennae are shorter than the head and 
thorax. 

Genus IV. Tiphia. Fab. 

Head the width of the thorax, excavate below the antennae, 
convex posteriorly ; eyes oval and lateral, widely separated 
and entire ; stemmata united closely in a triangle on the 
vertex ; antennce fihform, in both sexes shorter than the head 
and thorax, the first joint the longest, the second the shortest, 
the rest subequal^ decurved in the ? and straight in the $ ; 
labrum concealed, minute, coriaceous, ciliated; mandibles large, 
prominent, narrow, arcuate and longitudinally canaliculated. 
Thorax elongate ; collar transverse, extending as far back as 



IV. TII'IIIA. 39 

the tegulae ; mesothorax narrow ; vietuLhorax abruptly trun- 
cated and having on each side a profound cavity ; scutellum 
small, transverse ; superior wings ivith one marginal cell, open 
in the j and closed by a transverse nervure at its apex, which is 
distant from the apical margin of the wing in the $ ; two sub- 
marginal cells, the frst receiving the first recurrent nervure and 
longer than the second, which receives the second recurrent nervure, 
and at its apex parallel with that of the marginal cell, some- 
times a third suhmarginal formed by a very slight indication of 
the cubital nervure continued to the apex of the wing : Legs 
short, thick, the thighs enlarged and compressed, particularly 
in the 5 , the exterior of the intermediate and posterior tibicp 
thickly set with short teeth or spines ; tarsi elongate, their 
joints furnished with verticillate setee, the terminal claws bifid, 
with a small pulvillus placed between them. Abdomen oval, 
distinctly petiolated, the petiole armed on each side near its 
junction with the abdomen with a small tooth ; the first seg- 
ment subpyriform and considerably narrower than the second, 
which, with the remainder, form a cone ; the hypopygium of 
the $ contracting itself into an uncurved spine, which does 
not extend beyond the podex. 

Type, T. femorata. 

f 4-t This genus, the name of which is derived from rj^rj, 
the name of an insect in /^lian, was first established in 1775 
by Fabricius, in his Systema Entomologias, but he included 
several other genera in his enumeration of the species, which 
have since been separated by Latreille and Jurine. Illiger 
was not aware that the neuration of the wings slightly dif- 
fered in the two sexes, and consequently divided them into two 
sections, the one comprising the i and the other the $ . 

Sp. 1. FEMORATA. Fab. 

pilosa nigra (femoribus quatuor posticis compressis rufis, j) 
lined intermedia elevatd mctathoracis lineam transversam non 
attingente $ $ . 

length 3 — 5 lines. 



40 SCOLIAD^E. 

$ Fab. Sys. Ent. 353. 1 ; Ent. Syst. 2. 223. 1 ; Piez. 232 ; Rossi, 2. 

No. 828; Lat. Hist. 13. 267; Nouv. Diet.; Panz. 53. 3. $ ; 

Jurine, PJ. 9. Gen. 11. $ ; St. Farg. et Serv. Ency. M6th. 10. 

655. 
Bethyllus femoratus. Fanz. Krit. PvCv. 2. 134 J. 
$ T. viUosa. Fab. E. S. 2. 227. 18 ; Piez. 235. 22 ; Lat. Hist. 13. 267 ; 

Vander Linden, Obs. pt. 1. 10.2. 
Bethyllus villosus. Panz. 98. 16. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen black, pubescent with scattered 
punctures ; antennae black ; the superior surface of the meta- 
thorax with three longitudinal elevated lines, the central one 
abbreviated, not extending to the transverse one at their extremity 
upon the verge of the truncation, the interstices having a few 
delicate punctures ; the tegulae piceous, as also the nervures of 
the wings, the wings themselves slightly fuscous; the legs villose, 
the anterior pair black, with the apex of the tibiae and the tarsi 
rufo-piceous, the intermediate and posterior pairs rufous, with 
their coxae black, and their tarsi piceous. The margin of the 
segments of the abdomen and the apical segment rufo-piceous $ . 
Var. a. with the intermediate and posterior legs piceous ? . 

7 lines. In Mus. Brit. 1 Sp. 
Var. j3. with the intermediate and posterior legs black, the 
antennae from the third joint rufo-piceous, and the nervures 
of the wings very slight $ . 

51 lines. In Brit. Mus. 1 Sp. 
Var. y. the legs and antennae the same as var. j3. but the wings 
deeply fuscous, the stigma nearly obsolete, and the nervures 
of the wings slight and very pale $ . 

4| lines. In Brit. Mus. 2 Sp. 
The $ differs in being entirely black, the wings hyaline and 
their nervures black. 

$ and $ in most Cabinets. 

flf This insect has occurred in abundance at Birch Wood 
in Kent, and it has been captured near London and in the 
New Forest, Hampshire, by Mr. Walker. The sexes have 



IV. TIPHIA. 41 

hitherto been separated as two species, but Messrs. New- 
man and Davis have repeatedly taken them i?i copula, which, 
together with their conformity of sculpture, has enabled me 
to unite them as one species. The varieties of the $ with 
black legs were taken by Dr. Leach, I believe, in Devonshire, 
and the only specimens of this variety I am acquainted with 
are in the British Museum. Mr. Walker possesses in his 
cabinet a specimen of the $ with red legs, taken by himself 
in the South of France, which proves that it thus occurs. 

Sp. 2. MORio. Fab. 

pilosa nigra, metathorace rugoso. 

length 5 lines. 
? Morio. Fab. Mant. 1. 280. 15 ; Ent. Sys. 2. 227. 17 ; Piez. 235. 21 ; 
Panz. 55. 1 ; Vander Linden, pt. 1. 10. 3. 

Black, villose and punctured ; apex of the mandibles rufescent. 
The metathorax rugose, widiout the longitudinal elevated lines ; 
the wings widi their stigma very large, and their nervures piceous. 
The abdomen very vdlose and shining $ . 

In the Brit. Mas. 1 Sp. 

•i-l-t This, I think, must be the true T. morio, as it is the 
only one I can find offering any sensible difference to the 
T. femorata in the London cabinets, and the metathorax 
presenting it at once. It appears very rare, for the only 
specimen I have seen is in the British Museum, and I be- 
lieve was taken by Dr. Leach in Devonshire. I have 
placed a note of interrogation before all the synonymes, as 
no Entomologist has before detected the true specific dis- 
tinction of this genus, all previous describers having made 
the differences contingent upon size, colour, and pubescence, 
consequently their true place may be under the T. femorata, 
which would make this a new species ; but I prefer retain- 
ing Fabricius' name as a doubt exists, although his specific 



42 SrOMAD.T.. 

character and description will agree witii almost any re- 
cently disclosed ^ of T. femorata, or black-le<rged variety 
of the $. I do not know whether there be any sexual 
disparity. 

Sp. 3. MINUTA. V, d, L. 

nigra, breviter griseo pubescens, tibiis apice, tars'isque riifis, ct 
lined intermedia metathoracis ad lineam transversam ejccurrente 

S ?. 

length 2 — 3 lines. 
V. d. Lind. Obs. pt. 1. 12. 4. 

Head, thorax and abdomen black, with scattered punctures ; 
antennae black above, rufo-piceous beneath ; mandibles black at 
the base and apex, rufescent in the middle. The superior sur- 
face of the metathorax with three longitudinal elevated lines, all 
extending to the verge of its truncation ; the wings slightly 
fuscous, with the stigma large, and the nervures piceous ; the 
tegulae piceous ; the legs black, with all the joints rufo-piceous ; 
the anterior tarsi densely ciliated, and the posterior tibiae with the 
exterior edge strongly serrated, — the intermediate and posterior 
legs with a thick hoary pubescence, — the anterior tarsi rufescent, 
as well as the apex of the joints of the remainder. The abdomen 
densely pubescent, the terminal segment rufo-piceous ? , 

The $ differs in having the antennae and mandibles quite 
black, the tarsi more coloured and the body less pubescent. 

Ob. The nervures of the wings vary much in this species 
from the generic type, for ex. : — 

$ with the first transverso-cubital wanting on the left side. 

$ do 

do right side. 

do on both sides, 

and having the commencement of a pseudo-nervure at 
the base of the marginal cell inclining obliquely back- 
wards. 

^ $ in my own and other Cabinets. 

■f\.-\f This species has occurred in various parts, but never 



V. SAPYOA. 43 

in abundance ; in the year 1833 I took several on Hampstead 
Heath, among which were two females, with which sex 
Vander Linden was not acquainted. In the nervures of 
the wings it is exceedingly variable, as is shown above. I 
possess all those varieties myself, and others may doubt- 
lessly exist. 

Family II. 

SAPYGID^. Leach. 
The feet of both sexes slender, little or not at all spinose 
nor strongly ciliated ; their antennas at least as long as the 
head and thorax together and increasing towards their ex- 
tremity, or clavate. 

Genus V. Sapyga. Lat. 

Head a little wider than the thorax, subrotound ; eyes deeply 
emarginate ; the stemmata placed anteriorly on the vertex ; 
antennce as long as the head and thorax combined, subclavate, 
slightly excurved at the apex in the $, straight in the $, in- 
serted in a cavity at the base of the clypeus with an elevated 
ridge between them, first joint very long, — the second very 
small, — the rtst from the third, which is nearly as long as the 
first, decreasing regularly in length ; labrum minute, scarcely 
apparent ; mandibles strong, generally tridentate. Thorax sub- 
cylindrical, anteriorly truncate, obtuse posteriorly ; the collar 
extending laterally to the tegulae ; scutellum small, transverse ; 
superior wings with one marginal cell which passes beyond the 
third submarginal and is acuminate, and four siibmarginal cells, 
the second the smallest and receiving the first recurrent nervure, 
— the third receiving the second, and the fourth apical. Legs 
moderate, slender ; the tarsi long. Abdomen elongate, ellipsoid, 
subsessile. 

■j-^f The etymology of the name of this genus is uncer- 
tain, as is the case with the majority of Latreille's names. 
He established the genus in his " Precis," in 1796, to place 



44 SAI'YGID^. 

in it a Scolia of Fabricius, who however did not adopt it 
in either of his subsequent works ; but in his last, upon 
the Hymenoptera, viz. the " Syst. Piezatorum," he insti- 
tuted the genus Hellus, making Sapyga sexpunctata his 
type, which was adopted by Panzer in his " Revision." I 
remember to have seen somewhere, but I cannot now recol- 
lect where, that lUiger divides these insects into two sections 
from the long and subcapitate antennas of the $ of <S. clavi- 
cornis. St. Fargeau remarks, that the ? of this genus form 
holes in the mortar of walls or in putrescent wood, to de- 
posit their eggs and provision them with prey. 

Type, S. punctata. 

Sp. 1. PUNCTATA. Klug. 

nigra, ahdom'ine rufo, punctis transversis alhis $ . 

nigro $. 

length 4j— 5j lines. 
Klug, Monogr. Siricum Germania», 61. Pi. 7. fig. 4. $ . n. 5 & 6 ^ ; 

Lat. Hist. 13. 272 j Spinola, 1. 76. 1 ; Panz. 100. 17 ; Guer. PI. 69. 

f. 11. 
Seipunctata. Lat. Nouv. Diet. Ed. 2. 30. 179, 
^ quadripunctata. Panz. 87. 20. 

Decipiens. St. Fargeau, Ency. Meth. 10. 338. 2 ; Klug, PI. 7. f. 6. 
Decemguttata. Jurine, PI. 9. Genus 13. 
Scolia quadriguttata. Fab. Spec. 454. 15 ; Ent. Syst. 2. 235. 29. 

sexguttata. Fab. Ent. Syst. 2. 235. 30. 

Sphex quadriguttata. Vill. 3. 240. 52. 
Hellus quadriguttatus. Fab. Piez. 247. 3. 
5 Sapyga varia, St. Fargeau, 10. 338. ? 
Scolia quinquepunctata. Fab. Spec. 1. 453. 14 ; Ent. Syst. 2.235. 27 ; 

Villers, 3. 240. 5) . 
Sirex pacca. Fab. Mantissa, 1. 258. 15 ; Ent. Syst. 2. 129. 17 ; Villers, 

3. 131. 11. 
Hellus sexpunctatus. Fab. Piez. 246. 1. 
pacca 247. 6. 

Head and thorax black, pubescent, and coarsely punctured ; 
antennae black, slightly piceous beneath, with a lacteous spot 
between them at their base, one on each side at the base of the 



V. SAPYGA. 45 

clypeus, sometimes forming a lunule, or entirely wanting, and 
another mark of the same colour lining the lower portion of the 
emargination of the eyes. 

Thorax with a lacteous transverse line on each side of the 
anterior margin of the collar towards the angles ; wings slightly 
coloured, with the extreme margin of the superior ones more 
deeply, and the nervures black ; legs black and entirely simple. 

Abdomen punctured, with the basal segment, or merely its 
base, black, the two following red with their margins piceous, 
and the remainder black, — a lacteous ovate spot placed trans- 
versely on each side in the middle of the fourth and fifth seg- 
ments, the former being the largest, and a still larger one in the 
centre of the sixth segment; the two first ventral segments with 
a black longitudinal band, the third entirely rufous. 

The ^ differs in having the whole of the clypeus lacteous, the 
underside of the fourth to the ninth joints of the antennge luteous, 
and the abdomen black, with a transverse ovate lacteous spot 
placed on each side in the middle of the second, third, fourth 
and fifth segments ; those on the second and fifth segments some- 
times wanting; a transverse line of the same colour on each side 
of the third and fourth ventral segments. 

In most Cabinets. 

f-j-f It is found almost everywhere in the Spring, and 
towards Midsummer, upon palings and outhouses, &c. but 
I never saw it settle upon a flower. St. Fargeau says he 
has taken it with a larva, which it dropt on being captured. 
I have caught it also entering the cells of Osmia bicornis, 
in a sandy Lane at Bexley in Kent. 

Sp. 2. cLAvicoRNis. Lin. 

nigra, ahdomine Jiavo fasciato $ $. 

length A\ lines. 
$ $ Curtis. B. Ent. vol. xi. PI. 532. 
Ai>h clavicornis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 953. 3. F. S. 1686. 
$ Scolia prisma. Fab. Mant. 1. 282. 21 ; Ent. Syst. 2. 236. 31. 



46 sapygidje. 

Hellus prisma. Fab. Piez. 247. 5. 
Masaris crahroniformis. Panz. 47. 22. 

$ $ Sapyga prisma. Klug, MoBOgr. Sir. Ger. 63. PI. 7. f. 7. $ . 8. 
$ ; Latr. Hist. 13.273. 2; Nouv. Diet. 30. 179. 

Head, thorax and abdomen black, the two former coarsely 
punctured ; two yellow spots between the base of the antennae, 
which has its two extreme joints luteous beneath. 

Thorax pubescent, with a yellow, transverse, abbreviated line 
on each side, at the anterior margin of the collar ; wings slightly 
coloured, the nervures black ; the legs black, with a longitudinal 
yellow mark on the outside of the base of all the femorse ; the 
tarsi as well as tibiae simple. 

The abdomen with a yellow spot on each side of the second 
segment, a subinterrupted band on the third, an interrupted one 
upon the fourth, and a large central spot upon the sixth, yellow, 
as well as a transverse ovate mark on each side of the third and 
fourth ventral segments 5 . 

The $ differs in having the antennae capitate and much longer 
than the thorax, with the underside of the joints from the fourth 
to the eleventh orange, the knob formed of two joints being quite 
black, the clypeus yellow. The thorax with only a yellow spot 
at the extreme angles of the collar ; the anterior tibiae with a 
yellow line in front, the others the same as in the 5 . The 
abdomen the same as in the 5 , with the exception of the spot on 
the sixth segment of that sex being here removed to the seventh. 
The venter entirely black. The abdominal fasciae in both sexes 
are variable in size, interruption and intensity of colour. 

$ . ? in my own and other Cabinets. 

flf The $ of the preceding species was labelled S. prisma 
in many collections, in spite of King's excellent description 
and figure ; but a British specimen of the true one did not 
exist in any of the London cabinets until Mr. Newman 
captured a couple of each sex in Herefordshire, in 1833, 
when he very kindly presented me with a pair. I have 



VI. POMPILUS. Afl 

since received the 5 from Mr. Bakewell, who informed me 
that Dr. Howitt captured several near Nottingham, and my 
friend Mr. Smith found three $ near Wakefield, in York- 
shire, in June last. It is thus evidently dispersed and only 
wants looking for to be found in equal abundance with the 
S. p-unctata. I follow Mr. Curtis in adopting Linne's name, 
since all doubt is removed as to the identity of his insect with 
Fabricius' S. 'prisma, by its still being pinned through the 
label, in his own handwriting, in his collection now at the 
Linnean Society, besides which his description agrees much 
better with this insect than with any other. Latreille sus- 
pects them to be parasitic upon some of the wild bees which 
build in old wood ; he found this species about the stumps 
of trees. 

2. The following have their posterior legs at least as long as 
the head and thorax. The antennas of the ? formed of long 
joints generally distinct and often arcuate. 

Family III. 

POMPILID^. Leach. 

Prothorax transverse, at least as broad again as lono-, 

with its posterior margin arcuate. The abdomen obovoid, 

without any contraction, in the shape of a long petiole, at 

its base. 

Genus VI. Pompilus. Fab. Lat. 

Head transverse, of the width of the thorax ; eyes lateral, 
oblong ; stemmata placed in a triangle on the vertex ; antenna; 
setaceous, long, inserted in the middle of the anterior part of 
the face and approximate, — the first joint thick, the second 
very short, the rest cylindrical, the third the longest and the rest 
regularly decreasing in length, in the 9 convolute, and slightly 



48 POMPILID^. 

curved in the ^ ; lahrum either entirely concealed or but 
slightly disclosed ; mandibles generally unidentate, sometimes 
bidentate. Thorax gibbo-cylindrical, truncate or obtuse at 
its extremity ; collar transverse, extending laterally to the 
tegulae, and posteriorly curved ; superior wings with one 
marginal cell, nearly semicircular or subtriangular, and three 
suhmarginal cells, — the first as long or longer than the two follow- 
ing, — the second receiving about its centre the first recurrent 
nervure, — the third, which is either triangular or subquadrate, 
receives the second, — a fourth suhmarginal sometimes traced; the 
posterior legs very long, the sides of the intermediate and 
posterior tibice generally spinose or serrated, and the anterior 
tarsi ciliated on the exterior ; the claws bifid, with a small 
pulvillus within their fork. Abdomen ovate in the $, 
elongate in the ^ . 

Type, P, fuscus. 

Obs. The nervures of the wings vary somewhat, not only 
in the species but also in individuals : the most variable are 
those species which form the second and third suhmarginal 
cells by contracting them considerably towards the marginal, 
which causes them to become triangular, and the second and 
third transverso-cubital nervures occasionally anastomose 
before reaching the radial, which makes the third suhmar- 
ginal cell petiolated ; the P. niger and P. viaticus are par- 
ticularly liable to this monstrosity ; but, as it is not constant, 
Jurine's second family of the genus Miscus cannot be re- 
tained. See Obs. on the genus Miscus. 

■\\.-\ The name is derived from TrofATriXof —a sea-fish. Fa- 
bricius constructed the genus in 1798 in his " Supplement" 
to the " Ent. Syst." to receive several of his Spheces. 
Latreille had, however, previously, in his " Precis," con- 
structed the genus Psammochares from their characters, but 
he subsequently adopted Fabricius' name in preference, on 



VI. POMPILUS. 49 

account of its greater euphony. Panzer, in 180G, in 
his " Revision," called them Ci-yptocheilus, (a very cha- 
racteristic name,) but by the \diw of priority it necessarily 
falls. 

The Rev. F. W. Hope has remarked to me that he has 
observed some of the species nidificate in wood, which 
St. Fargeau appears to confirm. I have never observed 
any myself with these habits, but it would necessarily be 
such as are without the ciliation of the tarsi. The majority 
make their cells in sand, which they provision with Arach- 
nidse. 

(a) Ahdomen entirely hlack, or with a grey or silvery 
pubescence. 

Sp. 1. PULCHER. 

cinereo pubescens abdominis segmentis basi atris, alis albis apice 

nigris $ . 
plumbeus, antennis atris, alis anticis apice nigris $ . 

length 2^ — 4| lines. 
Fab. E. S.Supp. 249. 19; Piez. 193. 29; Spin. 1. 69. 4; Coqueb. 

2. 52. pi. 12. f. 8 ; V. d. L. pt. 1. 37. 
Sphex plumbea. Fab. Want. 1. 278. 64 ; E. S. 220. 92 ; Rossi, Mant. 

1. 127.280; Villers, 3. 242. 57 ; Fab. Piez. 215. 40. 
Larra sexmaculata. Spin. I. p. 16. II. 75. 

Head and thorax black and punctured : a longitudinal fine 
running from the base of the antennae to the first stemma ; the 
clypeus and face on each side of the antennae covered with a 
dense silvery grey pubescence ; the mandibles piceous and 
forcipate ; labrum concealed. 

The thorax having the metathorax very delicately punctured 
and shining, with a longitudinal central impression ; the wings 
with their nervures black, and the extremity of the superior pair 
also black, forming a band which extends inwardly as far as the 
marginal and third submarginal cells, which latter is constricted 

E 



50 P()MPII.I1);E. 

towards the marginal ; the legs black, entirely covered with a 
slate-coloured pubescence ; the anterior tarsi ciliated, and the 
intermediate and posterior tibiae with a double row of slight 
spines. 

The abdomen black, pubescent, slightly shining, with the 
margin of the three anterior segments having a fascia formed 
by a short dense slate-coloured down : the pubescence varies, it 
sometimes covers the whole of the segments except their base, 
and sometimes it is very slight, forming merely an interrupted 
band on the three first. 

The i differs in having the face covered with more of the 
silvery down, the tarsi less strongly ciliated, and the legs less 
spinose, and the slate-coloured pubescence covering the entire 
insect, excepting the antennae and a narrow line at the base of 
the segments of the abdomen, which are consequently black and 
shining ; the sixth ventral segment is emarginate, and the seventh 
longitudinally carinated. 

In most Cabinets. 

ill Found at Southend and in North Wales by the Rev. 
F. W. Hope, and on the coast of Suffolk by Mr. Johnson; 
at Barmouth, in September, by Mr. Walker, and at Rams- 
down, near Heron Court, Hampshire, by the Hon. Mr. 
Harris. 

Sp. 2. NIGER. Fab. 

totus niger, alls hyalinis, apicibus fuscis, abdominis segmentorum 
marginibus lucidis $ $ . 

length 3 — 5^ lines. 
Fab. Ent. Syst. Sup. 247. 8 ; Piez. 191. 15 ; Panz. 71. 19 ; St. Fargeau, 

Ency. Meth. 10. 180. 4 ; V. d. L. pt. 1. 36. 
Sphex nigra. Fab. Syst. Ent. 350. 22 ; E. S. 2. 211. 51 ; Vill. 3. 328. 
45. 

Entirely black : head with the labrum slightly exserted, trans- 
verse, linear, emarginate and bearded in front ; the clypeus 



VI. POMPILUS. 51 

sprinkled with a few rigid setae, as well as the exterior of the 
base of the mandibles, which are rufescent in the middle, black 
at base and apex, the teeth at equal distances and the apical one 
obtuse. 

The thorax gibbous ; the metathorax with a slight central 
abbreviated impressed line deeper at the base ; the scutellum 
forming a truncated triangle ; the wings clouded with a broad 
dark margin at the outer edge, extending inwards to the apex of 
the marginal and third submarginal cell, which is triangular and 
frequently petiolated ; the legs with a single row of slight spines 
on the exterior of the anterior tibiae and tarsi, the coxae of the 
intermediate and posterior ones covered on the outside with a 
silvery down, and their tibiae and plantae with a double row of 
slight spines, and the remaining joints of the tarsi with spines at 
their apex. 

The abdomen with a very slight whitish reflection at the base 
of the segments from the second and the apical one pilose. 

The $ differs in having the face covered with a silvery pubes- 
cence as well as the metathorax, which is less gibbous ; the legs 
spinose. The abdomen with the fourth ventral segment slightly 
and the fifth profoundly emarginate, with a longitudinal depres- 
sion in their centre. 

^ § in my own and other Cabinets. 

-(■4-t Vander Linden thinks this species may possibly be a 
mere black variety of the P. viaticus ; which appears proba- 
ble at the first suggestion, but which inspection proves cannot 
be the case, for in the first place it is always considerably 
smaller, and the mandibles in the P. niger are but slightly 
arcuate, very broad, and the teeth nearly equal, whereas in 
P. viaticus they are very arcuate and the apical tooth con- 
siderably longer than the others ; the coxee also are of an 
opaque black in the latter, and the spines of the legs pro- 
portionately stronger, as well as the head and thorax being 
densely pilose. 



52 POMPTLID.E. 

This species I have found at Highgate conveying a small 
sandy coloured larvae ; it does not appear so early as P. 
viatlcuSyhe'ing seldom to be found before the summer solstice. 
Mr. Walker has taken it in the Isle of Wight, and at Bar- 
mouth, in September. 

Sp. 3. BiFASCiATUs. Fab. 

ater, immaculatus, alls alhis, fasc'm duabus nigris, metathorace 
nitido. 

length 3 — 4 lines. 
Fab. E. S. Sup. 248 16; Piez. 193. 26; Panz. 86. 12; Latr. Hist. 

13. 281.4; V. d Lind.pt. 1.40. 
Sfhex bif'asciata. Fabr. Ent. Syst. 2. 212. 58. 
fusciaia. Yillers, 3. 258. 94. 

Entirely black : head delicately punctured ; the clypeus with a 
few rufescent setae, as well as the exterior of the mandibles, their 
apex testaceous ; labrum concealed. 

Thorax punctured ; metathorax gibbous, scarcely perceptibly 
punctured and shining, having sometimes a small variole at the 
centre of its base ; the superior wings with their nervures pitchy, 
a narrow dark transverse fascia covering the transverso-medial 
nervure and the geniculation of the interno-medial, another, 
much wider, traversing the wing at the marginal and submarginal 
cells, which it nearly occupies, and a narrow dark edge at the 
apex of the wing in some specimens, leaving between it and the 
second fascia a milky spot ; the legs without the cilia to the 
anterior tarsi, and the posterior tibiae quite smooth, or having 
only a few lateral short hairs. 

The abdomen with the last segment covered with longish hair, 
and the apex slightly rufescent $ . 

The $ differs in having the fasciae of the wings less distinctly 
marked. 

$ in the Cabinet of Mr. Stephens. 

2 in my own and other Cabinets. 



VI. POMPILUS, 53 

t-l-t Found at Coombe, in the New Forest, and elsewhere ; 
the ^ appears to be rare. This species cannot be a variety 
of P. exaltatus, as a comparison of the two, or their descrip- 
tions, will distinctly show. 

Sp. 4. VARitGATus. Lin. 

ater, immacvlatus, aits albis, fasciis duabus n'lgris, nietathorace 
obscuro et crasse punctata seu transversa scalpto. 

length 4 lines. 
Illiger, F. E. 2. 99. 820. var. 2 ; V. d. L. pt. 1. 41. 
Sphex variegata. Lin. F. S. 1655; S. N. 1. 944. 18 ; Villere, 3.231. 

30. 
Pompilus hircamis. Fab. E. S. Sup. 251.30; Piez. 195. 40; Panz. 
87. 21 ; Ency. Al^th. 10. 180. 7. 

Entirely black : head punctured ; mandibles with their apex 
rufescent ; labrum concealed. 

Thorax punctured; dorsolum and scutellum shining; metatho- 
rax gibbous, very deeply punctured and opaque ; superior wings 
with a transverse dark fascia occupying the transverso-medial 
and the geniculation of the interno-medial nervures ; another, 
much broader, traversing the wing at the marginal and sub- 
marginal cells which it occupies, and with the exterior edge, 
which is also dark, encloses a milky spot ; the legs, with the 
anterior tarsi, having a few very short cilia, and the intermediate 
and posterior tibiae with a double row of very short spines on 
their exterior. 

The abdomen punctured ; the two last segments with some 
scattered rigid hairs, placed most thickly towards the apex of the 
terminal one. 

I am unacquainted with the $. 

2 in my own Cabinet. 

t4^t Taken at Coombe, in August, 1833. This insect 
greatly resembles the preceding, from which however it is 



54 



I'OMI'ILID*:. 



sufficiently distinguished by its metathorax and legs. Vander 
Linden describes a ^ which he supposes to belong to this 
species, but as I do not concur with him I do not insert his 
description. 

Sp. 5. PETIOLATUS. V. d. L. 

niger, immaculatus, ahdomine breviter petiolato, alarum cellula 
cuhitali tertia antice parum anguntata, tibiis posticis hand 
serrulatis. 

length 3 — 5^ lines. 
V. d. L. pt. 1. 44. 

Entirely black : head punctured, with a longitudinal impres- 
sion extending from the base of the antennae to the anterior 
stemma ; the clypeus with a few scattered griseous hairs ; the 
labrum concealed ; the apex of the mandibles rufescent. 

The thorax punctured; the metathorax obtuse, delicately 
transversely striated, the striae intermixed with punctures and 
a slight central impression at its base ; the tegulae piceous ; the 
wings very slightly coloured and having an iridescent reflection, 
the nervures piceous, and the third submarginal cell much larger 
than the second and but slightly constricted towards the marginal ; 
very short cilia upon the anterior tarsi, and the intermediate and 
posterior tibiae with a few short and very slight spines. 

The abdomen delicately punctured, shining, and very distinctly 
petiolated $ . 

The ^ does not at all differ except in the sculpture of its 
metathorax, which is more deeply punctured ; the face is covered 
with a silvery down ; the metathorax and coxae have a sericeous 
reflection ; the apex of the anterior tibiae are fulvous and their 
tarsi piceous ; the sixth ventral segment is emarginate. 

$ in my own Cabinet, ? in my own and others. 

t+t Vander Linden supposed the $ of this species to be 
the P. punctum, which I shall presently describe ; but as I 



VI, POMPILUS. 55 

possess one wholly agreeing with the $ in habit, which the 
P. punctum does not, I prefer considering mine as the true 
$. The $ and $ taken at Bexley, in Kent, and the $ by 
]\Ir. Westwood, at Hammersmith. 

Sp. (). ciNcxELLUs. Spin. 

n'/ger, cano pubescens, clypeo albido, macula nigra; fronte 
puncto utrinque ad marginem inter^mm ocul'i, prothoracis 
I'meoli utrinque, albidd ; pedibus rvjis ; alis albis, anticis ante 
apicem fascia fused 5 . 
niger, cano pubescens, fronte puncto utrinque ad marginem inter- 
num oculi, tibiarum posteriorum bast, et abdominis scgmento 
septimo supra, nitidis ; pedibus nigris $ . 

length 1|— 3 lines. 
Spinola, Ins, Lig. 2. p, 39 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 1. 49, 

Entirely covered with a slate-coloured down: head black, a 
deep longitudinal line extending from the base of the antennae 
to the anterior stemma, which has on each side a minute variole 
and a white spot Avithin the internal margin of the eyes just 
below the vertex ; the clypeus white, with a black mark extend- 
ing half way down from the base, truncated at its extremity ; the 
mandibles white with their apex rufescent ; labrum concealed. 

The thorax black, pubescent, delicately punctured ; the posterior 
margin of the collar with a white spot on each side, sometimes 
obsolete ; the metathorax with a central longitudinal impression 
and covered with a dense silvery pubescence ; the wings hyaline, 
with a slight iridescent reflection, and having a broad dark trans- 
verse band towards their extremity, which is pale ; the legs red, 
with their coxae black and covered with a silvery down, and 
having their extreme apex red, the knees and terminal joints of 
the tarsi piceous, the anterior pair slightly ciliated, and the inter- 
mediate and posterior tibiae with a double row of short black 
spines. 

The abdomen black, with a delicate slate-coloured down, punc- 
tured, and slightly shining. 



56 POMPILID^. 

The $ differs in being entirely black, with a white spot on 
each side upon the inner margin of the eye, sometimes obsolete ; 
the face covered with a silvery pubescence as well as the meta- 
thorax and coxae ; the wings have the fascia less distinct ; the 
inside of the anterior tibiae and the tarsi fulvous, and a white 
spot, sometimes obsolete, at the base on the outside of the 
posterior tibiae ; the cilia and spines of the legs less apparent and 
the last segment of the abdomen white above ; the sixth ventral 
segment deeply emarginate and the seventh has a longitudinal 
carina. 

(^ 5 in my own and other Cabinets, 

t+t This species seems to prefer old red-brick walls 
covered with parasitic plants, for I have generally taken it 
in such situations. It occurs also in sandy spots. 

(b) Abdomen black, with white spots. 

Sp. 7. PUNCTUM, Fabr. 

niger, facie utrinque ad marginem internum oculi lined albidd 
signatd, anoque 2JU7icto albo $ . 

length 5 lines. 
Panz. 86. 12 ; V. d. L. pt. 1. p. 45. 

Sfhex punctum. Fab. Spec. 1. 448. 33 ; Villers, 3. 238. 46. 
Evania punctum. Fab. E. S. 2. 194. 6. 
Ceropales puncUim. Fab. Piez. 187. 9. 

Head densely pvinctured, slightly pubescent ; antennae robust, 
slightly curved at the apex ; the face with two broad longitudinal 
white stripes within the interior orbit of the eyes, extending 
across the clypeus, which is slightly emarginate in front ; labrum 
concealed. 

Thorax minutely punctured ; metathorax more densely so and 
slightly covered with a sericeous down ; the tegulse piceous ; 
the wings fuliginous, the third submarginal cell larger than the 
second and very slightly constricted towards the marginal ; the 



VI. POMPILUS. 57 

legs black and simple ; the anterior tibiae and tarsi piceous, and 
all the coxae and trochanters loosely covered with a sericeous 
down. 

The abdomen of an opaque black; a white spot at the base of 
the seventh segment and the first narrowed into a long petiole ; 
the sixth ventral segment emarginate, and the seventh with a 
longitudinal central carina $. 

$ in my own Cabinet. 

t-i-t I am unacquainted with the $ which Vander Linden 
considered to be the P. petiolatus, but which insect I have 
shown above to be distinct. Mine was taken in the vicinity 
of London. 

Sp. 8. HYALINATUS. Fab. 

niger, prothoracis lineold utrinque lutosd, ano puncto albo, alts 
hyalinis, femorihus quatuor posticis rufis $. 

length Z^ lines. 
Fab. Ent. Sys. Supp. 247. 7 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 1. 46. 11. 
Sphex hyalinata. Fab. Ent. Sys. 2. 212. 56. 
Liris hyalinata. Fab. Piez. 230. 11. 

Black : head punctured ; antennae about as long as the thorax, 
robust ; apex of the mandibles rufescent ; face covered with a 
silvery pubescence ; labrum concealed. 

The thorax punctured ; the collar marked on each side with a 
transverse luteous line ; the metathorax covered with a sericeous 
reflection ; the wings perfectly hyaline or having a very slight 
tinge over the marginal and submarginal cells, the third sub- 
marginal larger than the second ; the legs black, with the inside 
of the anterior tibiae, the apex of the intermediate, and the major 
part of the posterior femorae towards the apex, red ; the posterior 
tibiae w^ith a few slight spines ; all the calcaria white. 

The abdomen has a white spot at the base of the terminal seg- 
ment and all the ventral segments entire $ . 

The ? I am unacquainted with. 

$ in my own and Mr. Davis' Cabinet. 



58 POMPIHD^. 

f-l-t I am indebted to the kindness of A. II. Davis, Esq. 
for this species; it was taken in the north of England. 

Sp. 9. RUFiPEs. Lin. 

ater, abdominis segmentis utrinque maculd alhd, alis apice nigris, 
pedibus posticis ruhris $ $ . 

length 3 — 6 lines- 
Fab, E. S. Supp. 250. 27 ; Pies. 195. 37 ; Latr. H 13. 281. 6 ; Panz. 
65. 17: Ency. Meth. 10. 180. 3; V. d. L. pt. 1. 59 ; Curtis, Brit. 
Ent. 5. 238. 
Sphex rufipes. Lin. F. S. 1659 ; S. N. 945. 29 ; Villers, 3. 235. 37 ; 
Fab. S. E. 351. 29 ; Ent. Syst. 2. 214. 66. 

fuscata. Fab, E. S. 2. 212. 57. 

Pompilusfuscatus. Fab. Ent. Sys. Supp. 248. 14 ; Piez. 192, 22. 

Black : the head hirsute, delicately punctured, with a longi- 
tudinal impressed line extending from the base of the antennae 
to the anterior stemma ; mandibles piceous ; labrum triangular, 
slightly exserted. 

The thorax hirsute, punctured; the metathorax obtuse, deli- 
cately punctured, shining ; the wings with their nervures black, 
a broad black band on their external margin and the surface 
having an opaline reflection ; the legs black, with the posterior 
femorae and tibiae red, and the intermediate pair being more or 
less red inside ; the anterior tarsi strongly ciliated, and the inter- 
mediate and posterior tibiae with a double row of spines. 

The abdomen black and shining, with a transverse ovate white 
spot at the base of the second (sometimes obsolete) and third 
segments, the latter being the largest (one sometimes also on 
each side of the fourth segment), and a central one at the base 
of the sixth ? . 

The $ differs (also sometimes wanting the spots on the second 
segment) in having the spots on the third segment converted into 
an interrupted band (sometimes scarcely so, or else with all the 
white markings excepting that on the terminal segment wanting), 
otherwise like the $ , but having the customary $ characteristic 



VI. I'OMPILUS. 59 

of more silvery pubescence ; the sixth ventral segment emarginate 
and the seventh has a longitudinal central carina. 

In my own and other Cabinets. 

f 4-t The colour of the legs differs much in this species, 
scarcely two specimens being alike, and sometimes the pos- 
terior pair are also quite black, as exhibited in a specimen 
in the Rev. F. W. Hope's rich cabinet. This species has 
been taken by the Hon. Mr. Harris and Mr. Curtis, at 
Ramsdown, near Heron Court, Hampshire, and by the 
Rev. F. W. Hope, at Southend, and in North Wales. 

(c) Abdomen more or less red at the base. 

Sp. 10. NOTATUS. Rossi. 

niger, antennis thorace paulb longioribus, abdominis segmento 
secundo supra fuscid rubra scepe obsoletd, pedibus partim 
n'tgris partim rubris $ . 

$ length 3f lines. 
Vander Lind. pt. 1. 47. 12. 
Sphex notata. Rossi, F. E. Mant. 1. 127. 281. 
Pompilus gutta. Spin. 2. 40. 

Black : head punctured and having a longitudinal impressed 
line extending from the base of the antennae to the anterior 
stemma ; the antennEe slender, longer than the thorax ; the apex 
of the mandibles rufescent ; labrum concealed. 

The thorax punctured, slightly pubescent ; the metathorax 
finely granulated and covered with a silvery pubescence, most 
dense at the sides ; the tegulse piceous ; the wings iridescent, 
slightly tinged towards their extremity, their nervures black ; 
the legs with their coxae covered with a dense silvery pubescence, 
and the anterior femorae inside towards their apex, the whole of 
their tibiae and tarsi, the intermediate femorae and tibiae, except- 
ing the base of the former and the knees, and the entire 



60 POMPILID^. 

posterior feniorae, red ; the sides of the posterior tibise with a 
few slight dispersed hairs. 

The abdomen with a broad red band at the base of the second 
segment ; the sixth ventral segment has a small emargination on 
each side of its centre, which is slightly produced $. 

In my own and Mr. Stephens' Cabinet. 

■f\.-f I am unacquainted with the ? of this insect ; I took 
a single specimen, in 1833, at Highgate : Mr. Stephens', I 
believe, was captured at Ripley, in Surrey. 

Sp. 11. SERICATUS. N. Sp. 

ater argenteo sericeus ; abdominis segmento secundo fascia laid 
rufd $. 

length 4^ lines. 

Atrous : the head having the face covered with a dense silvery 
pubescence which extends a short way towards the vertex on 
the margin of the eyes ; the cheeks covered behind with the 
same : the labrum concealed. 

The thorax, with the metathorax obtuse, and having a central 
longitudinal impression ; the collar, metathorax, the sides of the 
thorax, mesothorax beneath, and all the coxae of the legs, densely 
covered with the silvery down ; the legs with their anterior tarsi 
simple, and the intermediate and posterior tibiae having a double 
row of very slight spines. 

The abdomen with the margin of the first segment piceous, 
and the base of the second of a deep red ; the venter with the 
margin of the fourth segment slightly emarginate and those of 
the fifth and sixth deeply so, with a small fossulet on each side 
of the emargination of the sixth ; the apical segment pointed at 
its extremity $ . 

In my own Cabinet. 

-j-4-t 1 am unacquainted with the ? . The dense silvery 



VI. POMPILUS, 61 

pubescence with which this insect is so splendidly covered 
sufficiently distinguishes it from every other British Pompi- 
lus ; in general habit it most closely approaches to the P. 
viaticus. I have captured it but once, somewhere in the 
vicinity of London. 

Sp. 12. VIATICUS. Lin. 

ater, pubescens, alisfuscis, apice nigris, ahdomine antice coccineo, 
cingulis nigr'is $ ? . 

length 4 — 7 lines. 
Fab. E. S. Supp. 246. 4 ; Piez. 191. 12 ; Panz. 65. 16; lUig. 2. 96. 

814 ; Ency. Meth. 10. 179. 1 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 1. 72. 
Sphex viatica. Lin. F. S. 1651 ; S. N. 1. 943. 15 ; Fab. E. S. 2. 210. 
47 ; Rossi, F. Et. 2. 62. 814. 

riifo-fasc'iato. De Geer, Ap. Retz. 65. 247; De Gear, 2. 822. 

PI. 28. f. 6. 
Pompiiusfuscus. Latr. H. 13. 280. 1. 

Atrous, opaque : head, with the cheeks and exterior of the 
mandibles, covered with long hair, the latter rufescent in their 
centre ; the labrum transverse, exserted. 

The thorax has the collar covered with long hair ; the meta- 
thorax truncated posteriorly and with a slight central longitudinal 
impression at its base ; the wings obscure, with a broad black 
band at their edge extending inwards to the marginal and sub- 
marginal cells, — the third siibmarginal sometimes triangular and 
sometimes petiolated ; the legs with the anterior tarsi ciliated, 
and the intermediate and posterior tibiae having a double row of 
spines, which extend also along the first joint of the tarsi. 

The abdomen, with the first, second and third segments coc- 
cineous, the first having a piceous margin, and the second and 
third a black one, making an angle which points inwards at the 
centre ; the apical segments hirsute at their extremity J . 

The $ agrees precisely with the exception of the usual ^ cha- 
racteristics of a silvery face, a sericeous pubescence about the 
metathorax and coxae, a greater length and narrowness of abdo- 



62 



POMPILID*. 



men, the legs less spinose and the anterior tarsi not ciliated ; the 
venter has its fifth and sixth segments emarginate, the former 
more slightly than the latter, and the sixth has a deep fossulet 
on each side of its emargination and a longitudinal carina at the 
base of the seventh, the apex of which is truncated. 

In most Cabinets. 

f -j-f This is a very common species ; it appears very early 
in the year, and I have frequently captured it conveying 
large spiders: it stings severely. A variety, having the apex 
of the posterior femorae red, is found on the continent. Ac- 
cording to the Linnean Cabinet, this is not the Sphex viatica 
of that author, our Ammophila hirsuta being it, but as his 
description perfectly suits it, I have retained his name, 
for the Cabinet, from a variety of unfortunate accidents, is 
not always to be depended upon. 

Sp. S. gibbus. Lin. 

niger, ahdomine ferrugineo, apice fusco, metathorace subtiliter 
punctato, alls anticis apice nigris $ 5 . 

length 2\ — 4^ lines. 
Fab. E. S. Supp. 249. 17; Piez. 193. 27; Panz, 77. 13; Ency. 

M^th. 10. 179. 2 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 1. 68. 35. 
Sphei gibba. Lin. F. S. 1658 ; S. N. 946. 33 ; Fab. S. E, 350. 23 ; 
E. S. 2. 212. 59 ; Rossi, Illig. 2. 97. 

Black : head delicately punctured, pubescent ; apex of the 
mandibles piceous ; the labrum transverse ; linear almost con- 
cealed. 

Thorax very short and covered at its sides and metathorax with 
a very close short whitish down ; the metathorax very obtuse, deli- 
cately punctured, and having a slight longitudinal impression ; 
the wings with their nervures black, and a dark band at their 
external edge, the third submarginal cell very much narrowed 
tow.irds the marginal, or rather triangular ; the legs with their 



VI, POMPILUS. G3 

anterior tarsi slightly ciliated, and their intermediate and posterior 
tibiae, as well as the first joint of the tarsi, spinose. 

The abdomen with the first, second, and base of the third 
segment, red, the margin of the red segments sometimes a little 
darker. 

The $ differs only in the usual characteristics of the silvery 
pubescence of the face, the anterior tarsi not ciliated, the legs 
less spinose and the greater length of the abdomen. 

In most Cabinets. 



Sp. l-t. CRASSICORNIS. N. Sp. 

n'lger, abdomhic ferrugineo, apice fusco ; aUs anl'tcls apice n'lgr'is ; 
anteymis crassis. 

length 2|^— 3i lines. 

Black : head delicately punctured ; the antennae as thick as 
the anterior tibiae and tlie clavolet nearly as robust as the scape, 
the joints very short ; the apex of the mandibles rufescent ; 
the labrum transverse, exserted. 

The thorax short, pubescent, covered on the metathorax and 
beneath, and on the coxae of the legs, with a sericeous reflec- 
tion ; the metathorax very delicately punctured and having a 
deep longitudinal central impression ; the wings obscure, with 
their nervures piceous, — the apical edge very dark, the band ex- 
tending inwards as far as the marginal and submarginal cells, 
their third submarginal triangular ; the legs with their anterior 
tarsi ciliated on the exterior, and the intermediate and posterior 
tibiae having on their outside a double row of spines. 

The abdomen, with the first, second, and base of the third 
segments, red ; the margin of the remainder piceous ; and the 
whole abdomen covered with a whitish reflection caused by a 
short close down. 

The $ I am unacquainted with. 

$ in the Cabinets of the Rev, G, T. Rudd, Rev. 
F. W. Hope, Mr. Haslehurst, and my own. 



64 POMPILID^. 

f-j-f This species approaches very closely to the preced- 
ing, but I consider it sufficiently distinguished from it in 
the thickness of the antennae; it has also more of the 
whitish down upon its body. I at first thought it what 
Vander Linden calls the P.pectinipes of Linne, but the cilia- 
tion of the anterior tarsi cannot certainly be called "forte- 
ment pectines" as they are scarcely more so than in the pre- 
ceding species, and to which it is decidedly more closely 
allied than to the P. viaticus, with which he compares his 
P. pectinipes ; besides which it is very different from the 
specimens in the Linnean Cabinet; but the thickness of 
the antennas furnish so remarkable a character that it could 
not possibly have been overlooked. I took five specimens 
in 1832, at Hampstead, since when I have not captured it; 
but the Rev. F. W. Hope has taken it this year, at South- 
end, in Essex : and the Rev. C. Bird showed me a remark- 
able variety of it, captured at Burghfield, by S. W. Hasle- 
hurst, Esq. of Trinity College, Cambridge, which has upon 
the left side the nervures of Aporus ; but I have already 
shown above, under P. niger and viaticus, that this is not 
an unusual divarication in this genus. 



Sp. 15, Fuscus. Lin. 

niger, glaber, ahdomine basiferrugineo, alisfuscis $ 5 . 

length 3^—7 lines. 
Fab. E. S. Supp. 246. 3 ; Piex 189. 11 ; Panz. 65. 15 ; Ency. M6th. 

10. 182. 16 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 1. 66. 33. 
Sphexfusca. Lin. F. S. 1652; S. N. 944. 16 j Fab. S. E. 349. 19; 
E. S. 2. 210. 46 ; Rossi, 2. 95. 813. 

Black : the head punctured, pubescent ; the mandibles rufes- 
cent in the middle ; labrum slightly exposed, subemarginate. 

Thorax delicately punctured, pubescent ; metathorax some- 
what obtuse, with a deep impression at the centre of its base, 



VI. POMPILUS. 65 

and very delicately transversely striated ; the wings with their 
nervures piceous, and a fuscous nebulosity covering their disk ; 
the legs with their anterior tarsi slightly ciliated, the intermediate 
tibiae and first joint of their tarsi very spinose ; and the posterior 
tibiae strongly serrated, and the first joint of their tarsi also very 
spinose. 

The abdomen shining, with the first and second segments, and 
the base of the third, red ; the apical segments somewhat hirsute. 

The ^ does not differ except in the usual characteristics, 
and the posterior legs having only a few dispersed spines ; the 
apical segment of the abdomen is furcate and has on each side 
some curved hairs, and the margin of the sixth ventral segment 
has two lateral incisions. 

In most Cabinets. 

-j-4-f I have an insect almost intermediate between the P. 
fuscus and -P. affinis, it having the wings of the former, and 
the metathorax coarsely punctured, with a few transverse 
striae in the centre. I consider it merely a variety of the 
above, unless I should discover more that resemble it. 
This is a common species, but differing rather in habits 
from the others of the genus, as it is found almost exclu- 
sively on the banks of hedge rows. The $ is generally 
much smaller than the $ . 

Sp. 16. AFFINIS. V. d. L. 

ater, abdominis hasi rufo-ferrugineo, metatliorace irregulariter 
rugoso, alis alhis apice nigris $ 5 . 

length 5—7 lines. 
V. d. Lind. Obs. pt. 1. 67. 34. 

Black : head punctured, pubescent, a longitudinal impressed 
line running backwards from the base of the antennae, but not 
extending beyond the foot of the tubercle upon which they are 
placed, and which in front it divides into two prominences ; the 

F 



66 



POMriLID^. 



apex of the mandibles piceous ; labrum slightly exserted, sub- 
emarginate. 

The thorax delicately punctured, pubescent ; the metathorax 
very coarsely wrinkled transversely, with a central longitudinal 
impression ; the nervures of the wings black, the wings them- 
selves slightly fuscous, with a broad dark band at their edge 
which extends inwardly as far as the marginal and submarginal 
cells ; the legs with the anterior tarsi slightly ciliated, and the 
intermediate tibiae and first joint of the tarsi spinose ; the pos- 
terior tibiae strongly serrated, and the first joint of their tarsi also 
spinose. 

The abdomen has a whitish reflection, and the first, second, 
and base of the third segments, red, — the margin of the second 
being more deeply coloured ; the remainder black, with their 
margins piceous, and the last segment having its apex covered 
with fulvous hair j . 

The $ differs only in the usual characteristics and the 
metathorax being less coarsely wrinkled, the central longitudinal 
impression deeper, and the sixth ventral segment very slightly 
emarginate. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Curtis, Mr. Hope, 
Mr. Stephens, and my own. 

-j-^f This species has been found by myself in the vicinity 
of London, I think in Copenhagen Fields ; by Mr. Ste- 
phens at Ripley ; by the Rev. F. W. Hope at Southend, 
in Essex ; and by Mr. Curtis in Norfolk. 

Sp. 17. EXALTATUS. Fab. 

niger, abdominis basi rufo, alis apicefuscis, puncto albo. 

length 2^ — 6i lines. 
Fab. E. S. Supp. 251.31 ; Piez. 195. 41 ; Panz. 86. 10; Revis. 2. 
119; Lat. H. 13.281.3; Ency. Meth. 10. 182. 15; V. d. Lind. 
pt. 1. 64. 30. 
Sphex exaltata. Fab. S. E. 351. 31 ; E. S. 2. 214. 69; Villers, 3. 
239. 47. 

albomaculata. Schrank. Ins. Austr. 383. 75 ; Villers, 3. 249. 80. 

PompUus variegatus. Var. 1. lUiger, F. E. 2. 99. 820. 



VI. POMPILUS. 67 

Black : head delicately punctured ; mandibles rufescent, with 
their base black ; labrum concealed. 

Thorax opaque, delicately punctured ; the metathorax with a 
very slight longitudinal impression ; the tegulse piceous ; the 
wings iridescent, with their nervures black, and a dark cloud 
covering the marginal, submarginal, and discoidal cells, enclosing 
with the black external edge of the wing a white spot towards 
its extremity ; the legs with the anterior tarsi simple, and the 
intermediate and posterior tibiae slightly serrated on the ex- 
terior. 

The abdomen, with the first and second segments, and the third 
on the sides at the base, red, — the apical segments being slightly 
ferruginous $ . 

Var. /3. with the inside of the anterior legs, and the posterior 
femorae, and base of the tibiae, red ? . 

The $ differs in wanting generally the white spot at the ex- 
tremity of the wings, and also in having the posterior tibiae 
simple, and the sixth ventral segment slightly emarginate. 

In most Cabinets. 

fit This species is very variable in the marking of the 
vpings, for the white spot is not always present and is some- 
times only slightly indicated, and it is also very variable in 
size, which two circumstances have frequently led to its 
being separated into different species. It is one of the most 
common. 

Sp. 18. FAsciATELLus. Spin. 

7iiger, abdomine antice rufo, alls hyalims fascia ante apicem 
fused $ . 

length 4J lines. 
Splnola, 2. 37. PI. 5. f. 22 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 1. 65. 31. 

Black : head punctured ; apex of the mandibles rufescent ; 
labrum concealed. 

F 2 



68 



POMPILlD«. 



Thorax punctured, somewhat gibbons and very short ; meta- 
thorax the same, and very delicately punctured and shining ; the 
wings with their nervures black, and a broad transverse fascia 
covering the marginal, second and third submarginal, and a 
portion of the third discoidal cells, not extending to the posterior 
margin of the wing, and another very slight transverse mark 
covering the geniculation of the externo- and transverso-medial 
nervures ; the legs black, the anterior tarsi very slightly ciliated, 
and the intermediate and posterior tibiae very strongly serrated. 

The abdomen, with the first, second, and base of the third seg- 
ments, red. 

The ^ I am unacquainted with. 

In the Cabinet of Mr. Hanson and my own. 

f-j-f This species is very distinct from the preceding 
when compared with it, its thorax being much more gib- 
bous, the wings differently marked, the nervures traced 
differently, and the posterior tibiag more strongly serrated. 
I have caught it at Hampstead and Highgate, but it is 
rare. I have not now taken it for three years. I have seen 
a specimen in the possession of Mr. Hanson. 

Genus VII. Ceropales. Lat. 

Head compressed, of the width of the thorax ; eyes oval, placed 
laterally high ; the stemmata in a triangle on the forehead ; 
aniennce filiform in the ? , gradually but very slightly increas- 
ing in thickness towards the apex in the ^ , inserted in the 
middle of the anterior part of the face, rigid, a little curved, 
and the division of the joints scarcely distinguishable ; labrum 
nearly triangular, somewhat obtuse at its base, attached to the 
anterior edge of the clypeus, entirely exserted ; the mandibles 
with a sharp tooth below their apex. The thorax gibbous ; 
collar transverse, extending laterally to the tegulae ; scutellum 
very prominent ; metathorax inclined ; superior wings having 



VU. CEUOPALES. 69 

one marginal cell, the extremity of which is nut detached from the 
margin of the wing, and four suhmarginal cells, the first a little 
longer than the second, which is oblong and receives the first re- 
current nervure, — the third much narrowed towards the marginal 
cell and receiving the second recurrent nervure, — the fourth 
reaching the extremity of the wing ; legs moderately long, the 
posterior ones disproportionately so ; the posterior tibi<s 
slightly spinose ; the claws of all the legs small, but furnished 
with a large pulvillus. The abdomen oval; the hypopygium of 
the $ prolonged beyond the podex and contracted into a 
narrow obtuse canal, whence a tube is frequently exserted, 
the extremity of which is soft and which is probably the 
ovipositor. 

Type, C. maculata. 

f-|-f This genus was established by Latreille in his 
" Precis," and adopted by Fabvicius in his " Systema 
Piezatorum," who had previously arranged these insects in 
his genus Evania, to which they have so very slight a re- 
semblance. St. Fargeau considers them parasitic, the 
anterior legs being unfurnished with cilia, and he mentions 
having observed them entering backwards into the cells of 
the predatory fossores, which, he thinks, proves that their 
object was to deposit their eggs; they are generally found 
upon Umbelli ferae. 



Sp. 1. MACULATA. Fab. 

nigra, thorace maculate, abdominis prima segmento punctis 
duobus, secundo margine, anoque albis $ $ . 

length 2\—Z\ lines. 
Latr. Hist. 13. 283. 1 ; Fab. Piez. 185. 1. 
Evania maculata. Fab. S. E. 345. 2 ; E. S. 2. 193. 2 ; Rossi, 2. 84. 

799. 
PninpUtis frontalis. Panz. 72. 9. 
Ichtienmon multicoli<r. Oliv. Ency. Meth. 7. 209. 17. 



70 



l'OMPIL!U/K. 



Black: head punctured, subpubescent ; antennae black, with 
a cream-coloured spot on the scape beneath, and the face with a 
longitudinal line of the same colour occupying the inner orbit of 
the eyes and traversing the clypeus (sometimes not) on each 
side, the latter covered with a silvery pubescence. 

Thorax punctured, with a band at the posterior margin of the 
collar, sometimes obsolete or interrupted, a small lunate spot 
occupying the post-dorsolum and another on each side at the 
extreme apex of the metathorax, all cream coloured ; the meta- 
thorax granulated, with a slightly elevated longitudinal line in 
its centre ; the wings subhyaline, iridescent, with their nervures 
piceous and their stigma ferruginous, their extreme margin being 
slightly coloured ; the legs red, with the coxae and trochanters 
black, as well as the knees, apex of the tibiae and articulations 
of the tarsi of the posterior pair, their coxae having also a longi- 
tudinal cream-coloured line, but the legs vary much, being some- 
times black and of all the intermediate tints. 

Abdomen with an ovate transverse spot on each side of the 
first segment, a band at the margin of second, and others 
abbreviated on each side at the margin of the fourth, fifth, and 
sixth segments, all cream coloured. The markings vary much, 
being sometimes nearly obsolete. 

The $ differs in having the cream-coloured markings more 
distinct and larger, and wanting the abbreviated band on the 
margin of the fourth segment. 

In most Cabinets. 

f-j-t This insect varies considerably, scarcely two indi- 
viduals being exactly alike. It has been taken by F. Walker, 
Esq., in September, at Barmouth and Penzance; by the Rev. 
F. W. Hope, in North Wales ; by Mr. Davis, at Birchwood 
in Kent; and by Mr. Stephens, at Ripley in Surrey. 



VII. CKROPALES. 71 

Sp. 2. VARIEGATA. Fab. 

nigra, albo maculata, ahdomine rufo apice tiigro, niaculis tribus 
albls. 

length 3j lines. 
Latr. H. 13. 284. 2; Fab. Piez. 186. 2, 
Evania variegata. Fab. E. S. Supp. 241 ; Panz. 77. 10. 

The head black ; the face marked with cream colour, which 
occupies the inside of the eyes and the whole of the clypeus, 
with the exception of a narrow black band that runs down the 
centre, but suddenly terminates before itsjunction with the labrum, 
which is of the same colour. The antennae black, with the basal 
joint white beneath. 

The thorax black ; the collar with an interrupted transverse 
band, the post-dorsolum, and the tubercles, all cream coloured ; 
the tegulse rufo-testaceous ; the wings iridescent, a little coloured 
on the disk and slightly coloured towards the margin. The two 
anterior pairs of legs red, with the extreme joint of the tarsi 
piceous ; the posterior pair red, with the knees and apex of the 
tibiae piceous ; the posterior tarsi black ; the coxae black, the 
anterior pair in front, and the intermediate and posterior pairs 
with a lateral spot of a cream colour ; the calcaria rufous. 

The abdomen, with the two first segments, red ; the posterior 
margin of the second segment having on each side a transverse 
lunule of a cream colour ; the remainder black, with their margin 
rufo-piceous, and nearly the whole of the apical segment occu- 
pied by a cream-coloured spot ? . 

I am unacquainted with the $ . 

In the Cabinet of British Museum. 

f 4-f The only British specimen I know is in the National 
Cabinet. It was taken, I believe, in Devonshire, by Dr. 
Leach. 

Genus VIII. Aporus. Spin. 

Head subrotound, of the width of the thorax ; eyes lateral, 
distant ; stemmata placed in a triangle upon the vertex ; 



72 I'OMl'IMD/E. 

antennee inserted in the middle of the anterior part of the 
face, shorter than the thorax, slightly curved, filiform ; labrum 
concealed; clypeus porrect ; mandibles arcuate, bidentate.* 
Thorax somewhat gibbous ; collar transverse ; scutellum 
minute, placed below the mesothorax ; metathorax obtuse ; 
superior wings with one marginal cell — small, subtriangular, and 
two siibmarginal cells, the Jirst long, the second subquadrate, 
slightly contracted towards the marginal cell, receiving both re- 
current nemures — the commencement of a third slightly traced; 
the legs long, the posterior pair in particular ; the anterior 
tarsi of the ? ciliated on the outside ; and all the tibice armed 
with spines, the posterior ones with a double row ; the bifid 
claws furnished with a small pulvillus placed between them. 
Abdomen ovate, subsessile. 

Type, A. unicolor. 

■f-lf This genus was established by Spinola in 1808; it 
was adopted by Latreille, in his " Genera," in 1809. It 
closely resembles Pompilus in habit, particularly the P. 
gibhus. 

Sp. 1. BicoLOR. Spin. 

ater, abdominis segmentis tribus anterioribus saturate rubris. 

length 2i— 31 lines. 
Spinola. 2. 34 ; Lat. Gen. 4. 64 ; St. Fargeau, Ency. M^th. 10. 183. 
1; V. d. L. Obs.pt. 1.80.3. 

Head black, punctured, with a slight silvery pubescence 
covering the face, excepting the clypeus. 

Thorax black, punctured ; the wings fuscous, the extremity 
having a broad black border extending inwards nearly as far as 
the apex of the second submarginal cell ; the legs black. 

* Spinola says tridentate, but St. Fargeau bidentate. Not having a specimen 
1 am unable to say which is riglit, but I conclude the latter, as he corrects 
Spinola. 



IX. AMMOPHILA. 73 

The abdomen black, opaque ; witli the first and second seg- 
ments, and the base of tlie third, red ; and the base of the first 
and second slightly covered with a silky pubescence 5 . 

The $ differs in having the anterior part of the face, except- 
ing the clypeus, the metathorax, under part of the thorax, the 
coxfe, and trochanters, all covered with a dense sdvery pubes- 
cence, and the margin of the first and base of the second seg- 
ment rufo-piceous. 

^ $ in the Cabinet of Mr. Curtis. 
$ in Mr. Stephens' and of 
the British Museum, 

tif Taken by Mr. Dale, in Dorsetshire. This insect 
appears to be rare in Cabinets. I have as yet been unsuc- 
cessful in obtaining a British specimen. 

Family IV. 
SPHECID.E. Leach. 

Prothorax forming a sort of neck, very distinctly sepa- 
rated from the mesothorax, narrowed in front. The base 
of the abdomen constricted into a long petiole. Mandibles 
internally dentate. 

1 . The oral organs forming a sort of proboscis longer than the 
head, geniculated at about one half their length. Palpi slender, 
their joints cylindrical. 

Genus IX. Ammophila. Kirby. 

Head suborbiculate, subdepressed, wider than the thorax, par- 
ticularly in the $ ; eyes oval, distant ; the stemmata placed in 
a triangle on the vertex ; antennce filiform, arcuate in the j , 
slightly curved in the $ , inserted in the middle of the anterior 
part of the face, all the joints cylindrical, with the exception 
of the two first, the first being subovate, the second globose, the 



74 



SPHECID.E. 



rest gradually decreasing in length from the third, which is the 
longest of all ; the face below the antennae covered with 
silver pile in the $ ; labrum almost entirely concealed by the 
clypeus, which is large, almost triangular, and generally covered 
with short depressed hairs ; mandibles long, narrow, arcuate, 
acuminate at the apex, forcipate when closed, tridentate, the 
interior tooth the smallest, the intermediate large, truncate, 
the apical tooth the largest. Thorax oval, pubescent ; collar 
infundibuliform ; mesothorax shorter than the metathorax ; the 
scutellum minute, transverse ; metathorax obtuse ; the superior 
flings having one marginal cell ovate, and three submarginal 
cells, — the first as long or longer than the two following, — the 
second receiving both the recurrent nervures, — the third very small 
and considerably narrowed towards the marginal ; legs long, 
spinose, and the anterior tarsi strongly ciliated, the claws which 
terminate the tarsi bifid, and having a pulvillus between them 
in the $, but scarcely perceptible in the $. The abdomen 
very distinctly petiolated (the petiole in one species biarticu- 
late), either clavate or ellipsoidal. 

Type, A. sabulosa. 

■flf This genus, the etymology of which is from afx-ju-oj 
— sand, and 4>iXeco — / love, was established by the Rev. Mr. 
Kirby, in 1798, for some insects which he separated from 
Sphex and Pepsis of Fabricius, who, however, did not do 
him the justice to adopt it in his subsequent works ; nor 
was it adopted by Latreille in his Histoire, but he receives 
it in his " Genera," published in 1809. Even Spinola 
considered one of the species as a Pepsis, notwithstanding 
the vast discrepancy of habit. J urine retains it as Sphex, 
forming of the insects which compose it his first family of 
that genus ; but if he did not know Mr. Kirby's genus, I 
feel surprised he did not form one for it, as it is distinctly 
separate according to his own characters. 

St. Fargeau observes upon the habits of these insects, 



IX, AMMOPHILA. 75 

that they construct their burrows in sand alone, and supply 
their larvae with Arachnidae and the larvae of Lepidoptera, 
and select by preference those of the Noctuae, sometimes as 
large as themselves. They sting them towards the middle 
of the body, which renders them torpid, but does not kill 
them, and prevents their motion. The Ammophila then 
extending itself in its whole length upon the larva, seizes 
it with its mandibles near the head, and supports the re- 
mainder of the body with its legs. But thus encumbered it 
can no longer fly ; it therefore proceeds but slowly, dragging 
it along. Should it perceive any obstacle in its path, such 
as a stone or tuft of plants, it quits its load an instant and 
springs lightly forward to reconnoiter and explore its way, 
but returns immediately to resume its burden. He re- 
marks having watched a $ , thus loaded, clear a wall eight 
or ten feet high, but not without frequent mischances. The 
caterpillar fell several times to the ground, when the 
Ammophila placed it upon a projecting stone to rest itself 
and recruit its own strength ; but it renewed its task with 
extraordinary perseverance and succeeded in accomplishing 
it. I can corroborate this interesting anecdote by a similar 
fact, — which I will mention under the A. sabulosa. I have 
never observed these insects convey caterpillars, for when- 
ever I have caught them with their prey it has consisted 
invariably of spiders. 

(a) The petiole of the abdomen two-jointed. 

Sp. 1. SABULOSA. Lin. 

nigra, hirta, segrnento secundo tertioque ferrugineo 5 $. 

length 7^ — 11 lines. 
Latr. N. Diet. torn. 1. 450. 

Sphei sabulosa. Lin. F. S. 1648 ; S. N. 1. 941. 1 ; Villers, 3. 219. 1 ; 
Fab. S. E. 346. 1 ; E. S. 2. 198. 1 ; Piez. 205. 1 ; Panz. 65. 12 ; 



76 SPHECID^. 

De Geer, 2. pt. 2. 822. PI. 28. f. 7 — 15 ; Rossi. 2. 90. 808 ; lllig. 

F. E. 2.91; Latr. H. 13.292. 1. 

dimidiata. Christ. 313. PI. 31. f. 4. 

lutaria. Panz. 65. 14 $. 

Ichneumon. Geoffroy, 2. 349- 63. 

Ammophila vulgaris. Kirby, Trans. Lia. Society, vol. 4, p. 195. 1. 

Black : head punctured, pubescent, with a deep longitudinal 
impression arising between the antennae at their base, and ex- 
tending to the anterior stemraa, and thence enclosing the whole 
of the stemmata. 

Thorax punctured, pubescent ; the tubercles, an oblique ovate 
spot on each side beneath the wings, and on each side at the 
insertion of the abdomen, covered with a dense sericeous down ; 
the scutellum longitudinally striated ; the metathorax with a 
slight central longitudinal elevation, the sides having rather 
coarse oblique wrinkles, diverging from the centre ; the tegulae 
piceous ; the wings hyaline, with the nervures piceous, and a 
broad black band on the exterior edge extending inwardly as 
far as the marginal cell ; legs black ; the coxae covered with a 
short sericeous down, as well as the undersides of the meso- 
thorax ; the anterior tarsi strongly ciliated on the exterior ; the 
tibiae spinose, the posterior pair less strongly so than the four 
anterior. 

The abdomen clavate, finely punctured, pubescent ; the first 
joint of the petiole and base of the second black ; the remainder 
of the second, and the whole of the second segment of the 
abdomen, and base of the third, red ; the rest black, the anal 
segment having at its extremity several rigid hairs 5 . 

The $ differs in having the whole body considerably more 
pubescent, the anterior portion of the face covered with a dense 
sericeous down ; the metathorax more irregularly rugose ; the 
legs less spinose, and it has a black longitudinal stripe along the 
top of the second joint of the petiole and second segment of 
the abdomen, but which varies much in the depth of its colour, 
being sometimes obsolete. 

In most Cabinets. 



IX. AMMOPHILA. 



j-j-f This is a very common species, and found, I believe, 
in all sandy districts. I have observed the $ dragging a 
very large inflated spider up the nearly perpendicular side of 
a sand bank, at least twenty feet high ; it met with similar 
mischances to those mentioned in the observations upon 
the genus, but it dragged its prey backwards and solely by 
the mandibles, and its object in quitting it seemed to be to 
ascertain if it was still in the right tract, for it invariably 
flew forward to the burrow formed for its deposit. It was 
so intent upon its labour, that it allowed me to watch it 
very closely, and I respected its perseverance ; for, although 
a magnificent specimen, I sacrificed my Entomological 
cupidity to my admiration of its wonderful instinct and 
industry. The 5, whilst forming her burrow, makes a 
loud whirring buzz : this circumstance I was first led to 
observe by tJie Rev. G. T. Rudd, who pointed the insect 
out to me in the act ; and I have since found that it con- 
tinues this sound in its flight if disturbed, whereas it wings 
its way noiselessly at other times. It is extremely elegant 
in its motions, giving them a very graceful undulation and 
lightness. 

(b) The petiole of the abdomen being merely an abrupt 
contraction of the base of the first segment. 

Sp. 2. HIRSUTA. Scop. 

hirsuta, nigra, vietathorace rugoso, abdomine antice rufo. 

length 6f — 10 lines. 
Kirby, Lin. Trans. 4. 195. 4 ; Samonelle, Comp. PI. 8. f. 5 ; V. d. Lind. 

pt. 1. 89. 
Sphei hirsuta. Scopoli, Ent. Cam. 772 ; Villers, 3. 223. 70. 

arenaria. Fab. Mant. 1. 273. 2 ; E. S. 2. 199. 2 ; Villers, 3. 225. 

16 ; Rossi, 2. 92. 809 ; Panz. 65. 13. 

viatica. De Geer, 2. 152. PI. 28. f. 16 ; Lat. Hist. 13. 293. 2. 

Pc/)Sis are7iaria. Illig. F. E. 2. 92. 809. 



78 SPHECID.'E. 

Ammophila viatica. Latr. N. Diet. I. 450. 

^ argentea. Kirby, Trans. Lin. Society, 4. 195. 4. 

Black : liead coarsely punctured, covered with a thick black 
hirsuties. 

Thorax very hirsute, coarsely punctured ; scutellum a little 
smoother ; metathorax with a central longitudinal ridge, the 
sides rugose ; tegulae piceous ; wings transparent, with a broad 
marginal dark band, the nervures fuscous ; legs black ; femorae 
pilose ; anterior tarsi strongly ciliated on the exterior, and all 
the rest furnished on each side with rigid bristles ; the interior 
of the posterior tibiae lined towards their extremity with a close 
brown velvety pubescence. 

The abdomen smooth, shining, ovate, attached by a short 
petiole, which is black ; the first, second, and base of the third 
segments, red ; the remainder black, the anal segment having a 
few rigid setae at its extremity j . 

The $ differs in having the hirsuties griseous, the face covered 
with a close silvery pubescence, and the longitudinal ridge of 
the metathorax obsolete ; the legs being less spinose, and cover- 
ed with a short close sericeous down ; the wings less coloured ; 
the abdomen clavate, and covered with a short silky down ; the 
petiole longer, and the third segment with only the margin black. 

In most Cabinets. 

•|-|-j- This is a very common species. I have frequently 
.taken them in copula. 

Sp. 3. AFFiNis, Kirby. 

nigra, metathorace in extremo depresso, et transverse^ seu obliqu^ 
striato, abdominis basi rufo. 

length 7J— 10^ lines. 
Kirby, Lin. Trans. 4. 195. 2; V. d. Lind. Obs. pt. 1. 87. 5, 
$ Sphex lutaria. Fabr. Mant. 1. 273. 3 ; E. S. 2. 199. 3 ; Villers, 3. 

225. 17. 
Pepsis lutaria. Fab. Piez. 208. 2. 



X. Miscus. 79 

Blacky punctured, pubescent : head with the stemmata placed 
in a close triangle on the forehead, in the front of the anterior 
one there is an impressed line extending to the base of the 
antennae. 

The thorax, with the dorsolum having an impressed line 
furcate at its base, extending backwards from the collar to the 
disc ; the metathorax delicately, either transversely or obliquely, 
wrinkled, and having towards its extremity a fossulet, which 
extends to the truncation, the striae or wrinkles diverge on each 
side from the centre ; the wings darkly clouded, their edge 
having a broad black margin which extends inwardly as far as 
the marginal and submarginal cells ; the nervures piceous ; the 
anterior tarsi strongly ciliated, and all the tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen, with the petiole and the basal half of the first 
segment, and the three apical segments, black ; the posterior 
portion of the first segment, and the second and third segments, 
of a deep dull red 5 . 

The $ differs in having the face covered with a dense silvery 
pubescence ; the legs and abdomen also covered with a close 
down, of a yellowish hue ; the superior surface of the meta- 
thorax with a subturbinate enclosure, transversely delicately 
striate with a central longitudinal impression, the sides of the 
enclosure rugose ; the petiole and nearly the whole of the first 
segment of the abdomen black, a portion of the sides only red, 
the second and third segments red, with the margin of the latter 
black. (J $ in my own and other Cabinets. 

f-j-f This species has occurred in Essex, Hampshire, and 
Suffolk ; it is very distinct from the preceding. 

Genus X. Miscus. Jurine. 

The characters of this genus are precisely those of the first 
section of Ammophila, with the exception of the third sub- 
marginal cell being petiolated. 

Type, M. campestris. 



80 SPIIECIDiE. 

f 4-f Jiirine having observed some Spkeces and Pompili 
with the third submarginal cell petiolated, established this 
genus for their reception, and it is from this character that 
the name is derived, viz. ju-iVxcj, from /xiVp^oj — a stalk. He 
divided it into tw^o families, the first to receive the former 
and the second the latter. Experience has proved that the 
last will not stand, as they are merely accidental varieties of 
the neuration of the wing in Pompilus (see obs. under P. 
niger and viaiicus) ; but the former I retain, for all that I 
have examined are specifically distinct from the Ammophila 
with two joints to the petiole, and the petiole of the third 
submarginal cell always accompanies those peculiar specific 
differences. St. Fargeau has made it the third subdivision 
of the second division of Ammophila, in the tenth volume 
of the Encyclopedic Methodique, which is the more sur- 
prising, as in dividing Gorytes and Crabro he almost splits 
hairs ; but I here restore the genus, and shall consider it a 
good one, until I find individuals of the same species with 
the nervures of Ammophila sabulosa, which I have never 
yet discovered, although I have examined many both British 
and continental specimens. 



Sp. 1. CAMPESTRIS. Lat. 

niger, metathorace in medio depresso et a latere ohliqu^ striata, 
abdominis segmento secundo et tertio rufo. 

length 7—8^ lines. 
V.d. Lind.pt. 1.92. 

Ammophila campestris. Latr. Gen. 4. 54 j Nouv. Diet. 1. 450; St. 
Fargeau, Ency. M^th. 10. 453. 

Black, pubescent, punctured : head with a central impressed 
line in front of the anterior stemma extending to the face ; 
stemtnata placed upon the vertex. 

The thorax having the dorsolum very delicately transversely 



XI. SPIIEX. 81 

striated ; the metathorax with a central longitudinal slight de- 
pression and obliquely striated, the striae diverging from the 
centre, its apex densely sericeous, and the pectus has a sericeous 
patch on each side beneath the wings ; the tegulse piceous ; the 
wings clouded, with a dark border at their margin, their nervures 
black ; legs spinose, and the anterior tarsi ciliated. 

The abdomen has the petiole black as well as the extreme base 
of the first segment, the remainder of which, and the entire 
second, and base of the third, red $ . 

The $ differs in having the face beneath the antennae densely 
covered with a sericeous pubescence ; the sculpture in general 
more strongly marked ; the metathoracic impression sometimes 
obsolete, with the petiole, and the superior surface of the two 
first segments, black ; sometimes the extreme base of the second 
red, and the rest entirely black. 

^ and ? in my own and other Cabinets. 

f -j-f Found in Dorsetshire, and in the New Forest. The 
Rev. G. T. Rudd informs me, that he knows but one spot 
in the New Forest where it is to be taken. The Ammo- 
phila vulgaris, with which alone it could be confounded, is 
abundant in the same district ; but that they are specifically 
different the most superficial examination will immediately 
detect, and until I have strong proofs to the contrary I shall 
hold Miscus a good genus. 

2. Maxillae and labium shorter, or scarcely longer than the 
head, geniculated merely at their extremity ; nearly all the joints 
of the palpi obconical. 

Genus XI. Sphex. Auctorum. 

Head large, transverse, of the width of the thorax ; eyes large, 
oval ; stemmata placed in a triangle at the vertex ; antennas 
filiform, inserted at the middle of the face near the base of the 



BM sphectdjE. 

clypeus, which has the form of a truncated triangle, the apex 
extending high in the face, the anterior margin rounded ; 
labrum concealed when the mandibles are closed, but some- 
what turbinate, and having a central longitudinal carina ; the 
mandibles large, arcuate and bidentate, each tooth having at 
its base, within, a small process, the apical tooth acuminate, 
and the inner one triangular, sometimes obtuse at its ex- 
tremity. Thorax ovate ; the collar transverse, attenuated 
and depressed, and constricted in front into a sort of neck ; 
the dorsolum having an epaulet, generally pubescent, passing 
over the tegulae ; the scutellum transverse ; the metathorax 
slightly inclined, truncate posteriorly ; the superior wings rvith 
one marginal cell long and narrow, rounded at its apex, and 
three submarginal cells — the first as long as the two following 
— the second quadrate, receiving the first recurrent nervure 
towards its end — the third forming a truncated triangle, with its 
posterior margin slightly rounded, and receiving the second re- 
current nervure in its middle — a fourth cell sometimes com- 
menced ; the legs moderately long and stout, and generally 
having the anterior tarsi ciliated, and the intermediate and 
posterior tibice with a double row of spines. The abdomen 
ovato-conical, distinctly and abruptly petiolated, the petiole 
formed of the anterior half of the first segment ; the hypo- 
pygium flattened at its extremity, and obtuse, and produced 
beyond the podex. 

Type, S. flavipennis. 

f ^.f The name is derived from criifDj^, a wasp ; it is very 
old, and long remained a grand heterogeneous repository, 
until by degrees several genera were separated from it ; but 
it now comprises, thanks to Jurine, only such as possess the 
above characters, which form those of his second family of 
the genus Sphex. 



XI. SPHEX. 83 

Sp. 1. FLAVIPENNIS. Fab. 

nigra, f route aured, ahdomine rufo, petiolo apiceque atris, tarsis 
Jerrugineis. 

length 7^ lines. 
Fab. E. S. 2. 201. 10 ; Latr. Hist. 13. 293. 3 ; Jurine, 129. PI. 8. Gen. 

5. fam. 2 ; Ahrens, Fauna Europ. 6. 18 ; V. d. L. pt. 1.94. 
Pepsis flavipeimis. Fab. Piez. 210. 13. 

Black, delicately punctured, pubescent : head with the mandi- 
bles ferruginous and their apex piceous ; the face covered with 
a dense aurichalceous pubescence. 

Thorax with the scutellum very prominent, and a longitudinal 
depression in the middle ; the post-dorsolum lunulate, and also 
very elevated ; the metathorax covered with a dense griseous 
hirsuties, which conceals its sculpture ; the legs black, with the 
tarsi ferruginous — the anterior tarsi ciliated outside, and the 
intermediate and posterior tibiae spinose ; the tegulae ferru- 
ginous ; the wings fuscous, with their nervures rufo-piceous. 

The abdomen with the petiole and base of the first segment 
black ; the remainder of the first segment, and the second and 
third, red ; the rest black, with their margins piceous. 

I am unacquainted with the $ . 

5 in the Cabinet of Mr. Stephens. 

f If This insect, which is unique as British, Mr. Stephens 
thinks was taken in Norfolk. 

Genus XII. Dolichurus. Latr. • 
Head subglobose, of the width of the thorax, slightly depressed 
in front, convex posteriorly, having a tubercle rising abruptly 
at the base of the clypeus, concave on its superior surface ; 
eyes oval, placed at the sides of the head ; stemmata seated 
near the vertex ; antennce filiform, longer than the thorax, 
inserted at the lateral angles of the tubercles of the face, the 
scape thick, and nearly as long as the third joint, the pedicle 
subglobose, the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth joints subequal, 
the remainder regularly decreasing in length, and all from the 
G 2 



84 SPHECID^. 

second cylindrical ; tlie clypeus transverse, convex, truncate 
in front ; labrutn concealed ; mandibles long, narrow, arcuate, 
acuminate at their apex, and dentate within. Thorax oval ; 
the collar transverso-quadrate, narrowing into a kind of neck ; 
the suture that separates the dorsolum and scutellum very 
advanced, extending between the tegulae of the superior 
wings ; the scutellum semicircular, flat ; the metathorax trun- 
cated posteriorly ; the superior wings with one marginal and four 
submarginal cells — the marginal cell long and narrowed beyond 
the second submarginal, the first submarginal having the com- 
mencement of a nervure springing from the first transverso-cubital 
and returning backwards — the second and third submarginal cells 
much narrowed towards the marginal, and each receiving a re- 
current nervure — the fourth extending to the apex of the wing ; 
the legs long and slender ; the coxce subglobose ; the femorce 
obclavate, slightly flattened on the interior surface. The 
ABDOMEN slightly elongate, conical, attached to the thorax by a 
broad, short, flat petiole ; the first, second, and third segments 
constricted at their margin ; the terminal segment prolonged 
into an obtuse point, whence the sting is exserted. 

Type, D. corniculus. 

t4-t The etymology is loXfxr\, long — ovpu, a tail, from the 
prolongation of the apex of the abdomen. It is rather singu- 
lar that Latreille should have given the genus a masculine 
termination, the Greek substantive from which it is derived 
being feminine. The insect which led to its construction had 
been described by Spinola as a Pompilus, but both Latreille 
and Jurine, to whom he sent it upon finding subsequently 
other specimens, considered it immediately a new genus 
allied to Alyson, whence he called it Alyson ater, forgetting, 
I suppose, that he had previously described it as Pomp, 
corniculus ; but I strongly suspect that his A. ater is the 
Pison ater of the continent. The specific name will con- 
sequently remain the same as first described by Spinola. 



XII. DOLICHURUS. 85, 

Sp. 1. CORNICULUS. Spin. 

ater, nitidus, immaculatus ^ j . 

length 3—4^ lines. 
St. Fargeau, Ency. Meth. 10. 450. 
Pompilus cornicidus. Spin. 2. 52. 
Pison ater. Lat. Gen. 4. 58. 
Dolichurus ater. Lat. ib. 387 ; V. d. L. pt. 1. 95. 

Black : head subpubescent, deeply punctured. 

Thorax deeply punctured ; the dorsolum having on each side 
a longitudinal impression which terminates suddenly near the 
suture that separates it from the scutellum ; the metathorax with 
its superior surface enclosed by an elevated line forming a trun- 
cated triangle, the interior whereof is occupied by three irregular 
longitudinal carinas, between which and at the sides it is trans- 
versely wrinkled ; the tegulse rufo-piceous ; the wings slightly 
coloured ; the legs covered with a short pubescence ; the tibiae 
and tarsi simple, and the latter with the apex of their joints 
rufo-piceous. 

Abdomen smooth, shining, the posterior margin of the seg- 
ments rufo-piceous. 

The ^ differs only in having the abdomen slightly punctured. 
$ and 5 in the Cabinet of the Brit. Mus. 

■flf It was somewhat difficult to decide which might be 
specific characters, having only one specimen of each sex 
to examine ; but I have taken such as are generally so, viz. 
the sculpture. I shall be happy if the discovery of a second 
species should prove me wrong, hitherto but one specimen 
of each sex has occurred ; they were taken by Dr. Leach 
many years ago, I believe in Devonshire. 

Family VI. 
LARRID^. Leach. 
The labrum entirely concealed, or but slightly exserted. 



86 LARRID*. 

The mandibles are deeply emarginate on the exterior. 
The abdomen ovoido-conical or conical. 

1. Three submarginal cells. 

Genus XIII. Larra. Fab. 
Head large, compressed, a little wider than the thorax, with 
two deep sulcations in the face for the reception of the first 
joint of the antennae; the vertex occupied by a quadrate 
space, enclosed in front and on the sides by an elevated ridge, 
terminated posteriorly by a transverse fossulet occupying the 
situation of the posterior stemmata, which are obsolete and 
approximate, the anterior stemma is seated in front of the en- 
closure, and very minute ; eyes oval, lateral, slightly converg- 
ing at the vertex ; antennce filiform, inserted at the base of the 
clypeus, with the basal joint very incrassate ; clypeus trans- 
verse, the anterior margin inflexed and then reflexed; the 
mandibles large, arcuate, with a dentation on the exterior 
towards the base. Thorax oval; the collar transverse, 
almost concealed beneath the gibbosity of the dorsolum in the 
$ ; the scutellum transverse ; the metatkorax very long, trun- 
cated posteriorly ; the superior rvings with one marginal cell 
appendiculated, and three submarginal cells, the first as long as 
the two following— the second receiving both the recurrent nervures 
near its centre — the third lunulate — sometimes a fourth scarcely 
commenced ; the legs moderately long, spinose ; the femorce 
obclavate ; the anterior tarsi strongly ciliated on their ex- 
terior, the joints of the rest having a fascicle of rigid hair 
at their extremities. Abdomen ovato-conical, acuminate at 
its apex in the 5 , furcate in the ^ . 

Type, L. anathema. 

f4't This genus, of which the etymology is exceedingly 
doubtful, was first established, in 1793, by Fabricius, in his 
" Entomologia Systematica," and immediately adopted by 



xni. LARRA. 87 

Latreille in his " Precis." Panzer, in his " Kritische 
Revision," 1806, again divided it, from a slight difference in 
the oral organs, restricting the genus Larra to the Z. 
anathema, and calling the others Tachytes ; but I entertain, 
with Latreille, considerable doubt whether they ought to 
be divided generically, as their wings are the same : and in 
a series of foreign species I find the other characters merge 
insensibly into each other, leaving the length of the meta- 
thorax the only tangible one. But I humbly follow in the 
wake of eminent Entomologists and retain it for the present. 

Sp. 1. ANATHEMA. RoSsl. 

nigra, subpuhescens, alis violaceis, abdomine antice ferrugineo, 
segmentis ad latera lucidis. 

length 7 J — 10^ lines. 
Coquebert, lUustr. Dec. 2. PI. 12. f. 11. 
Sphex anathema. Rossi, 2. 101. 822. 
Liris anathema. Illig. 2. 101. 822. 

Larra ichneumoniformis. Fab. E. S. 2. 221 . 4 ; Piez. 220. 4 ; Panz. 
76. 18 ; Latr. Nouv. Diet. 17. 324 ; Coquebert, Dec. 2. f. 10. 

Black : head punctured, pubescent ; face within the sulci 
smooth, shining, a deep central longitudinal impression extend- 
ing from the transverse fossulet at the vertex to the occiput ; 
antennae black, covered with a brown pubescence, excepting the 
scape, which is glabrous, and beneath rufo-piceous ; the clypeus 
slightly covered with an aurichalceous down. 

Thorax punctured, pubescent ; metathorax finely granulated, 
with a longitudinal central carina, which changes into an im- 
pression at the truncation ; the tegulae testaceous ; wings deeply 
coloured, chiefly towards the anterior margin ; legs black, 
pubescent ; the tarsi piceous, with the apical joint black. 

Abdomen smooth and shining, the two first segments red, the 
margin of the three first slightly constricted, and of all, from the 
third, piceous in the centre, all the segments covered laterally 
with a dense sericeous down $ . 



88 LARRID^. 

The $ differs in having the pubescence thicker in the face ; 
the wings less coloured ; the legs less spinose, and the abdomen 
entirely opaque, caused by its being wholly covered with mi- 
nute punctures ; and the margins of the segments broadly co- 
vered with the sericeous pubescence. 

^ $ in the Cabinet of British Museum 
and of Mr. Stephens. 

f If These insects were caught many years ago, in De- 
vonshire, by Dr. Leach ; Mr. Halliday, in the " Entomo- 
logical Magazine," states that he has captured it in Ireland. 

Genus XIV. Tachytes. Panz. 

Head transverse, depressed in front, a little wider than the 
thorax, with a depression on each side of the face, at the base 
of the clypeus, extending half way to the vertex, bending in 
a slight curve from the eyes to the base of the antennae, 
covered, as also the clypeus, sparingly in the $, but more 
densely in the $ , with an aurichalceous pubescence ; eyes 
oval, converging at the vertex ; stemmata placed low, but 
within the return of the interior margin of the eye, the an- 
terior one somewhat lower, the posterior pair obsoleto-con- 
fluent ; antennce filiform, inserted at the base of the clypeus, 
the basal joint gradually incrassate, obconical, the rest cylin- 
drical, the second short, and the apical one acuminate, the 
whole slightly covered with a silvery pubescence ; the clypeus 
transverse, the anterior margin inflexed, with the edge sud- 
denly reflexed ; lahrum concealed ; mandibles large, arcuate, 
acuminate, with a dentate process on the exterior, towards 
the base. Thorax oval; the collar almost concealed beneath 
the gibbosity of the anterior part of the mesothorax ; the 
scutellum transverse ; the metathorax posteriorly truncate, 
nearly as broad as long ; superior wings with one marginal cell 
slightly appendiculated, and three submarginal cells — the first 
and second subequal, and the latter contracted towards the mur- 



XIV. TACHYTES. 



89 



ginal cell, and receiving both the recurrent nervures — the third 
lumdate ; the legs moderate, all spinose ; the tarsi longer 
than the tibiae, the anterior pair ciliated, the bifid claw having 
a large pulvillus within its fork. Abdomen ovato-lanceolate, 
subsessile, about the length of the thorax, with the superior 
surface depressed, and the apex acuminate in the $ , but fur- 
cate in the $ ; the podex in tlie $ with the disk flat, and the 
lateral margins reflexed, separated from the hypopygium by 
a horizontal incision, whence a cylindrical tube is exserted. 

Type, T. pompiliformis. 

ti-j- These insects were separated from harra, under the 
name of Tachytes, by Panzer, in his " Revision," in 1806; 
lUiger did the same in his edition of the " Fauna Etrusca," 
in 1 807, but called them " Lyrops ;" Panzer's name conse- 
quently has the precedence. I fully agree with Latreille in 
considering that there was scarcely occasion to disunite them, 
for they are closely linked by exotic species : the name is 
derived from the rapidity of their motions— rap^urr]?, quick- 
ness, 

Sp. 1. POMPILIFORMIS. PaUZ. 

niger, abdominis basi rufo. 

length 2^ — 4| lines. 
V. d. Lind. Obs. pt. 2. p. 22. 5. 
Larra pompiliformis. Panz. 89. 13 ; Spin. 2. 173. 
dimidiata. Panz. 106. 13. 

Black, finely punctured : head with a longitudinal impression 
extending from the base of the antennse to near the occiput ; 
the interior margin of the eyes and the clypeus covered with 
an aurichalceous pubescence ; the apex of the mandibles rufo- 
piceous. 

Thorax having the metathorax delicately granulated upon its 
superior surface, the truncation transversely striate, with a deep 
fossulet at the centre of its base ; the tegulae testaceous ; the 



90 LARRIDA. 

wings slightly fuscous, the nervures piceous ; legs black, the 
anterior tarsi strongly ciliated on the outside, and the four pos- 
terior ones with all the joints spinose at their extremities, and 
the two or three exterior joints rufo-piceous, the anterior pair 
of the calcaria rufous, and the intermediate and posterior black. 

The abdomen having the posterior margin of the segments 
depressed, and slightly covered with a silvery pubescence, 
chiefly towards the sides, the two first segments and the base 
of the third rufous, the latter sometimes entirely red ? . 

The $ does not differ, with the exception of the metallic pu- 
bescence being denser, and that but very seldom more than the 
two first segments of the abdomen are rufous, and the legs less 
spinose. 

tit Abundant upon Hampstead Heath. Found at South- 
end, and in North Wales, by the Rev. F. W. Hope ; at 
Black Gang Chine, Isle of Wight, and at Barmouth, by 
Mr. Walker ; in the New Forest, and near Yarm, in York- 
shire, by the Rev. G. T. Rudd. I have frequently caught 
it with a small sandy-coloured caterpillar. 

Sp. 2. uNicoLOR. Panz. 

ater, immaculatus, abdominis segmentorum marginihus lucidis. 

length 3 — 4^ lines. 
Larra unicolor. Fanz. 106. 16. 
Var, Tachytes pompiliformis. V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 22. 0. 

Atrous : head rather coarsely punctured ; a deep longitudinal 
furrow extending from the base of the antennae to the anterior 
stemma, and passing beyond it to the centre of the vertex ; 
the lower portion of the face, in front, covered by a sericeous 
pubescence. 

The thorax loosely punctured ; the metathorax longitudinally 
striated at its base, which becomes reticulated or subrugose to- 
wards the verge of the truncation, where the striae are trans- 



XV. MISCOPHUS. 91 

verse ; the tegulae piceous ; the wings fuscous, their nervures 
piceous ; the legs black, with the apical joints of the tarsi pi- 
ceous, the anterior tarsi ciliated, and the intermediate and pos- 
terior tibiae with a double row of spines on the outside. 

The abdomen punctured, subpubescent, the margins of the 
segments depressed, and sericeous on the sides $ . 

The $ differs in having more of the silvery pubescence, and 
the apical joints of the tarsi ferruginous. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Walker, the Rev. 
G. T. Rudd, Mr. Curtis, and my own. 

f If Vander Linden considers this insect as merely a 
black variety of the T. pompiliformis, but it is certainly dis- 
tinct, for the third submarginal cell is much narrower than 
in that insect, in which it occupies but little less than one- 
third of the marginal cell, not including the appendicula- 
tion; whereas in the unicolor it does not occupy more 
than one-seventh of that cell, besides which, the meta- 
thorax is much more deeply and somewhat differently 
sculptured. Found at Black Gang Chine, Isle of Wight, 
by the Rev. G. T. Rudd, Mr. Walker, and Mr. Curtis. 

2. Two submarginal cells. 

Genus XV. Miscophus, Jurine. 

Head large, seen from above subquadrate, with a depression on 
each side in front for the reception of the antennae ; eyes oval, 
distant, very slightly converging ; the stemmata placed high 
upon the vertex, in an equilateral triangle, the posterior ones 
far back, nearly in a line with the return of the posterior 
margin of the eyes ; antennce filiform, inserted at the base of 
the clypeus ; the scapus obconic, the second joint slightly 
incrassate, the rest cylindrical, subequal ; the clypeus trans- 
verse, with the anterior margin reflexed ; lahrum concealed ; 
the mandibles unidentate, tuberculated within, and having a 



92 LARRIDiE. 

strong tooth on the exterior towards the base. Thorax 
oval ; the collar considerably lower than the mesothorax ; the 
scutellum transverse ; the metathorax truncate posteriorly, 
broader than long ; the superior wings with one marginal cell, 
ovate, and two submarginal cells — the first receiving the first 
recurrent nervure near that which separates it from the second 
submarginal cell, which is triangular and petiolaled, and re- 
ceiving the second recurrent nervure near its apex ; legs mo- 
derate, subspinose, the tarsi long, the anterior ones ciliated 
on the outside. The abdomen subovate, subsessile, the apex 
pointed, the posterior margin of the segments very slightly 
depressed. 

Type, M. bicolor. 

•flf This genus was first established by Jurine in 1807. 
It has been adopted by all subsequent authors, and ap- 
pears to be derived from ixKry^^o?, a petiole or stalk, from 
the petiole of its second submarginal cell. 

Sp. 1. BICOLOR. Jurine. 
niger, abdominis basi rufo. 

length 3 lines. 
Jurine, 206. PI. 11. G. 25 ; Latr. Nouv.Dict.21. 212 ; Guerin, Diet. 

Classique H. N. 10. 632 ; V. d. Lind. Obs. pt. 2. 25. 
Larra dubia. Panz. 106. 14. 

Black, delicately punctured : head having the antennae black ; 
mandibles rufous, a little darker at the apex ; each of the stem- 
mata placed in a foveolet. 

Thorax punctured ; the metathorax having on its superior 
surface a central longitudinal carina, with three or four diverg- 
ing on each side obliquely from its base, occupying together a 
subcordiform space, the apex of which terminates at the verge 
of the truncation, which is transversely striate, and has a deep 
longitudinal fossulet in its centre ; the tegulae piceous ; the 
wings slightly coloured, deeper towards the margin ; legs black, 



XVI. DINETUS. 93 

the anterior tarsi ciliated on the exterior, and the posterior 
tibiae with a few dispersed spines. 

The abdomen delicately punctured, with the basal segment 
entirely, and the base of the second, rufous, gradating in the 
latter towards the margin to piceous ; the remainder black, with 
their margins piceous, a slight silvery pubescence at the lateral 
margin of the second and third segments $ . 

I am unacquainted with the $ of this insect. 

5 In the Cabinets of Mr. Westwood, 
Mr. Stephens, and my own. 

f-j-f Two specimens of this insect were taken by Mr. 
Westwood at Coombe, in 1825, and he has again taken 
this year two or three more, with one of which he has 
obligingly supplied me. 

Genus XVI. Dinetus. Jurine. 

Head transverse, depressed in front, about the width of the 
thorax ; eyes oval, converging at the vertex ; stemmata placed 
in a triangle towards the vertex ; antennce filiform in the fe- 
male, with the first joint incrassate, and larger in the males, 
with a deep lateral impression, in which sex also the four 
following joints are submoniliform, the five next slightly 
compressed, and convolute, and the remaining three filiform, 
the ten first joints in the male, and all in the female, co- 
vered with a dense silvery pubescence, as well as the lower 
portion of the face, and the clypeus, which is transverse, 
convex, rounded in front ; the lahrum concealed ; the vian- 
dihles tridentate, with an emargination at the base ex- 
teriorly. Thorax oval ; collar transverse ; sciitellum trans- 
verse, small; metathorax truncate posteriorly; superior wings 
with one marginal cell largely appendiculated, and two sub- 
marginal cells — the first suhnmrginal oblong, receiving the first 
recurrent nervure — the second small, triangular, receiving the 
second recurrent nervure ; the legs moderate, the femorce ob- 



94 LARRIDiE. 

clavate. The abdomen ovate, subsessile, the posterior mar- 
gins of the segments depressed. 

Type, D. pictus. 

f^-f This genus was established by Jurine in 1807 ; it 
had been previously moved about from genus to genus, 
according to the peculiar views of the several writers, which 
tends to prove how very unstable all kinds of subdivisions 
among these insects were previous to the publication of 
Jurine's book. The name is from ?»v)jtoj, to move in a 
circle, I presume from its flight ; but I have not had the 
pleasure of seeing it alive, therefore I cannot say ; but if 
such be the case, it resembles Astata in that peculiarity. 

Sp. 1. pTCTus. Fab. 

Icev'is, niger, thorace maculato, abdomine ferrugineo fasciis 

trihus Jlavis, ano nigricante $. 
fronte Jlavd, antennis cochleattm retortis $ . 

length 3—3^ lines. 
Jurine, 209, PI. 11. G. 26; Latr. Nouv. Diet. 9.471; Guer. Diet. 

Class. 5. 515. 
Crabro pictus. Fab. E. S. 2. 299. 20 ; Panz. 17. 19 $. 72. 10 $ . 

ceraunius. Rossi, Mant. 2. App. 123. 11. 

Sphex guttata. Fab. E. S. 2. 215 . 72. 
Pomp'ilus pictus. Fab. Piez. 196. 43. 

guttatus. Fab. E. S. Sup. 252. 34 ; Piez. 196. 44. 

Larra picta. Latr. H. 13. 296; Spin. 1. 73. 4. 

Black : head punctured ; base of the mandibles yellow, apex 
rufo-piceous, and a yellow line at the superior edge of the pos- 
terior margin of the eyes ; the face and clypeus covered with 
a silvery pubescence. 

Thorax punctured ; an interrupted transverse band upon the 
collar ; the tegulae, the tubercles, and a transverse line at the 
scutellum, yellow ; the metathorax, with a central slight longi- 
tudinal impression terminating in a deeper point, with oblique 



XVI. DINETUS. 95 

transverse striae on each side of it, and its superior surface and 
sides covered with a dense silvery pubescence, converging at the 
extremity, and enclosing the superficies of the metathorax at the 
apex ; the wings slightly coloured, iridescent, the nervures 
piceous ; the legs black, with the apex of the anterior femorse 
and the exterior of all the tibiae yellow ; the tarsi rufo-testaceous, 
the basal joints of the intermediate and posterior pairs somewhat 
darker ; the anterior tarsi strongly ciliated outside, and all the 
legs spinose. 

The abdomen with the three first segments rufescent, the 
second and third having on their posterior margins on each side 
a transverse ovate yellow spot, the three following segments 
black, with the margins of the fifth and sixth yellow. 

The $ differs in having the whole head yellow with the ex- 
ception of the vertex, and an angular space descending towards 
the antennae, and the occipital portion black ; the antennae black, 
with the first joint yellow, the remainder fulvous beneath ; the 
coUar entirely, and a point beneath the base of the wings, 
yellow, as well as all the tarsi and the anterior legs ; the legs 
more spinose, the silvery pubescence denser, and the wings not 
quite so deeply coloured ; the abdomen yellow, with the margins 
of the segments testaceous, the fourth and base of the fifth 
black, a yellow spot on each side of the former ; the venter 
piceous. 

^ 5 in the Cabinets of the British Museum, 
Mr. Curtis, Mr. Stephens, and Mr. West- 
wood. 

t4.t This insect used to occur at Windsor, where it was 
taken by the Messrs. Griesbach, since when it has not been 
found. I know no other English locality. 

Family VI I. 
NYSSONID.E. Leach. 
Mandibles not emarginate beneath. In the form of the 
abdomen and labrura they resemble the Larridae. 



06 NYSSONIDiE. 

Genus XVII. Astata. Latr. 

Head large, transverse, compressed, a little wider than the 
thorax ; the face covered in the $ with a long silvery grey 
pubescence ; eyes large, oval, converging at the vertex in the 
5 , united in the $ ; stemmata forming an equilateral triangle 
placed low towards the face, and at the angle formed by the 
union of the eyes in the $ , in which sex they are very closely 
approximated, and the anterior stemma nearly as large as the 
posterior two united ; the antennce filiform, inserted at the 
base of the clypeus, arcuate in the 5 , porrect in the $ , the 
first joint thick, obconic, the second very small, the third the 
longest of all, cylindrical, as well as the remainder, which regu- 
larly decrease in length ; the clypeus transverse, short, slightly 
reflexed and truncate in front, convex in the centre, and de- 
pressed on each side ; labrum concealed ; mandibles slightly 
arcuate, bidentate, with a superior canal running longitudinally 
and dividing the teeth throughout its whole course, the inner 
tooth obtuse, the apical one more acute. The thorax ovate ; 
the collar transverse, slightly advanced in front in the form of 
a neck ; the metathorax truncated ; the superior wings with one 
marginal cell, narrow, short, and appendiculated ; and three sub- 
marginal cells — the first narrow, longitudinal, divided obliquely 
about its centre by an obsolete nervure that runs from the base of 
the stigma to the middle of the first transver so-cubital — the second 
submarginal cell triangular, and receiving both the recurrent 
nervurcs — the third very distant from the apex of the wing ; 
the inferior wings very broad, and of considerable expansion 
in the $ ; the legs moderately long, very spinose in the 5 , 
particularly the two posterior pairs, less so in the $ ; the 
anterior tarsi strongly ciliated on the exterior in the $ , the 
intermediate and posterior pairs also strongly spined, as well 
as the plantae above and all the joints on each side below. 
The abdomen subsessile, somewhat conical, the upper surface 
much flattened in the $ , its base concavo-truncate, and viewed 
from above forming an equilateral triangle ; the margins of 



XVII. ASTATA, 97 

the segments very much depressed, and the terminal one hav- 
ing the margins of its apex reflexed and separated from the 
liypopygium by a horizontal incision. 

Type, A. boops. 

t4-t This genus was established by Latreille, in his 
" Precis." Its name is derived, from its incessant motion, 
from « priv. and r«To? — standing, i. e. not standing. 
Jurine figured the genus in his work, in 1807, by the name 
of Dimorpha, either from not knowing Latreille's book or 
not recognising the insect from the characters, and Panzer 
has followed him in his " Revision ;" but subsequent Ento- 
mologists have adopted Latreille's name, it having the 
priority. 

Sp. 1. Boops. Schrank. 
atra, abdominis hasi ritfo. 

length 4 — 7 lines. 
V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 27. 
Sphexboops. Schrank, Enum. Insect. Austriae indigen. 384. 77 ; Villers, 

3.249. 82; Rossi, 1. 128.284. 
Tiphia abdominalis. Panz. 53. 5. 

Larra pompiliformis. Donovan, Brit. Insects, 12. 73. PI. 4. 
Astata abdominalis. Latr. Hist. 13. 297. 1 ; Nouv. Diet. 3. 25 ; St. 

Farg. Ency. Meth. 10. 144. 
victor. Curtis, Brit. Ent. 6. PI. 261. 

Black, punctured, pubescent : the head having the face and 
cheeks covered with a silvery griseous pubescence, the vertex 
quite smooth and shining, with a longitudinal impressed line in the 
centre, and only a few scattered punctures towards the occiput. 

The thorax having the dorsolum and scutellum smooth and 
shining, the former being thickly punctured in front, and with a 
very few points scattered over its disk and behind, as well as the 
scutellum, the latter frequently with a deep longitudinal impres- 
sion in its centre ; the post-dorsolum also smooth ; the metathorax 
reticulated, formed by longitudinal and transverse elevated lines, 
the former being the most prominent and generally somewhat 

n 



08 NYSSONID^i;. 

irregular; the wings with the nervurcs black, and having a 
broad dark band commencing at the end of the marginal and 
submarginal cells, decreasing in colour towards the apex ; legs 
robust, pubescent, the extreme joints of the tarsi generally 
piceous, the anterior pair ciliated on the outside, and the inter- 
mediate and posterior tibiae and tarsi very spinose. 

The abdomen with the segments depressed at the margin, and 
the first, second, and base of the third, red $ . 

The $ differs in having the dorsolum punctured throughout 
and the base of the first segment of the abdomen black, the 
legs less spinose, and the cilia to the tarsi wanting ; and in the 
colour of the wings, which generally covers the whole space 
occupied by the nervures, their edges being hyaline, the colour 
in the $ thus commencing where that of the $ ceases ; some- 
times, however, the whole wing is hyaline, which I have never 
observed to be the case in the $ . 

^ 5 in most Cabinets, 

fif I possess a singular variety of the ^ , in which the 
dorsolum and scutellum are divided by a deep longitudinal 
central impression. This insect, even long after Mr. 
Curtis figured it, was a desideratum to many Cabinets. 
The oldest British specimen known, is recorded by Dono- 
van to have been taken at Coombe ; it is now in Mr. 
Stephens' Cabinet. Mr. Westwood has taken a single 
specimen in the same locality this year. When I first took 
it at Hampstead I saw a few specimens only. This was in 
1832. The next year I discovered its " Metropolis," about 
a quarter of a mile from where I first caught it, and here it 
absolutely swarmed, which I have found to be the case ever 
since. The $ are innumerable compared with the ?, and, 
whenever I have succeeded in capturing the latter with its 
prey I have always found it to consist of the larva of 
Pentatoma bidens, whereas Mr. Curtis took it in the Isle 
of Wight with the larva of P. prasina ; and my friend Mr. 



XVIII. NYSSON. 99 

F. Smith has captured it this year at Hampstead carrying 
off JEpeolus variegatus, a little bee which I have myself 
never observed there — this proves that its larva is sup- 
plied with a variety of food. It is difficult to detect the 
5 burrowing, for, like Ammophila, she selects a cavity 
already formed, in the interior of which she constructs her 
burrow free from observation. Their flight is extremely 
rapid, and the $ settles upon small clods, whence it momen- 
tarily makes wide circumvolations. 

Genus XVIII. Nysson. Latr. 
Head transverse, about the width of the thorax ; face covered 
with a silvery down ; eyes oval, prominent ; stemmata placed 
in a triangle on the vertex, slightly elevated ; antennce inserted 
at the angles of a small elevation at the base of the clypeus, 
generally slightly increasing towards the apex, with the scape 
obconic, the second joint subglobose, and the rest regularly 
increasing in length and thickness from the third to the 
terminal one, which in some $ is emarginate, and in others 
seated obliquely upon the penultimate ; the clypeus transverse, 
rounded anteriorly, and in some having the margin slightly 
reflexed ; lahrum concealed ; mandibles arcuate, unidentate, 
and acuminate at their apex. The thorax oval ; the collar 
transverse, linear ; the scutelliim transverse, lower than the 
dorsolum ; and the metathorax inclining gradually, having a 
spine on each side towards its posterior extremity ; superior 
wings Kith one marginal and three suhmarginal cells — the first 
suhmarginal considerably longer than the other two — the second 
petiolated, and receiving both the recurrent nervures — the third 
forming an elongate hexagon, and distant from the extremity 
of the wing ; the legs moderately long, and very slender, the 
tibiee and tarsi densely covered with down. The abdomen 
subsessile, ovoido-conic, and incurved at its extremity, with 
its terminal segment furcate in the $ ; the first ventral segment 
plane, the second very much produced in front, and forming 

an obtuse angle. Type, N. spinosus. 

H 2 



100 NYSSONID^. 

f-j-f This genus was established by Latreille, in 1796, in 
his " Precis," and was subsequently adopted by all Ento- 
mologists, excepting Fabricius, who, to prove the stability 
of his characters, shifted the species to and fro from Crabro 
to Oxybelus and Pompilus. 

Sp, 1. spiNosus. Fab. 

niger, antennis j^rope thoracis longitudinem, abdomine fasciis 

trihusjlavis. 

length 4^ — SJ lines. 

Latr. Hist. 13. 305; Nouv. Diet. 23. 160; Oliv. Ency Meth, 8. 408 ; 

V. d. Lind. pt. 2.30. 
Crahro sfimsus. Fab. S. E. 373. 2 ; E. S. 2. 293 ; Piez. 307 ; Rossi, 

Mant. 1. 139. 308 ; Panz. 62. 15. 
Sphei spiiiosa. Villers, 3. 246. 71. 
Melliniis interrnptus. Panz. 72. 13. 

Black : head coarsely punctured, pubescent ; apex of the 
mandibles red ; antennae black, about as long as the thorax. 

Thorax punctured, pubescent ; collar having a transverse 
yellow band ; scutellum longitudinally striate ; metathorax 
rugose ; tegulse black ; wings fuscous, with a somewhat deeper 
cloud over the marginal cell and exterior edge, nervures 
piceous ; legs black, entirely simple, with the apex of the femorae, 
the tibias, with the exception of a black ring around the anterior 
and intermediate pairs, (sometimes obsolete,) and all the tarsi, 
red. 

The abdomen delicately granulated, the first segment deeply 
punctulate and having an interrupted (sometimes not) yellow 
fascia towards its margin, a continuous yellow band, attenuated 
about the centre, near the margins of the two following segments, 
and the margins themselves piceous. 

The $ differs in having the clypeus covered with a dense silvery 
pubescence, as well as the whole of the underside of the meso- 
thorax and the coxae ; the collar sometimes without the yellow 
band, the tibiae with more black, the posterior pair having also 
a black ring, and sometimes the knees only red, and all the 
abdominal bands sometimes interrupted. 

^ ? in most Cabinets. 



XVIII. NYSSOK. 101 

f 4-f The name of this species is bad, being derived from 
a generic character, viz. the spines upon the metathorax; 
but this Fabricius did not know, as he placed it in his 
magazine Crahro. Although much like the following 
species, it is readily distinguished from it by its compara- 
tively greater length of antennse and more slender habit. 
These are characters which have not been before noticed, 
and I therefore suspect that there is much confusion in the 
synonymes ; I have retained them nearly as they were 
applied by the several authors. It is common in June in 
many parts ; the $ I once took, in considerable numbers, 
at Coombe ; the ? I have never found so common as the 
next species, nor have I taken her with her prey. 

Sp. 2. iNTERRUPTus. Latr. 

niger, antenn'is paulo capite longioribus, abdomine fasc'i'is trihus 
fiavis. 

length 3|— 4| lines. 
Latr. Hist. 13. 306. 3 : Nouv. Diet. 23. 161. 
Nysson scalaris. Hlig. 2. p. 157. 

Black : head pubescent, punctured ; the clypeus with a silverv 
down ; antennae a little longer than the head. 

The thorax punctured, pubescent; collar and tubercles yellow ; 
a small space at the base of the metathorax regularly striate ; 
tegulee testaceous ; wings fuscous, their nervures piceous ; legs 
red, with the coxae, trochanters, and femorae, except their apex, 
black ; the mesothorax silvery beneath. 

The abdomen finely shagreened, the two first segments with 
deeper, dispersed punctures, and the margin of the three first 
having each a yellow fascia, interrupted in the first and attenu- 
ated in the centre of the other two ; the fasciae frequently all 
entire $ . 

The $ scarcely differs, the silvery pubescence alone of the 
clypeus and lower part of the mesothorax being denser, and the 
antenuce somewhat shorter. 

^ $ in most Cabinets. 



102 NYSSONID^. 

f If Much doubt has hitherto existed as to the distinction 
of this from the preceding species. Latreille thinks they are 
the same, which either shows the confusion of the descrip- 
tions or else his inabiHty to detect specific differences, for 
they are exceedingly distinct although very like. The 
most prominent difference is the comparative length of the 
antennae. This species also is much more compact than the 
preceding, and the antennae of the S are shorter than those 
of the $, exclusive of the minuter differences of colour. 
In habit it links the iV^. spinosus with the trimaculatus, and 
I consequently place it between them. Its name is likewise 
inappropriate, as the bands of the abdomen are more fre- 
quently continuous than interrupted. I have found it very 
common at Highgate ; and from not taking it with its prey 
I am induced to consider it may be parasitic, and perhaps 
upon a species of Odynerus. The $ I have taken entering 
holes in the sand, and the $ flying in hedges. 

Sp. 3. TRIMACULATUS. RoSsi. 

ater, ahdomine utrinque maculis tribusjlavis. 

length 3—4 lines. 
V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 30.2. 
Crabro trimaculatus. Rossi, 2. 95. 892. 
Nysson maculatus. Illiger, 2. 156. 892. 

nigripes, Spinola, 2. 45. 36. 

interruptus, var. Oliv. Ency. M^th. 8. 408. 2. 

Atrous : head coarsely punctured, pubescent ; antennae black, 
a little longer than the head ; the face with a slight silvery down ; 
apex of the mandibles red. 

Thorax very coarsely punctured, pubescent; the collar, 
tubercles, a short transverse line at the scutellum, yellow ; the 
base of the raetathorax longitudinally striate ; the under part of 
the mesothorax, and the superior surface of the lateral spines of 
the metathorax, covered with a dense silvery down ; the tegulae 
black ; wings hyaline, the exterior margin coloured, the nervures 



XVIII. NYSSON. 103 

piceous ; legs black, with the knees, and the extremity of all the 
joints of the tarsi, rufescent. 

Abdomen punctured, with the first segment having on each 
side towards the margin a triangular spot, and the second and 
third a transverse mark of a bright yellow, the margin of the 
fourth and of the fifth piceous. 

The $ differs in having the last joint of the antennae inserted 
rather obliquely in the preceding one, and being narrower ; the 
face and clypeus covered with a silvery down ; the collar, 
tubercles, and scutellum, wanting the yellow marks, and the 
fourth segment having on each side a small yellow transverse 
line. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Westwood, Mr. 
F. Smith, and in my own. 

f~j-f I expect the yellow markings of the thoi'ax are 
variable, for I have a specimen of a ^ with a central spot 
on the collar ; but this can only be determined by a multi- 
tude of specimens, and it is a rather rare species ; it is very 
distinct from the preceding in form, and is besides smaller. 
The only place where I take it is Highgate, upon the leaves 
of brambles, where it alights for a moment, turns itself 
briskly round, and flies off again. On the wing it is easily 
taken, but when settling it is rather difficult to be secured, 
as like Hedychrum, Anohium, and other insects, it mimics 
death upon the least alarm, and falls down amongst the 
foliage. 

Sp. 4. GUTTATUS. Oliv. 

niger, thorace tnaculato, abdomine punctis sex transversis flams 
segmentoque primo nifo. 

length A\ lines. 
Oliv. Ency. Meth. 8. 409. 7. 

Black : head punctured, pubescent ; the face with a slight 
silvery down. 



104 



NYSSONID^. 



Thorax coarsely punctured ; the collar, tubercles, and a short 
line at the scutellum, of a cream colour ; the tnetathorax longi- 
tudinally striate at its base ; and the upper surface of the lateral 
spines covered with a dense aurichalceous down ; the tegulae 
piceous ; wings slightly coloured, their margins more deeply so, 
and the nervures piceous ; legs red, with all the coxae, and base 
of the two anterior pairs, black. 

The abdomen punctured, the first segment red, the remainder 
black, a small ovate transverse spot on each side of the first 
segment, and a transverse line on each side of the two following, 
towards the margin, of a cream colour. 

$ in the Cabinet of the British Museum. 

f -j-f This appears to be a very rare species ; it slightly 
approaches the following in colour, but it is twice as large, 
exclusive of other differences. 

Sp. 5. DiMiDiATus. Jurine. 

niger, abdominis segmento primo rufo, et secundo utrinque macuM 
transversa alba signatd. 

length 2 — 3 lines. 
Jurine, PI. 2, 9. 22 ; Oliv. Ency. Meth. 8. 409. 9 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 
33. 

Black : head punctured ; antennae black ; face with a silvery 
pubescence ; mandibles rufescent. 

Thorax punctured, pubescent ; tubercles lacteous ; base of 
the metathorax longitudinally striate and enclosed in the form of 
a semicircle by an elevated ridge ; superior surface of the 
lateral spines with a silvery down; tegulae piceous; wings slightly 
coloured, darker at the edge, nervures piceous ; legs black, with 
the anterior and intermediate tibiae and tarsi, and the joints of 
the posterior tibiae, and apex of the joints of their tarsi, rufo- 
piceous. 

The abdomen punctured, pubescent, the margins of the seg- 
ments slightly constricted ; the first segment, and base of the 
second, red (sometimes the entire segment is either entirely red 



XIX. OXYBELUS. 105 

or black), the remainder black, with a transverse lacteous line 
on each side of the second towards the margin (sometimes, but 
rarely, a minute lacteous spot on each side of the third seg- 
ment), and the margin of the third, fourth, fifth, and apex of the 
anal segment, fuscous 5 . 

The ^ differs in the face having a dense silvery pubes- 
cence ; the antennae with the last joint bi-emarginate beneath, 
and having sometimes a lacteous mark within and beneath the 
first joint, and one (but rarely) on each side of the first segment 
of the abdomen, as well as a minute one on each side of the third 
segment, which latter, as well as the mark beneath the first joint 
of the antennae, is generally deficient. 

^ 2 in my own and other Cabinets. 

f -l-f I captured this species in abundance at Hampstead, 
in 1833, but neither last year nor this (1835) could I find it 
in the same locality ; but I took a solitary specimen, in May 
last, at Highgate. It has also occurred in several other parts 
of the country. All practical Entomologists are well acquaint- 
ed with the curious fact of the periodical abundance of 
certain insects, which are then scarcely seen again for some 
time. This circumstance is fully confirmed by many insects 
of this tribe, which in some years are found in profusion, 
but which are exceedingly transient in their duration. It 
was in company with Arpactus tumidus that I found the 
above ; they were also equally abundant and have likewise 
since disappeared; but 1833 was a year very rich in these 
insects generally. 

Genus XIX. Oxybelus. Latr. 
Head transverse, subglobose, depressed in front, of the width 
of the thorax ; eyes oval, slightly prominent ; stemmata placed 
in an obtuse angle upon the vertex, the posterior pair on a line 
with the hinder margin of the eyes ; the face covered with a 
silvery pubescence ; anlennce short, arcuate, filiform, or very 



IOC • KYSSONIDiE. 

slightly increasing towards the apex, inserted at the base of 
the clypeus but not approximate, — the scape thickest, elongate, 
obconic, the second joint very small, also obconic, the third 
scarcely longer, attenuated at its base, the remainder sub- 
equal and subcylindrical ; the clypeus transverse, its anterior 
margin rounded, inflexed at the centre, which gives it the 
appearance of being emarginate, which is increased by a small 
process on each side, most conspicuous in the $ , and having a 
short tubercle in the centre of its base, prolonged in some 
species into a longitudinal carina, and in the S generally pro- 
jecting in an aquiline form ; labrum concealed ; mandibles 
slightly arcuate, acuminate, and having a subdentate process 
towards the base of the interior. The thorax rotundate ; 
the collar linear, transverse ; the scutellum transverse, lunulate, 
having on each side below its posterior margin an incurved 
squama, which in some species is not separated, but forms a 
bifid plate ; the metathorax truncated, with a mucro at its 
base, frequently obtuse, sometimes emarginate at its apex, 
and canaliculated above, generally resembling the lip of a 
vessel ; the superior wings with a narrow marginal cell slightly 
appendiculated, and one submarginal cell confluent with the second 
disco'idal and receiving the single recurrent nervure ; the legs 
moderately long and stout ; the anterior tajsi strongly ciliated, 
and the intermediate and posterior tibics spinose, the bifid claws 
having a large pulvillus within their fork. The abdomen 
ovato-conic, subtruncate at its base : the margins of the seg- 
ments somewhat constricted ; the apical segment acute in the 
5 , and obtuse in the $ . 

Type, O. lineatus. 

t-i t This genus, the name of which is doubtlessly from 
o^u /3sAof, in reference either to the acuteness of its sting or 
the velocity of its flight, was estabHshed by Latreille, in his 
Precis, in 1796. It is one of the genera which, for the 
want of specimens, I am unable to determine the distinction 



XIX. OXYBELUS. 107 

of species with all the accuracy I could wish, from not 
knowing whether the characters of colour and of the form 
of the metathoracic mucro are constant. Those which I 
have described appear to be specifically distinct ; but as indi- 
viduals, in several genera of these aculeates, take a wide 
range of variation, I hesitate speaking positively until I 
shall have had the opportunity of examining numerous 
specimens. There seems to be but one common species 
in this country. 

Sp. 1. uNiGLUMis. Lin. 

niger, abdominis segmentis tribtis pimctis duobus albis sublate- 
ralibus, j^^dibus rujis. 

length 2 — 4 lines. 
Latr. Hist. 13. 307. 2 ; Nouv. Diet. 24. 312 ; Fab. Piez. 316.2 ; Oliv. 

Ency. Meth. 8. 595. 8 j V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 35. 5. 
Vespa uniglumis. Lin. S. N. 951. 18; F. S. 1681 ; Villers, 3. 271. 

14; Christ, 246. 
Crabro uniglumis. Fab. S. E. 376. 12 ; E. S. 2. 300. 23 ; Oliv. Ency. 
Meth. 6. 518. 34. 

Black : head punctured, pubescent, an impressed longitudinal 
line passing from the base of the antennae to the anterior stemma, 
which it surrounds and continues beyond to the centre of the 
vertex, the lower part of the face covered with a silvery down ; 
the antennae black, the terminal joints generally fidvous, some- 
times only beneath. 

The thorax pubescent, punctured ; the dorsolum with a central 
and two lateral longitudinal impressed lines, the latter abbre- 
viated ; the scutellum, and post-dorsolum, with a central longi- 
tudinal carina, which extends to the base of the mucro ; an incurved 
short hyaline squama on each side of the posterior margin of 
the post-dorsolum ; the mucro at the base of the metathorax 
short, generally obtuse, slightly curved and grooved above, the 
sides of the metathorax reticulated ; the tubercles generally 
white ; the tegulse testaceous ; the wings very slightly coloured, 



108 NYSSONID*. 

their nervures testaceous ; the legs with the coxae and femorae 
black, the tibia; and tarsi ferruginous, their pulvilli piceous, and 
the knees of the tibiae frequently pale yellow or fulvous, which 
in the anterior pair extends sometimes in a line down their front; 
the anterior tarsi ciliated, and the intermediate and posterior 
tibiae with a triple row of spines. 

The abdomen very delicately punctured and shining ; the first 
segment with an ovate spot, the two following with a transverse 
line on each side, and the following two with a band, generally 
interrupted, of a lacteous colour, frequently obsolete in the last 
two segments, and sometimes, but rarely, the white markings are 
entirely deficient in all but the two or three first segments $ . 

The $ differs in having more of the silvery pubescence on the 
face ; the tegulae with generally a white spot in front ; the legs 
with more of the yellow at the knees, the intermediate tibiae 
frequently marked with yellow on the exterior, and the posterior 
tibiae with a large brown or black splash on the outside ; and 
the abdomen with seldom more than the two first segments 
marked with white, but is sometimes entirely deficient, leaving 
it quite black. 

In most Cabinets. 

-j-4-f This insect is always found where sand abounds ; 
its prey consists of Diptera, which it has a peculiar mode 
of carrying by the hind legs the while it either opens the 
aperture of its burrow or else forms a new one with its 
anterior pair. Its flight is low, and in skips ; it is very 
active. 

Sp. 2. FEROX. N. Sp. 

niger, argenteo-sericeus, abdomine Jlavo maculato, pedibusjlavis, 

mucrone metathoracis acuto $ . 

length 4^ lines. 

Black : head very pubescent and punctured ; the whole face 
and cheeks covered with a dense silvery down. 



XIX. OXYBELUS. 109 

The thorax slightly covered with a silvery pubescence ; the 
dorsolum with a central carina, which traverses it longitudinally 
and crosses the centre of the scutellum and post-dorsolum, 
terminating at the base of the metathoracic mucro ; the tubercles 
yellow, and the incurved squamae at the posterior angles of the 
post-dorsolum yellow at their base, their apex pale ; the tegulae 
testaceous, with a yellow spot ; the central mucro acute and 
canaliculated above ; the wings very slightly coloured, their 
nervures testaceous ; the legs with the base of the anterior and 
intermediate, and the whole of the posterior femorae, black ; the 
apex of the anterior and intermediate femorae, and all the tibiae, 
yellow, with the exception of the interior of the intermediate 
pair at their apex, and that portion of the posterior pair, piceous; 
the tarsi ferruginous, with their first joint at its base yellow. 

The abdomen punctured, shining, and covered with a slight 
silvery pubescence, the first segment with an ovate spot, and the 
three following with a transverse line on each side yellow, the 
margins of the segments depressed ^ , 

I am unacquainted with the $ . 

$ in my own Collection. 

f-j-f This appears to be a rare species; it was taken some- 
where in the neighbourhood of London. 

Sp. 3. NIGRIPES. Oliv. 

niger, squamisque etiam nigrh, mucrone obtiiso 'mcurvo, abdominis 

segmento primo punctis duohusflavis. 

length 3^ lines. 
Oliv. Ency. Meth. 8. 596. 12. 

Black : head punctured ; antennae with their apex piceous. 

Thorax punctured, with the posterior part of the dorsolum 
having a central longitudinal carina which crosses the scutellum 
and post-dorsolum and terminates at the nuicro at the base of 
the metathorax, which is curved, very obtuse, canaliculated 



no NYSSONIDiE. 

above ; and the post-dorsolum has on each side an incurved 
black squama ; wings slightly coloured, the nervures piceous ; 
the centre of the metathorax has a triangular enclosure which 
is smooth, its sides rugose ; the legs black, with the inside of 
the anterior pair fulvous ; all the tarsi piceous, with their extreme 
joint red ; the anterior tarsi ciliated, and the intermediate and 
posterior tibiae strongly spinose. 

The abdomen delicately punctured, slightly pubescent, with a 
transverse ovate spot on each side of the first segment towards 
the margin, and a transverse line on each side of the second, 
yellow 5 . 

I am unacquainted with the $ . 

5 in the British Museum. 

-j--|--|- This is unique in the collection of the British 
Museum. I cannot learn where it was taken ; it is an old 
specimen. 

Sp. 4. BELLICOSUS. Oliv. 

niger , Jlavo-maculatus, mucrone canaliculato, ad a])icem dilatato 
et emarginato 5 . 

length 4^ lines. 
Oliv. Ency. Meth. 8. 595. 9. 

Black : head punctured ; antennae with the margins of the 
joints rufo-piceous ; mandibles testaceous at their base. 

Thorax punctured, subpubescent ; the scutellum semicircular, 
with the margins slightly reflexed and having a central longi- 
tudinal carina ; the mucro at the base of the metathorax curved, 
grooved above, with the apex dilated and slightly emarginate ; the 
collar, tubercles, and the bifid squama at the posterior margin of 
the scutellum, yellow, the latter however more deeply coloured 
on its edge ; the tegulse testaceous ; the wings slightly coloured, 
with the nervures piceous ; legs rufo-testaceous, with the coxae 
and trochanters black, variegated with yellow ; the feraorae, the 
anterior entirely within, and the remainder with an internal 
line, and the base of all the tibiae, yellow; the pulvilli black. 



XIX. OXYBELUS. 1 11 

The abdomen delicately punctured, pubescent, with an ovate 
transverse yellow spot on each side of the first segment, and a 
transverse yellow line on the sides of the three following $ . 

I am unacquainted with the $ . 

In the Cabinet of the British Museum. 

-j-4-t This is an unique specimen. I cannot learn where 
it was taken. 



Sp. 5. ARGENTATUS. Curt. 

nigerj argenteo-sericeus, thorace ahdomineque Jlavo maculato, 
pedibus testaceis, viucrone mctaihoracis acuto j . 

length 4 lines. 
Curtis, Brit. Entomology, vol. 10. 480. 

Black, entirely covered with a dense silvery pubescence : head 
punctured ; antennae with a fulvous spot at the apex of the first 
joint beneath, as well as the two apical joints entirely ; mandibles 
rufo-piceous. 

Thorax with the tubercles yellow, a yellow transverse plate 
beneath the scutellum, bidentate at its posterior margin ; the 
central mucro at the base of the metathorax acute, canaliculated 
above and slightly curved ; the scutellum wanting the central 
carina ; the tegulse testaceous ; the wings pale, with their nervures 
testaceous ; the legs rufo-testaceous, with the anterior femorae 
entirely, and the intermediate femorae beneath, black ; the out- 
side of the anterior tibiae, and the knees of the intermediate and 
posterior pairs, yellow. 

The abdomen delicately punctured ; the two first segments with 
a large ovate yellow spot on each side, the three following with 
a yellow band, the first interrupted and the terminal segment 
piceous. 

I am unacquainted with the $ . 

In the Cabinets of the British Museum 
and of Mr. Matthews. 



112 NYSSONID/E. 

f 4-f Taken near Liverpool, on the opposite shores of the 
Mersey, by Mr. Matthews; that in the Museum came, I 
believe, from Devonshire. 

Sp. G. quatuordecim guttatus. Oliv. 

niger, flavo-guttatus, miicrone metathoracis brevi ohtuso et 
emarginato. 

length 3^ lines. 
Oliv. EHcy. M6th. 8. 596. 13. 

Black : head punctured, pubescent ; antennae piceous, with 
the apex of the basal joint having a fulvous spot, and the joints 
from the centre to the apex becoming gradually fulvous ; the 
mandibles yellovi^ at their base, then rufous, and their apex black. 

Thorax punctured, with a transverse line on each side of the 
collar ; the tubercles, the tegulee, a spot on each side of the 
scutellum, two lines running in a curve from the lateral edges of 
the scutellum to the base of the inferior wings, and two incurved 
squamae at the posterior margin of the scutellum, all yellow ; 
the mucro at the base of the metathorax short, obtuse, and 
emarginate at its apex ; wings slightly coloured, with their 
nervures brownish ; legs black, with the inside of the anterior 
and intermediate femorae, and the exterior of all the tibiae, 
yellow : the tarsi ferruginous. 

The abdomen delicately punctured, with a transverse yellow 
spot on each side of the five first segments ; the margin of the 
third, fourth, and fifth segments rufo-piceous, and the apical 
segment rufo-testaceous j . 

I am unacquainted with the ^. 

2 in the Cabinet of the British Museum. 

f-j-f I do not know where this was taken. 

Sp. 7. NIGRICORNIS, N. Sp. 

niger, thorace abdominequeJlavomaculato,pedibusJtavis, mucrone 
metathoracis acuto $ j . 

length 3^ lines. 



XIX. OXYBELUS. 113 

Head entirely black, punctured, pubescent. 

Thorax black, punctured, pubescent, with a spot on each side 
of the collar ; the tubercles, and the squamae at the posterior 
margin of the scutelliim, yellow ; the mucro at the base of the 
metathorax acute ; the wings slightly coloured, their nervures 
rufo-testaceous ; the legs yellow, with the inside of the anterior 
femora and the upper part of the intermediate and posterior 
tibiae black ; the tarsi ferruginous, the anterior ciliated, and the 
intermediate and posterior tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen black, delicately punctured, the first segment 
with a large ovate yellow spot on each side, and a transverse 
yellow line on each side of the three following. 

The ^ differs in having more pubescence on the face, the inside 
of the anterior tibiae at their apex ferruginous, and the inside of 
the intermediate, and posterior, at their apex with a piceous spot, 
in the latter forming nearly a ring, which on the exterior of the 
limb is rufo-piceous, and the segments of the abdomen from the 
second less marked with yellow. 

^ $ in the British Museum. 

•|-|-t I do not know where this species was taken, and 
for which Mr. Samouelle has given me the name. 

Sp. 8. NIGRO.ENEUS. N. Sp. 

niger, jiavo-'piclus, mucrone metathorads aciito, ahdomme nitenie 
ceneo irradiante $ . 

length 2— 2J- lines. 

Black : head deeply punctured ; the face covered with a silvery 
pubescence ; antennae black, and from the fifth joint beneath 
fulvous ; the mandibles testaceous, with their apex rufescent. 

Thorax entirely black, deeply punctured ; the margin of the 
squamae at the apex of the scutellum pale ; the mucro at the base 
of the metathorax short, thick, acute, and slightly curved ; the 
metathorax rugose ; the tegula^ piceous ; the wings iridescent, 
with their nervures brown ; the legs black ; the outside of the 

I 



114 crabronid;e. 

anterior and intermediate tibiae entirely, and but half way from 
the knee downwards in the posterior pair, bright yellow ; the 
anterior tarsi testaceous, and the intermediate and posterior pairs 
rufo-piceous. 

The abdomen black, delicately punctured, shining with an 
aeneous reflection j a bright yellow transverse ovate spot on each 
side of the two first segments, and a very minute dot on each 
side of the third. 

$ in the British Museum. 

f If I do not know the locality of these insects. I have 
seen them only in the British Museum ; the brassy tinge 
upon the abdomen is peculiarly distinct, and it is from that 
circumstance, upon my pointing it out, that Mr. Samouelle 
named them. 

Family VIII. 
CRABRONID^. Leach. 
The head frequently very large. The labrum does not 
project. The abdomen is either oval or elliptical, or some- 
times becomes gradually clavate. 

I. Antennae inserted below the middle of the face. Clypeus 
short and broad. 

1. Eyes emarginate or reniform. 

Genus XX. — Trypoxylon. Latr. 

Head transverse, as wide as the thorax ; eyes large, deeply 
emarginate or reniform ; stemmata placed towards the vertex ; 
antennce filiform in the $ , subclavate in the $ , inserted at the 
base of the clypeus, the first joint obconic, the second sub- 
globose, the remainder cylindrical, very slightly increasing in 
thickness, more conspicuously so in the $ (or sometimes quite 
clavate), the terminal joint acuminate or obtuse ; the clypeus 



XX. TRYPOXYLON. 115 

triangular, rounded in front and convex ; the mandibles arcuate, 
unidentate, acuminate ; the lahnmi concealed. The thorax 
ovate ; the collar transverse and separated from the dorsolum 
by a deep suture ; the dorsolum narrowing towards the collar ; 
the scutellum large, lunulate ; the metathorax obtuse, and much 
narrower than the mesothorax ; the superior wings with one 
marginal cell becoming narrower beyond the suhmarginal cell 
and terminating acutely, and one submarginal cell which receives 
the recurrent nervure — a second and third submarginal generally 
slightly traced, as also a second recurrent nervure which is re- 
ceived at the middle of the second submarginal cell ; the legs 
slight and short, the anterior tarsi and posterior tihise simple. 
The ABDOMEN very elongate and clavate, the margins of the 
segments very much constricted above — that of the first 
forming a sort of subpyriform node. 

Type, T. figulus, L. 

f If This genus, the name of which is from rpwaco, I 
pierce — ^vXov, wood, was established by Latreille in his 
*' Precis" from the repository Sphex ; it was adopted by 
Fabricius, in 1804. Jurine, in 1807, separated and figured 
the same insect by the name of Apius, from not recognising 
it by the characters laid down by Latreille. The " His- 
toire" of the latter, in which the type was described, was 
indeed published prior to the publication of Jurine's book, 
but it was then too late for the latter to alter his plates. 
They are supposed to be parasitic, but the observations 
under the T. jigulus will show this to be incorrect, at least 
in its strict sense. 

Sp. 1. FIGULUS. Lin. 

atrum, labio segmentorumque marginibus lucidis. 

length 3^ — 6'^ lines. 
Latr. Hist. 13. 330; Nouv, Diet. 34. 568 ; Regne Anim. 5. 329; Fab. 
Piez. 181. 2; Spin. 1.65.1. 
l2 



116 CRABRONIDjE. 

Sphexfgulus. Lin. 942. 11 ; F. S. 1650; Fab. E. S. 2. 203. 19; 

Villers,3. 221.4; Christ. 291; Rossi, 2. 93. 810; Schrank, F. B. 

2.322.2160; Panz. 80. 16. 

leucostoina. Schrank, Enum. Auslr. 771. 

Apiusjigulus. Jurine, 140. PI. 9. G. 8. 

Entirely black : head opaqvie, finely punctured, with an im- 
pressed longitudinal line running from the base of the antennae 
to the anterior stemma, the terminal joint of the antennae 
slightly curved and acuminate, and a silvery pubescence cover- 
ing the clypeus and cheeks. 

Thorax opaque, punctured, pubescent ; the scutellum with a 
slight depression in the centre ; the metathorax with a longi- 
tudinal central impression obliquely striated on each side, not 
extending beyond the subcordiform space upon its surface ; the 
wings slightly coloured, with their nervures black and their ex- 
treme margin very dark ; legs simple, with a small pulvillus 
placed between the bifid claws at their apex. 

Abdomen shining, with the posterior margins of the segments 
chiefly at the sides covered with a sericeous pubescence 5 . 

The $ does not differ except in the usual characteristics. 

^ $ in most Cabinets. 

fit This is perhaps the most abundant fossorial insect I 
am acquainted with, it being always found where there is a 
wall, paling, or outhouse. St. Fargeau says it is parasitic, 
and which I supposed to be the case until this year [1835] 
I captured several 5 conveying their prey, consisting of a 
spider ; but I still doubt whether the insect makes it own 
cell. Latreille says not, and I think he is correct, and 
which confirms the observation of Bergman, for it seems to 
frequent the cells of other burrowers. St. Fargeau doubts 
this being the Sphex figulus of Linne, although his descrip- 
tion perfectly agrees with it; and notwithstanding the French 
author's objection to the bright margins of the segments of 
the abdomen, I have never captured a specimen which did 



XX. TRYPOXYLON. 117 

not possess this character. St. Fargeau's may therefore be 
either another species or a rubbed specimen. Linne's de- 
scription of its habits is also correct, which is shown above, 
and that it " nidum argilla claudit" is proved by what I 
shall mention lower down ; but Bergman must certainly 
have been placed in a remarkable situation to observe it in 
its cells, " gucs primo purgat circumroditque, deindefundum 
argilla obducit." The following anecdote proves also that 
it is not confined to one kind of prey. Mr. Johnson has 
detected it frequenting the holes of a post preoccupied by 
a species of Odynerus, and into which it conveyed a small 
round ball, or pellet, containing about fifty individuals of a 
species of Aphis ; this the Odynerus, upon her return, in^ 
variably turned out, flying out with it, held by her legs, to 
the distance of about a foot from the aperture of her cell, 
where she hovered a moment and then let it fall ; and this 
was constantly the case until the Trypoxylon had sufficient 
time to mortar up the orifice of the hole, and the Odynerus 
was then entirely excluded ; for although she would return 
to the spot repeatedly she never endeavoured to force the 
entrance, but flew oft" to seek another hole elsewhere : this 
circumstance leads me to suspect that when the Odyneri 
burrow in wood they do not form their own cells, otherwise 
instinct would have led it to make a forcible entry. Previous 
to having detected the Trypoxylon with its prey I suspected 
this circumstance might refer to the Pemphredon lugubris, 
which I know to provide its larvae with Aphides ; but Mr. 
Johnson assured me it was a Trypoxylon. 



Sp. 2. AURIFRONS. N. Sp. 

atrum, aureo-ser'iceum, aniennis fulv'is, abdominis scgmentorum 
marginibiis ferriigineis i . 

length 7 lines. 



118 



CRABRONID^. 



Black : head deeply punctured ; antennae black, with the 
second, third, fourth, and fifth joints entirely and the sixth 
beneath fulvous, and the whole of the face from the emargination 
of the eyes covered with a dense aurichalceous pubescence, as 
well as the cheeks, commencing parallely with the pubescence 
of the face and extending to the base of the mandibles, which 
are rufescent. 

Thorax delicately punctured, pubescent; the metathorax 
having a few delicate transverse striae within a small depression 
at its base ; the collar, tubercles, an epaulet on each side over 
the tegulae, and a spot on each side at the base of the metathorax, 
covered with a dense aurichalceous down, and the lateral edges 
of the metathorax having an oblong silvery spot inclining inwards 
towards the point of insertion of the abdomen; the tegulae 
testaceous ; the wings fuscous ; the legs black, with the anterior 
and intermediate knees, apex of the tibiae, and tarsi fulvous, the 
apical joint of the latter somewhat darker. 

The abdomen having the margins of the segments from the 
third rufescent, and their base on each side covered with a 
chalceous pubescence. 

$ in the Cabinet of the British Museum. 

f If I have some doubt as to this being a British or even 
European insect ; but as it is included in the British Col- 
lection of the British Museum I necessarily describe it. Its 
history is not known. Should it prove British, it will be a 
noble addition to our Fauna. 

Sp. 3. cLAVicERUM. St. Farg. 
nigrum, antennis clavatis, tarsis pedumque anticorum parte 
anticd pallide testaceis. 

length 2^—3^ lines. 
St. Fargeau, Ency. Meth. v. 10. p. 750. 1. 

Black, minutely and delicately punctured : the head with an 
impressed line extending from the anterior ocellus to the con- 



XX. TRYPOXYLON. 119 

fluent depression of the face ; the emargination of the eyes 
much depressed, and also a channel on each side extending from 
the base of the antennae to this emargination for the reception of 
their scape ; these parts, as also the face beneath the antennae and 
the clypeus, are covered with a silvery pubescence ; the antennae 
subclavate, the terminal joint short and straight and somewhat 
obtuse at its apex j the clypeus slightly produced in its centre, 
which is emarginate ; the mandibles and palpi testaceous, the 
former black at their extreme base. 

The thorax has a silvery reflection at its sides ; the base of 
the metathorax is enclosed, the enclosure divergently striated 
and having a central longitudinal impression interrupted at the 
apex of the basal enclosure ; the tegulee testaceous ; the wings 
very iridescent and clouded towards the margin ; the legs black, 
with the knees of the anterior femora, front of the anterior 
tibiae, and the anterior tarsi, testaceous, the two posterior pairs 
piceous. 

The abdomen black and shining, and the margins of the three 
first segments much constricted, with a isilvery pubescence at 
the base and sides $ . 

The $ differs only in having the antennae more clavate and 
obtuse at the extremity, and the knees of the femora being less 
coloured. 

,J $ in my own Cabinet. 

f 4-t This species I have taken at Hampstead and Da- 
renth, and a friend of mine has found it at Camberwell. It 
frequents, like its congener, holes in posts and palings, 
especially where Heriades campamdarum nidificates. 

2. Eyes entire. 

A. One or two cubital cells complete. 

a. Mandibles very narrow or toothed at their extremity only ; 
one recurrent nervure* 



120 CRABRONID^. 

Genus XXI. — Crabro. Fab. Lat. 

Head very large, subrotund, in some species subquadrate, 
vertical in front ; eyes very large, subtriangular, with the 
angles rounded, approximated at the base of the antennae, 
and very distant at the vertex, which is flat and at right angles 
with the face ; stcmmata generally placed in the centre of the 
vertex ; antennce geniculated, inserted at the base of the 
clypeus, and filiform in the females, in some males subfusiform, 
with the basal joints (excepting the scape, which is obconic, and 
the second joint) fornicate and fimbriated within, the apical 
joints serrated on the exterior — in others some of the joints 
are frequently emarginate beneath, and in some males they 
consist apjiarently of only twelve joints ; clypeus transverse, 
longitudinally carinated in the centre and covered with a 
metallic pubescence ; viandibles bidendate, the inner tooth the 
largest and projecting considerably beyond the external one, 
both obtuse, and a dentate process towards the base within, 
in others merely unidentate. Thorax ovate ; collar linear 

• transverse ; scutellum lunulate ; metathorax very short, obtuse, 
with a subquadrate or subcordiform enclosure at its base, 
sometimes obsolete ; superior wings with one marginal cell 
slightly appendiculated, and one submarginal cell very long 
and receiving towards its extremity the single recurrent nervure ; 
legs short and robust, generally very spinose ; tarsi longer 
than the tlblcc, the first pair of which in some males are dilated 
into a concavo-convex plate. Abdomen subsessile, lanceolate 
or subclavate; in some the first segment prolonged into a 
kind of petiole and in others distinctly petiolated, the petiole 
constituting the first segment, which is subpyriform and nodose 
at its extremity. Type C. cribrarius. Lin. 

t4'f The name Crabro is that of the hornet in Pliny. 
Fabricius first established it as a genus in his Systema 
Entomologia in 1775, but as usual it was a heterogeneous 
repository until Jurine's system was introduced. It is 



XXI. CRABRO. ; i '"; ;'•, ^21 

certainly the most eccentric genus amongst the fossorial 
Hymenoptera ; it varies in habit so very much from the type 
that, exclusive of the generic character of the wings, there 
is nothing to hold it together ; but this is amply sufficient. 
British Cabinets had separated my section B. of the 
synopsis of the species from the rest, by the name of Rho- 
palian ; but as it difters in nothing but the subpyriform 
petiole of the abdomen, and to which we have a connect- 
ing link in the C. dimidiatus, I reject it. The arrangement 
by colour is preserved only on account of its bringing the 
larger species together, but it certainly is not that of their 
affinities ; nor even will my synopsis of the species reduce 
them to this order, as it is wholly artificial and constructed 
solely for the purpose of arriving readily at their descrip- 
tions : but they are so exceedingly anomalous that they 
will not at all armnge in a consecutive series. St. Fargeau 
has divided the species with which he was acquainted into 
eleven genera, nine of which we possess ; but as I do not 
consider the characters he has selected to establish them of 
generic value, I have reduced them to synonyms, but 
which will show where they can be applied. His generic 
divisions do not always correspond with their characters, 
and these errors I have pointed out wherever they occur in 
British species. But it will perhaps be expected that I 
should show better reasons for wholly rejecting all the 
genera he has introduced. The most pertinent is to be 
found in my admitting merely the neuration of the wings 
as a generic character. Yet of those derived from the errors 
of his system I will cite a few in justification, and refer for 
the rest to the synonyms and observations under each 
species — thus, the sexes of my C. Lindenius would be 
separated and placed under his Ceratocolus and Solenius. 
The only tangible characters whereby he separates his genera 



1-^3 



caABRONID^. 



Coryno'pus and Physoscelus are, by the former genus having 
in the $ apparently twelve joints to the antennae, and the 
$ having the anus somewhat canaliculated and acuminate, 
and in the latter genus the $ having thirteen joints to the 
antennae, and the $ with the anus convex above, and of the 
ordinary form : but the $ in the former has certainly 
thirteen joints to the antennae like the latter; and I would 
ask, if a slight divarication in the form of the anus be suf- 
ficient to constitute a generic difference ? if so, the C poda- 
gricus ought certainly not to have been placed by him in 
his genus Crossocerus, from which it differs materially in 
the form of that part, and, with my C. capitoms, in 
general habit approximates to these two species. But it is 
extremely irksome to find fault, and I therefore close my 
remarks with doing him the justice to retract what I have 
said at page eight of the Introduction relative to the an- 
tennae of some Crahrones, as the $ C. vagus and $ C. 
Lindenii have apparently but twelve joints, for I could not 
discover a thirteenth even with the assistance of my friend 
Mr. Bowerbank's very powerful microscope. This ano- 
maly is exceedingly remarkable, and is at variance with 
what is observed in all the others of the fossorial Hyme- 
noptera. St Fargeau incorrectly considers the type to be 
the C. cephalotes, Pz., of which Fabricius, who is the 
author of the genus, first takes notice in his " Systema 
Piezatorum ;" and my observations under this insect may 
be referred to with regard to his confusion of the synonymy. 
I must further observe, that, to avoid unnecessary repetition 
in the specific character, it will be understood, that the 
stemmata are placed in an equilateral triangle, and the 
clypeus is covered with a silvery pubescence unless other- 
wise stated. 



XXI. CEABKO. 123 



SYNOPSIS OF THE SPECIES.* 



A. Abdomen subsesiile or but slightly petiolated. 
I. Anterior libix $ scutellate. 

I. a. Antenn<B $ subfvsiforin. 

1. cRiBRARius. Head and thorax longitudinally striated. 

2. PATELLATUs. Head and thorax punctured. 

II. b, A7itenn(e $ filiform. 

3. scuTATUs. Metathorax with a distinct subcordiform enclosure at its base. 

4. CETRATUS. Metathorax without an enclosure at its base. 

IL Anterior tibie $ simple. 

III. a. Anterior tarsi $ (first joint particularly) dilated. 

5. vEXiLLATUs. Head constricted posteriorly into a kind of neck. 

6. TARSATUs. Head subquadrate, not much constricted posteriorly. 

b. Anterior tarsi $ simple. 

1 . Stemmata in an equilateral triangle, 
a. Abdomen marked with yellow. 

IV. § Metathorax rugose, 

7. cEPHALOTEs. Both sexes with a golden pubescence on the clypeus, inter- 

mediate tibijB of $ entirely yellow. 

8. sExciNcxus. The $ with a silvery pubescence on the clypeus; 



* As the first three divisions of the table (all these divisions are numbered in 
the front margin for the convenience of reference) are primarily derived from 
the structure of the males, it will, perhaps, be useful to add characters whereby 
the females may be known. They would tabulate thus : — 

^ CRIBRARIUS. 5 head transverse, dorsolum longitudinally 

Under division 14.\ striated. 

V- PATELLATUS. $ head transverse, dorsolum punctured. 
Under division 12. scutatus. J where it would be distinguished from the 

spinipect^is by its superior size, yellow 
mandibles, and yellow spot on the clypeus. 
Thfe females of cetratus, vexillatus and tarsatus are not known. 



124 CRABRONIDiC. 

^§ Sub-cordiform,baseofmetathorax smooth and shining. 
v. t Abdomen but slightly petiolated. 

12. suBPUNCTATUs. CUceks with a spine on each side beneath. 

13. VAGABUNDUS. Chccks without the spine. 

VI. tt Abdomen with a distinct petiole, 

14. D1MIDIATV5. 

b. Abdomen entirely black. 

* Base of metathorax smooth and shining, 
t Abdomen more or less ovate. 

t A minute tooth on each side at the apex of 

VII. the peristethinm. 

15. LEUcosTOMA. Entirely black excepting the scape of the antenna;, which 

is yellow laterally. 
32. ExiGUUs. Legs variegated with yellow. 

VIII. tt The peristethium edentate. 

29. Walkeri. The lower portion of the internal orbits of the eyes, the 
clypeus and palpi, yellow. 

24. Wesmaeli. The inner orbits of the eyes black, and palpi rufo-piceous. 

tt Abdomen more or less clavate. 

t A minute tooth on each side at the apex of 

IX. the peristethium. 

19. roCAGRicus. Posterior tibiae very incrassate at the apex, base of meta- 

thorax distinctly enclosed. 

X. tt Peristethium edentate. 

20. capitosus. Head very large and quadrate, wider than the thorax, base 

of metathorax not enclosed and shining. 
28. geniculatus. A yellow spot in the centre of the clypeus. 

25. pubescens. Head and thorax covered with long pubescence. 

26. OBLiQuus. The disk only of the two divisions of the subcordifottn en- 

closure of the base of the metathorax smooth* 

27. PROPiNQUUs. Clypeus black. 

** Base of metathorax striated. 
t Obliquely. 

XI. t Peristethium edentate, 

16. ELONGATULus. Mandibles and palpi piceous, two anterior femora and 

tibise only yellow in front. 

17. LUTEiPALPis. Mandibles and palpi yellow, four anterior femora and 

tibiae yellow in front. 

18. PHOXiJius. Mandibles testaceous, palpi piceous, all the tibias and base 

of the tarsi yellow ; the four anterior tibije with a black 
streak behind. 



XXI. CRABRO. 12.3 

21. nYAUNus. Scape of the antenna laterally fulvescent, mandibles black, 

knees only of the four posterior tibije yellow. 

ii The peristethium furnished with a mimtte tooth 

XII. on each side. 

23. SPIXIPECTUS. 

XIII. tt Transversely- 

22. TRANSVERSALIS. 

2. Stemmata describing a curve. 

XIV. a. Abdomen marked with yellow. 

9. XYLURGUS. Head quadrate ;. anterior portion of the dorsolum punctured, 

posterior portion and scutellum longitudinally striated ; 
metathorax rugose ^ $ ; antennae $ with 3 — 6 joints 
emarginate beneath. 

1 0. LiNDEMus. Head quadrate ; anterior portion of dorsolum transversely, 

and posterior portion, scutellum, and base of meta- 
thorax, longitudinally striated $ J ; antennae $ 
simple. 

1 1 . VAGI'S, Head quadrate ; dorsolum and scutellum punctured $ J ; 

antennae $ with the fifth and sixth joints emarginate 
beneath. 

XV. b. Abdomen entirely black. 

30. ALBiLABRis. Abdomen ovate, with an aeneous tinge ; base of metathorax 

longitudinally striated, head narrower than thorax. 

31. Panzeri. Abdomen ovate, with an aeneous tinge; base of metathorax 

longitudinally striated, head wider than thorax. 

33. BREVis. Abdomen ovato-conical ; cordiform base of metathorax smooth 

and shining. 
B. Abdomen distinctly petiolated and the first segment terminating 

XVI. in a node, 

34. TIBIALIS. Abdomen entirely black ; apex of posterior tibiae red. 

35. RUFivEXTRis. Abdomen more or less red ; apex of posterior tibiae black. 



1S6 CRABRONID^. 

Sp. 1. CRTBRARIUS. Lin. 

niger, fiavo ynaculatus, stemmatihus in Itneam ciirvam positis, 

mesothorach dorsolo longitiidinaliter striato 5 . 
$ antennis subfusiformis, tihiarum scutello obscuro, Jlavo mar- 
ginato, punctis hyalinis. 

length 6i->8i lines. 
Fab. S. E. 374. 6} Spec. 1. 470. 8 ; Mant. 1. 296. 13 ; Ent. Sys. 2. 
297. 14; Piez. 311. 16; Panz. 15. 18 ^. 19 $ ; Latr. H. N. 13. 
323. 1 ; Nouv. Diet. ed. 2. 8. 353 ; Dumeril. Consid. Centrales, PI. 
31. f. 3; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 40. 1. 
Crabro patellarius. Schrank, F. B. 2. 330. 2174. 

palmatus, Panz. 46. 3. 

Sphex eribraria. Lin. F. S. 1675 ; S. N. 1. 945. 23 ; Vill. 3. 234. 34 ; 
Schrank, Enum. Austriae, 779. 

patellaria, Schreb. Naturforscher, 20. 95. 1. 

Guepe ichneumo7i. De Geer, 2. 2. 810. 2. PL 28. f. 1—5. $. 
Thyreopus cribrarius. St, Farg, An. S. E. de F. 3. 752. 1. 

Head black, pilose : the stemmata placed in a curve a little 
behind the centre of the vertex, which is irregularly concave, 
longitudinally striated in front and punctured behind ; the face 
slightly canaliculated ; the antennae black ; the scape sometimes 
with a little yellow towards the apex behind and very pilose ; the 
inner orbit of the eyes below and the clypeus covered with a 
dense silvery pubescence. 

The thorax black, pilose ; the collar smooth and shining, with 
a few scattered punctures ; the dorsolum longitudinally striated, 
with a central and two lateral slight longitudinal carinas which 
become obsolete on the disk ; the scutellum shining and having 
a few scattered punctures ; the metathorax has at the centre of 
its base a small triangular space, shining and rugose, the apex of 
which continues in a longitudinal incisure, dilating about the 
middle into a fossulet and separating the metathorax into two 
halves, the sides of which are irregularly longitudinally striated ; 
the collar with an interrupted band and a spot on the front of 
the scutellum yellow, the latter sometimes wanting ; the tegulae 
piceous ; the wings hyaline and darkish towards the margin ; the 
legs yellow with the femora black, and a black spot beneath the 



XXI. CRABRO. 127 

anterior tibiae ; the tarsi with their apical joints flavo-ferruginous, 
the anterior pair ciliated on the exterior, and all the tibiae spinose. 

I'he abdomen ovate, black, with five yellow bands ; the second 
ndore or less interrupted, the third consisting of an ovate trans- 
verse spot on each side, the rest generally entire $ . 

The ^ differs in having the clavolet of the antennae subfusi- 
form, their first five joints concave below, the fifth and three 
following serrated on the exterior, and the first and second 
fimbriated within ; the collar longitudinally striated, generally 
entirely black, as well as the scutellum ; the anterior trochanters 
produced beneath at their apex into an obtuse tooth, their femora 
compressed, irregularly dilated behind and having at their base 
a long broad irregular process convex above, with a transverse 
ridge below just beyond its middle, between which and the apex 
it is transversely concave, the apex itself obliquely truncated, 
and at the base below, in front, a long narrow spine ; the anterior 
tibiae dilated behind into an ovate concavo-convex plate; the 
tibiae with a black or piceous litura at the knee, in front yellow, 
the plate of a slate colour, fusco-piceous towards the exterior 
margin, and the margin itself testaceous, the superficies sprinkled 
with pale dots ; their tarsi also dilated, the first irregularly tri- 
angular and concave above, and the whole tarsus longitudinally 
carinated below towards the front, the apical joint having the 
pulvillus placed near the exterior claw ; the interior claw very 
eccentric and considerably larger than its companion, its base 
below produced into a broad flat fornicate appendage, the basal 
joint rufo-testaceous, the rest piceous ; the intermediate femora 
flattened within and slightly dilated at their base behind ; the 
abdomen, which is subcylindrical, curved downwards at its apex, 
has seven yellow bands, the second and third interrupted, and the 
second the broadest of all and least interrupted, the fourth being 
the narrowest, forming merely a transverse waved line, the band 
on the first segment sometimes but very rarely wanting. 

^ $ in most Cabinets. 

t4't Abundant in most sandy districts in May and June, 



128 CRABRONID^E. 

and in some parts as late as August ; the 5 is generally 
captured entering her burrows, and the $ either in company 
or settling on the leaves of plants, or both are found on 
UmhellifercB. 

Sp. 2. PATELLATUs. Panz. 

niger, Jlavo-maculaius, stemmatibus m lineam curvam positis, 

dorsolo punctata J . 
antennis subfusiformis, tibiarum scutello obscuro, punctis lineisque 
hyalinis $. 

length 4^ — 6 lines. 
Panz. F. G. 46. 4 ; V. d. Lind. Pt, 2. 43. 3. 
Crabro dentipes. Panz. F. G. 46. 9 $ . 

peltarius. Schr. F. B. 2. 336. 2185. 

Thyreopus paiellatus ^ $ . St. Farg. An. d. 1. S. Entom. de F. 3, 
756. 3. 

Head black, pubescent, minutely punctured, the vertex irregu- 
larly concave ; the stemmata placed in a curve beyond its centre 
behind ; the face smooth, shining, and canaliculated ; the antennae 
black, with the scape beneath yellow ; the inner orbits of the 
eyes and clypeus, which is carinated in its centre, covered with a 
dense silvery pubescence ; the mandibles yellow or yellow- 
testaceous at the base ; piceous or rufo-piceous at their apex. 

The thorax black, subpubescent ; the dorsolum and scutellum 
shining, with scattered delicate punctures ; the metathorax with 
a deep longitudinal incisure, somewhat wider at its base ; the 
anterior half of the metathorax obsoletely enclosed in a semi- 
circle, which is reticulated and shining, the posterior portion 
smooth and shining, with scattered punctures ; the collar with a 
mark on each side ; the tubercles and the scutellum in front, 
sometimes yellow, but more frequently black ; the tegulee 
testaceous ; the wings slightly fuscous, the edge darker and their 
nervures testaceous ; the legs yellow, with their femora black, 
and the anterior and intermediate tibiae black beneath, the 
posterior pair ferruginous at their apex within ; the tarsi having 



XXT. CRABRO. 129 

•their basal joints yellow and the rest ferruginous, getting darker 
towards the apex ; the anterior tarsi strongly ciliated and all the 
tibiae very spinose. 

The abdomen elongate-ovate, the first segment narrowed into 
a petiole at its base, with five yellow bands variously interrupted, 
the second and third (the first of whicli is the broadest, and the 
last the narrowest of all) generally most, tlie fourth and fifth fre- 
quently entire ; the apex of the anus ferruginous ? . 

The $ differs in having the clavolet of the antennae stibfusi- 
form, its first six joints concave beneath, the seventh to the tenth 
serrated on the exterior, and the five first fimbriated within ; the 
thorax with seldom any yellow markings ; the sculpture of the 
metathorax much stronger, its posterior portion generally trans- 
versely striate : the anterior coxae produced at their apex into a 
long acute tooth ; their trochanters flat beneath ; their femora 
dilated posteriorly, flat and having at their base beneath a long 
curved spine ; their tibiae dilated posteriorly into a concavo- 
convex sublobate plate ; the tarsi dilated, the first joint concave 
above, the apical joint produced within into a compressed plate, 
the apex below obsoletely bidentate, within emarginate, and 
above having a long curved spine ; the trochanters and femora 
yellow, the latter black in front ; the tibiae yellow in front, with 
a black stripe behind, their plate slate-coloured behind, where it 
has some abbreviated transverse pale striae and maculae, and 
piceous in front : their tarsi testaceous ; the intermediate coxae 
and trochanters yellow ; the femora yellow before and behind, 
black above and below, with the rest like the ? . 

^ $ in most Cabinets. 

f4't Both sexes abundant in the spring in sandy situ- 
ations ; the $ is generally found settling upon the leaves of 
bushes or shrubs. 

Sp. 3. scuTATCs. Fab. 

niger, clypeo jiavo-maculato, metathoracis basi obliqu^ striatOf 

peristethii apick denticulato j . 
^ autennis fiUformis^ tibiarum sculello albo apick nigro; 

length 3 — 4 lines< 



^30 CRABRONIDi^ 

Fab. Mant. 1. 296. 15 ; Ent. Sys. 2. 298. 16 ; Piez. 312. 19 ; Panz. F. 
G. 15.22; Oliv.Ency.Mah.6.515. 17; V.d. Lind. Pt. 2. 44. 5. $. 
Sphei palmaria. Schreb. Naturforscher, 20. 100. 6. Pt. 2. fig. 9. a, b. 
Crnssocerus scutatus. St. Farg. 3. 764. 1. ^ . 
gonager. St. Farg. 3. 785. 22. ?var. $ 

The head black, delicately punctured, subpubescent, a longi- 
tudinal impression extending from the base of the antennae to 
the anterior stemma and continuing behind as far as the posterior 
ones; the stemmata placed in an equilateral triangle on the 
vertex ; the antennae simple, black, the scape yellow, excepting 
a narrow piceous stripe above ; the inner orbit of the eyes and 
clypeus covered with a silvery pubescence, the latter carinated 
in the centre and entirely yellow; the mandibles and lower 
portion of the cheeks also yellow, the former ferruginous at 
their apex. 

The thorax delicately punctured ; the metathorax having a 
cruciform impression, consute within, dilating at its base (the 
extreme base of the metathorax) into an impressed triangle 
longitudinally striated, the subcordiform space between it and 
the transverse line that forms the cross, shining, convex on each 
side, and obliquely striate on its lateral edges, the posterior 
portion of the metathorax smooth, shining, or very slightly 
transversely striated ; the apex of the peristethium armed on 
each side with a minute tooth ; the collar with a transverse line, 
the tubercles, a large lunule below, the neck beneath, the scu- 
tellum in front, and the pectus all yellow; the tegulae testaceous ; 
the wings slightly coloured, darker towards the edge, the nervures 
piceous ; the legs yellow ; the anterior tibiae dilated into an ovate 
concavo-convex plate, covered with a short whitish pubescence, 
yellow on its anterior margin, its anterior apex with a piceous 
lunule and posteriorly pale and transparent ; the first joint 
of the tarsi also dilated into a narrow lobe, which is black, and 
the extreme joints piceous ; the intermediate femora and tibiae 
piceous within ; the posterior coxae black at the base, the femora 
entirely black, their tibiae also black except their base, and their 
tarsi piceous, with the base of the first joint yellow. 



XXI. CRABRO. 



isi 



The abdomen black, oblong, curved downward at the apex, 
the first segment narrowing considerably anteriorly $ . 

The J differs only in wanting the yellow colour upon the 
cheeks ; and the base of the coxae (their extreme apex is fus- 
cous), the trochanters and femora are black ; it has no yellow on 
the scutellum itself, but only a transverse line behind it, and the 
two or three basal joints of the tarsi are pale ; in all other respects 
it is like the ^ . 

^ 5 in my own Cabinet and that 
of the Rev. G. T. Rudd. 

f 4,t I captured both sexes at Birchwood this year in the 
beginning of August ; the $ does not appear to have been 
before known, for that described as such by Van der Linden 
is different. 



Sp. 4. CETRATUS. N. Sp. 

niger, tihiarum scutello parvo nigro, margine albo $ . 

length 3f — 4 lines. 

Entirely black and shining, sparingly punctured and pubescent: 
the head with an impressed line in front of the anterior stemma 
extending to the sulcation of the face, and another behind it 
proceeding a little beyond the posterior ones ; the stemmata 
placed in an equilateral triangle ; the clypeus (which is entire) 
and inner orbits of the eyes covered with a silvery pubescence ; 
the first few joints of the flagellum of the antennae ciliated be- 
neath. 

The angles of the prothorax rounded : the metathorax gibbous 
without a distinct enclosure at its base, and having a central 
longitudinal consute incisure, and the lateral lobes irregularly 
slightly obliquely striated ; the anterior tibiae and first joint of 
the tarsi dilated externally, with a pale margin ; the calcaria 
of the posterior legs sometimes fuscous ; the wings hyaline, 
iridescent, with the apical half somewhat clouded. 

K 2 



13S 



CRABRONID.'E. 



The abdomen with tlie centre of the segments somewhat 
thickened, and the last curved downwards $ . 

$ In my own Cabinet and 
that of Mr. Chant. 

t4-i' This very distinct and, as far as I can discover, un- 
described species, has occurred in the vicinity of London. 
The $ I am unacquainted with. It will not come into 
any of St. Fargeau's genera. 

Sp. 5. vExiLLATus. Panz. 

niger, capite iriqiietro, ahdomine fiavo maculato, antennis jili- 
Jbrmis $. 

length 4 lines. 
Panz. F. G. 46. 5 ; lUig. Faun. Etr. 2. p. 149 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 45. 6. 
Crabro clypeatus. Fab. Mant. 1. 296. 14 ; Ent. Syst.2. 297. 15 ; Piez. 
312. 18; Rossi, F. Etr. 2. 90. 880; Oliv. Ency. Meth. 6. 515. 16; 
Latr. Hist. Nat. 13. 323. 2 ; Nouv. Diet. 2 ed. 8. 358. 
Apis clypeata. Schreb. Naturforsch. 15. PI. 3. fig. 19, 20. 
Thyreus vexillatus. St. Farg. 3. 762. 1. 

Head black, deeply punctured, pubescent, narrower than the 
thorax, triangular above and at the sides, ovate in front, and 
forming a neck behind ; a longitudinal depression extending 
from the base of the antennae to the anterior stemma ; the an- 
tennae black, with the scape and pedicel yellow in front; the 
clypeus and the inner orbits of the eyes covered with a silvery 
pubescence, which extends to near the vertex. 

Thorax ovate, deeply punctured, prolonged very much in 
front and narrowed, forming with the collar a truncated triangle ; 
the scutellum less distinctly punctured and shining ; the meta- 
thorax truncated, the centre having a deep longitudinal impres- 
•sion ; the tubercles yellow ; the tegulae testaceous ; the wings 
fuscous ; the legs yellow with a black spot on the outside of the 
anterior and intermediate femora, the posterior femora also black 
.inside, and the interior of their tibiae of a fuscous brown ; the 
anterior tibiae slightly dilated on the exterior, as well as the three 



XXI. CKABRO. 133 

first joints of the tarsi, the first especially, which forms a subro- 
tund concavo-convex plate slightly coloured on the margin. 

The abdomen black, ovate, punctured, with seven yellow 
bands, the first, second, third, and fourth slightly (the second 
the least) interrupted, the rest entire ; the second ventral segment 
with a quadrate yellow spot, and the third with a yellow band ^. 

^ In the collection of the 
British Museum. 

f-j-f The $ of this species does not seem to be known ; 
that considered as such, viz. the C. philantlioides, Panz., 
by him in his Kritische Revision, and by Van der Linden, 
I with St. Fargeau much doubt as being possible. The 
$ which I know as British, only from the specimens in 
the British Museum captured by Dr. Leach, appears to be 
either very local or very rare ; the former the most pro- 
bable. Fabricius mistook this for the Sphex clypeatus of 
Linne, which is different. 

Sp. 6. TABSATUS. N. Sp. 

niger, tarsis anticis palmatis, metathorncis hasi oblique striata S . 

length 2^ lines. 

Head black, smooth, and shining, with a few minute scattered 
punctures, a deep longitudinal impression extending from the 
base of the antennae to the anterior stemma, behind which it 
passes to a little beyond the posterior ones ; the stemmata placed 
in an equilateral triangle on the vertex ; the antennae simple, 
fimbriated beneath, black, the scape yellow on the outside ; the 
clypeus (which is carinated in the middle), inner orbit of the 
eyes, and lower portion of the cheeks, covered with a sericeous 
pubescence ; the mandibles black. 

The thorax black, delicately punctured and shining ; the 
dorsolum with three abbreviated parallel slightly elevated longi- 
tudinal lines at its base ; the metathorax having a cruciform im- 
pression, consute within, dilating at the base of the cross oe 



154 cuabronid^. 

extreme base of the metathorax into an impressed triangle, 
which is longitudinally striate, the subcordiform space between 
it and the transverse line that forms the cross convex on each 
side, and obliquely striated at the base of the posterior portion 
of the metathorax — the longitudinal line dilates into a deep 
fossulet, on each side whereof it is deeply transversely striate ; 
the apex of the peristethium armed on each side with a minute 
tooth ; the collar with a transverse interrupted line, and the scu- 
tellum with a lunule, both yellow ; the tegulae piceous, and the 
ligament at the base of the wings yellow ; the wings iridescent, 
with a darkish cloud towards their apex, the nervures piceous ; 
the anterior legs yellow, with their coxae and trochanters black, 
and a line on the exterior of their femora and tibiae and at the 
apex of the tibiae within also black ; their tarsi whitish, the first 
joint dilated on the exterior into a half-heart shape reversed, 
and the following triangular, the four first covered with a silvery 
pubescence and the first joint with a black patch towards its ex- 
terior margin, the last joint also black ; the four posterior legs 
black, with their knees and lower portion of their tibiae yellow ; 
the tarsi of the intermediate pair whitish, with the apex of the 
two first joints and the whole of the last black, the posterior 
tarsi black, with the base of the first joint whitish. 

The abdomen oblong, black, minutely punctured, and having 
a slight griseous pubescence, the first segment gradually narrowed 
at its base into a petiole. $ 

$ in my own Cabinet. 

j-4't I ^^^^ unacquainted with the $ of this species. 
The sex described is very like what Van der Linden and 
St. Fai'geau consider the Sphex palmipes of Linnaeus ; but 
mine sufficiently differs from the insect described by the 
former by having the base of the metathorax striated : 
nor does he notice the minute tooth on each side of the 
peristethium, which this has in common with several 
species. I have captured it at Highgate settling on the 
leaves of the burdock and other plants*. 



XXI. CR.ABRO. 135 

Sp. 7. CEPHALOTES. Fab. 

itiger, JJavo-macu/atus, clijpeo aurato, mctathorace rugoso, tibiis 

intermediis Jlavis $ $ . 
^ articuUs antennnnim subtus cmarginatis. 

length 5i — 7 lines. 
Fab. Piez. 308. 5. $ ; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 55. 13. (J $ ; St. Farg. 3, 

697. 1. ^ $. 
Panz. F. G. 62. 16. $ ! 

Crahro seicinctus. Y. d. Lind. pt. 2. 145. 13. ^ J. 
Panz. F. G. 64. 13. ^ ? 

Head black, large, subqtiadrate, minutely and closely punc- 
tured, pubescent, slightly shining ; the vertex between the eyes 
concave ; the stemmata placed in a triangle in its centre, an ele- 
vated longitudinal ridge between the posterior ones, having a 
central delicate longitudinal impressed line extending nearly to 
the occiput, a slight carina in front of the anterior one passing 
to the verge of the vertex ; the antennee black, with their scape 
entirely yellow ; the face deeply canaliculated, smooth, and on 
each side the orbits of the eyes within, the clypeus (which is 
strongly carinated in the centre, emarginate in front, and bisinuate 
on each side), and the lower sides of the cheek, covered with a 
dense golden pubescence, less thickly set on the latter ; the 
mandibles yellow, with their apex piceous. 

Thorax black, pubescent, the dorsolum with a central longi- 
tudinal slight carina, thickly and rather delicately longitudinally 
striated ; the scutellum smooth and shining at its base, then 
punctured and posteriorly longitudinally striate ; the metathorax 
with two or three longitudinal slight carinas, the interstices of 
which are smooth, and which dilate, forming a small diamond 
shaped inclosure about its middle, the sides of the whole length 
of these carina rather delicately reticulated, the extreme posterior 
portion transversely striate, the anterior half separated in the 
form of a semicircle by an obsolete ridge ; the peristethium 
longitudinally striated at its base and sides ; its posterior ex- 
tremity covered with scattered punctures and shining, and having 



i'jG CRABRONIDyi:. 

on each side a very short transverse elevated carina ; the collaf 
with a transverse interrupted band, and the tubercles, yellow ; 
the tegulae piceous ; the wings slightly coloured, their nervures 
testaceous ; the legs with their femora black, the extreme apex 
yellow, as well as the tibiae, the anterior pair of which are below 
black, and the extreme apex of all rufo-testaceous ; the tarsi 
rufo-piceous, deepening in colour towards their apex, and 
their basal joints yellow, the anterior pair very slightly ciliated, 
the intermediate and posterior tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen black, with five yellow bands, and the anus, 
yellow, and all but the fifth more or less interrupted, the second 
and fourth generally least so, and sometimes all entire, yet 
slightly attenuated in the middle, and the first waved anteriorly ; 
the sides of the obtuse canaliculated spine that terminates the 
abdomen furnished with rigid golden setae. 

The $ differs in the antennae, which are formed nearly as in 
the $ of the 9th species ; the scape has a black spot above the 
pedicel, yellow below, and the whole of the clavolet fuscous be- 
neath, as also its apical joints above excepting the extreme joint, 
which is entirely black ; the pedicel slightly produced on the 
exterior ; the third joint smaller than the fourth and both pro- 
duced into an obtuse tooth at their extremity, the latter slightly 
so at the side of its base, both much curved and concave beneath, 
the fifth and sixth also curved, the tooth of the fifth as large or 
larger than that of the fourth but more acute, and that of the 
sixth most acute of all, the following cylindrical and equal ; the 
clypeus produced in front and obtuse, sinuate on each side ; the 
pubescence of the face the same as in the $ ; the sculpture of 
the thorax more strongly marked ; the yellow band of the collar 
sometimes reduced to a mere spot on each side, sometimes 
wanting entirely ; the tubercles also sometimes black ; the an- 
terior femora of a yellowish red above and within, which behind 
is succeeded by a black stripe, that followed by a yellow, which 
has another black one below it ; their tibiae rufescent in front, 
yellow above and a black stain behind ; the intermediate femora 



XXI. CRABUO, IS7 

rufo-flavous above and in front, and black behind and beneath ; 
their tibiae yellow in front with sometimes a black spot, a black 
line above and rufescent behind and below, the posterior ones 
the same as in the ? , except a reddish yellow stain towards the 
apex of the femora above ; the anterior tarsi pale yellow, ferru- 
ginous at their base, their apical joint more deeply coloured, the 
intermediate pair flavo-rufous, and their basal joint produced a 
little on the outside towards the apex, and at the margin of this 
process armed with robust spines, the posterior pair entirely rufo- 
piceous. The abdomen subclavate ; it has an additional band to 
that of the $ , and all as variously interrupted. 

<5 $ in most Cabinets. 

-f--l--i- Panzer evidently had two species (see my observa- 
tions under C. Lindenius) in view in describing this, for he 
distinctly figures a 2 and implies its being the $ in the 
description, having mistaken the colour of the clypeus as 
sexual. The two species are in fact extremely alike unless 
closely examined, and then it is found that besides the 
clypeus the position of the stemraata gives a difference. It 
is not so common as many of the species. I have found 
it at Caenwood near Hampstead, and at Birchwood in 
Kent ; I suspect it nidificates in putrescent wood. 

Sp. 8. sExciNCTus. Fab. 

n'lger, Jlavo-macutatus, metathoracis hasi rugoso, antennarum 
articulis subtiis emarginatis $ . 

length 5 lines. 
Fab. S. Ent. 374, 5 ; E. S. 2. 295. 9 ; Piez. 309, 10 ; Oliv. Ency, INUth. 
6. 513. 11 ; Panz. F. G. 64. 13 ; St. Farg. 3. 703. 6. 

Head black, pubescent, subquadrate, minutely and closely 
punctured, the stemmata placed in a triangle in the centre of 
the vertex, which is concave between the eyes, in the centre of 
which there is a very delicate sliglitly elevated line, extending 



158 CRABRONID^E. 

from the anterior steitima to the face behind ; between the pos- 
terior stemmata it is slightly elevated, in the centre of which 
there is a minute longitudinal impression, proceeding to near 
the occiput, the face canaliculated, smooth and shining ; the an- 
tennee black, the scape yellow, with a black stain above, and 
the pedicel yellow beneath, and slightly produced on the ex- 
terior ; the first, second, third, and fourth joints of the clavolet 
produced beneath at the apex, and much curved, or rather 
emarginate, the teeth beneath of the first and second the most 
obtuse, its first joint shorter than its second, which is also 
slightly produced at its base above, the fourth joint very slightly 
shorter than the third, and its tooth the most acute of all ; the 
whole clavolet fuscous beneath, and the apical joints also above, 
with the extreme one quite black ; the interior of the orbit of 
the eyes, the cheeks, and the whole clypeus, covered with a 
dense silvery down, the latter carinated in its centre, produced 
in front into an obtuse tooth, and the sides sinuate ; the man- 
dibles black, their apex piceous. 

The thorax black, pubescent ; the dorsolum with a central 
longitudinal carina, and, as well as the scutellum, longitudinally 
striate ; the metathorax with a central incisure, the margins of 
which are ridged, which ridges, about the middle, curve round 
on each side, each inclosing a lobe ; at the base of the meta- 
thorax, the inner space of which is slightly rugose, the incisure 
dilates, where the ridges turn off, into a deep fossulet, continu- 
ing to the apex, the sides of which, forming the posterior por- 
tion of the metathorax, are very coarsely transversely striate ; the 
peristethium has at its apex, on each side, a transverse carina ; 
the collar with sometimes a transverse yellow interrupted band ; 
the tegulae testaceous, the wings coloured, darker towards their 
edges ; the nervures piceous. The anterior femora ferruginous 
above and in front, black behind, yellow beneath, and, still deeper 
below, a black stripe ; their tibiae yellow above and in front ; 
towards the apex, in front, ferruginous, and black behind ; 
the intermediate femora black, with a ferruginous streak above ; 



XXI. CRABRO. 139 

their tibiae yellow in front, somewhat ferruginous beneath, and 
black behind ; the posterior femora entirely black, with some- 
times a slight yellow streak above ; their tibiae yellow above 
and in front, ferruginous behind, and with a black litura ; the 
anterior and intermediate tarsi flavo-rufescent, their apical joint 
piceous, and the first joint of the intermediate pair produced 
on the outside towards the apex, and its margin armed with 
robust spines. 

The abdomen elongate, black, with six yellow bands vari- 
ously interrupted ; the second generally the widest, and the fifth 
almost always entire ^ . 

I am unacquainted with the ? . 

$ in my own Collection. 

t4't This I consider to be most probably an accidental 
variety of the S of the preceding, notwithstanding the 
differently coloured pubescence of the clypeus ; and if it 
should prove so, the synonymy must stand as Van der 
Linden has given it. My specimens differ from St. Far- 
geau's merely in the mandibles v^^anting the yellow spot, 
the tubercles being black, and the tibiee being slightly 
stained behind, all of which are variable characters, as is 
sufficiently evinced in the series I have of the preceding 
species. It appears to be rare ; I have hitherto taken only 
two specimens, and those near Hampstead. 

Sp. 9. XYLURGUS. N. Sp. 

mger,Jlavo-maculatus, clypeo aurato ( ^ argentato), vietathorace 

nigoso, stemmatihus in Hneam curvam positis. 
^ antennarum art'iculo tertio ad sextuvi subtils emarginatis. 

length 3f — 5| lines. 
? Crabro fossoriiis. Y. d. Lind. pt. 2. 51. 10. (The description without 
the synonymes.) 

Head black, large, subquadratc, minutely and densely pimc- 



140 crabronid.t;. 

tured ; the stemmata placed in a curve on the vertex ; be- 
tween the posterior ones a slight longitudinal elevation, which 
has in its centre an impressed line passing backwards a little 
behind them ; the forehead, which is concave, has a very slight 
central longitudinal carina ; the face is canaliculated ; the an- 
tennae black, with their scape yellow ; the clypeus (which is 
longitudinally carinated in the centre, slightly emarginate in 
front, and sinuated on each side), the inner orbit of the eyes, and 
the anterior portion of the cheeks, covered witli a dense golden 
pubescence, the cheeks less thickly so ; the mandibles yellow 
at the base, and black at the apex. 

The thorax black, pubescent ; the dorsolum having at its 
base three longitudinal parallel slightly elevated lines, an abbre- 
viated scratch on the disk on each side, parallel with the base 
of the tegulae, and minutely and densely punctured in front ; 
behind, as well as the scutellum, longitudinally striate, with 
interspersed punctures ; the metathorax with a longitudinal cen- 
tral incisure, the edges of which are elevated, and the interior 
consute, with about its centre a transverse slight ridge, another 
diverging on each side, from this, in a curve upwards, enclosing 
a subcordiform space, occupying the anterior half of the me- 
tathorax, which is rather irregularly obliquely striated, between 
the transverse and curved ridges irregularly reticulated, and 
the sides of the incisure of the posterior portion of the meta- 
thorax coarsely transversely striated ; the peristethium punc- 
tured, shining, and having on each side, posteriorly, an abbre- 
viated transverse carina ; the collar with a transverse yellow 
interrupted line, and the top of the tubercles yellow ; the te- 
gulae piceous ; the wings hyaline, coloured at their edges ; the 
nervures piceous ; the legs yellow, with all the femora black, ex- 
cepting at the knees in the intermediate pair ; the anterior and 
intermediate tibiae black beneath, the anterior and posterior ones 
with a fuscous line within, and all having their extreme apex 
fuscous or piceous ; all the tarsi with the basal joint yellow, the 
following ones more or less so, or ferruginous, and the apical 



XXI. CRABRO, 141 

ones piceous ; the anterior tarsi ciliated, and all the tibiae spi- 
nose. 

The abdomen black, ovate, with five yellow bands more or 
less interrupted, the second generally least so, frequently en- 
tire, the fifth always entire, and the third seldom or never, but 
formed generally of two ovate transverse spots ; the terminal 
segment black, produced into a groved obtuse spine, on each 
side of which it is covered with rigid golden setae. 

The $ differs in having the underside only of the scape 
yellow, the pedicel and two following joints fuscous beneath, 
and the 3 — Gth joints emarginate, and each produced into a 
tooth at the apex, the third joint shorter than the following, and 
most slender of all, the division between it and the following 
to be observed under a high power, the fourth much curved 
below, concave, and the largest, when viewed laterally much 
swollen in the centre, the following joints gradually decreas- 
ing in length, but the five last subequal and cylindrical ; the 
clypeus, interior orbits of the eyes, and lower portion of the 
cheeks, densely covered with a silvery pubescence ; mandibles 
entirely black ; the punctures of the base of the dorsolum 
interspersed with longitudinal strise ; the metathoracic lines 
of demarcation less evident, from the interstices being more 
strongly sculptured, whence it appears irregularly reticulated, 
and it is sparingly covered with a black pubescence ; the trans- 
verse yellow line on the collar sometimes wanting, the tubercles 
entirely black ; the anterior femora with a fuscous line above, 
and a yellow one beneath, the intermediate ones with a yellow 
line above, the posterior pair with a yellow spot towards their 
apex above, and the posterior tibiae black inside ; the four an- 
terior tarsi yellow, with the base of the first joint, and the 
whole of the apical ones, and the entire posterior pair, piceous ; 
the exterior of the basal joint of the intermediate tarsi produced 
in an angle towards its apex, the margin of which is very spi- 
nose ; the yellow bands of the abdomen with the second fre- 
quently entire, and the three following generally reduced to an 



142 CRABRONIDiE. 

ovate spot on each side, the fifth sometimes entire, and the sixth 
always so. 

^ $ in most Cabinets. 

fit It will be necessary for me to state my reasons for 
considering this a new species, although exceedingly like 
two that have been described, viz. [1] the C. fossorins, 
Linn., which is that of all subsequent authors, excepting 
Van der Linden, who, although he cites their synonymes, 
describes a different insect, ([2] which St. Fargeau considers 
as his Cr. chrysostomus,) and St. Fargeau, who has carried 
it into his genus Solenius, but under the same specific 
name. That it cannot be the first is proved by its having 
a golden pubescence on the clypeus ;* nor can it be Van 
der Linden's Cr. fossorius, which, according to St. Far- 
geau, is his own Cr. chrysostomus ; and the position of the 
stemmata in mine must prevent its being considered as 
this, for Van der Linden does not notice their curve, which 

* The male is in its antennae either a Crabro or Ceratocolus of the second 
subdivision of the first division of St. Fargeau. Why I am uncertain is, be- 
cause in his genus Crabro the stemmata are in a triangle, and the males have 
several of the basal joints of the clavolet emarginate, and thirteen joints to the 
organ ; and in Ceratocolus the stemmata are placed in a curve ; and in the 
division I refer to, the antennae of the $ have twelve joints, vidth some of the 
basal ones emarginate. If therefore he overlooked one of the joints, it would 
strictly enter into that subdivision of his Ceratocolus : if he saw the thirteen 
joints, and overlooked the position of the stemmata, it would be a Crabro : but 
if he saw the situation of the stemmata, as well as the thirteen joints of the an- 
tennae, it would have required the establishment of a distinct genus ; whereas 
the female is a true Solenius. I have entered into this critical explanation to 
show an additional reason for my not adopting his genera, and which I shall 
further vindicate in several other species. The essential character of a genus 
should be perfectly exclusive and negative for those wdthout it, but positive for 
those within it ; nor should the sexes admit of separation ; and such a cha- 
racter in this variable genus can be derived only from the neuration of the 
wing, which I also reiterate for the whole of the Fossorial Hymenoptera. 



XXI. CRABRO. 143 

it is presumed he would have done had his presented that 
peculiar character which in other instances he has indi- 
cated. But I fear there is considerable confusion in the 
synonymy ; although it is not impossible that the several 
species should exist, yet I strongly suspect mine to be 
Van der Linden's insect, which however would not dis- 
pense with my name, as the latter author has applied wrong 
synonymes ; and as it is proved to be evidently distinct 
from St. Fargeau's Cr. chrysostomus by the essential cha- 
racter of the stemmata, I have named it in allusion to 
its habits ; it is exceedingly common in the summer 
months, especially where willows abound, into the wood 
of which it bores its cylindrical cells. 

Sp. 10. LiNDENIUS. N. Sp. 

niger, flavo-maculatus, stemmat'ihus in Itneam curvam positis, 

metathoracis basi longitudinaliter striato. 

^ antennis simplicibus. 

length 5^ — 8 lines. 

$ ? Crabro cephalotes. Panz. F. 9. 62. 16. 

$ 1 Ceratocolus striatns. St. Farg. 3. 745. 4. 

Head black, pubescent, subquadrate, the whole superior sur- 
face densely punctured ; the stemmata placed in a curve in the 
centre of the vertex, the anterior portion of which is concave, 
a longitudinal central impressed line extending from the oc- 
ciput to the anterior stemma, whence it proceeds forwards to the 
verge of the vertex, where it expands into a broad canalicula, 
occupying the whole face, and reaching the base of the an- 
tennae, which are black, with their scape entirely yellow ; the 
inner orbits of the eyes and clypeus densely clothed with a 
silvery down, the latter carinated in its centre ; the mandibles 
yellow, with their apex piceous. 

The thorax black, pubescent ; the dorsolum having a central 
longitudinal carina extending to its middle, and an abbreviated 
scratch on each side, its anterior half delicately transversely 



144 CRABRONID^. 

Striate, and the posterior longitudinally and more coarsely 
wrinkled ; the scutellum longitudinally striate, interspersed with 
punctures; the metathorax having a deep longitudinal incisure 
and a semicircular space at its base, very coarsely longitudinally 
striate, and its posterior portion extremely delicately transversely 
striate and opaque ; the peristethium has on each side, behind, 
an abbreviated tranverse carina ; the collar with a transverse 
interrupted band, the tubercles, and a lunule upon the scutellum, 
all yellow (sometimes the tubercles black, and a mere slight 
transverse line only on the scutellum) ; the tegulae testaceous ; 
the wings slightly fuscous, their nervures testaceous ; the legs 
yellow, with the femora black, excepting the apex of the tro- 
chanters, and their knees ; a black litura beneath the anterior 
tibiae, a spot beneath the intermediate ones, and the extreme 
apex of all ferruginous, and the apical joints of the tarsi rufo- 
piceous, the anterior ones ciliated on the exterior, and the in- 
termediate and posterior tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen black, with five yellow bands more or less in- 
terrupted, sometimes all entire, the third generally most in- 
terrupted, and the fifth always entire, the first generally waved 
in front ; the anus yellow, the produced obtuse spine at its ex- 
tremity canaliculated above, and black, and having on each side 
some rigid yellow setae. 

The $ has its antennae simple, which appear to have but 
twelve joints, and differs from the 5 in having the scape above 
black ; the mandibles with only a yellow litura on their inner 
edge, sometimes entirely black ; the collar less yellow ; the tu- 
bercles, scutellum, and tegulae sometimes black ; the sculpture 
of the metathorax more strongly marked, its anterior portion 
rather irregularly longitudinally striate ; the wings dark, their 
nervures piceous ; the legs yellow, the anterior femora behind, 
the intermediate behind and below, and the posterior, entirely 
black ; the outside of the anterior tibiae and the inside of the 
intermediate ones entirely black, the exterior of the inter- 
mediate plantae produced towards the apex, and its margin 



XXI. CRABRO. 



1^5 



armed with spines, the remainder like the 5 ; the abdomen ob- 
long, and marked Hke the j , but with an additional band, and 
sometimes more interrupted, the second and fifth and sixth bands 
generally the widest, frequently entire, the terminal segment 
having a central longitudinal groove. 

,^ $ in my own and other Cabinets. 

f If As this insect, whicli I have named in honour of a 
distinguished Hymenopterologist, does not agree with any 
excepting Panzer's figure and description of his Cr. cepha- 
lotes, yet as the latter apparently mixes two species, his 
name becomes a doubtful synonyme. This doubt is 
increased by St. Fargeau making it the synonyme of his 
Craho striatus, wath which mine cannot agree, as from its 
structure it decidedly belongs to his genus Solenius; whereas 
its $ as evidently belongs to his genus Ceratocolus, and is 
very like his Cer. striatus ; but certainly different, for he 
does not notice the remarkable peculiarity in the stria- 
tion of the dorsolum, which is transverse anteriorly, and 
longitudinal posteriorly. These two insects further con- 
firm my views in not adopting his genera ; for here again 
two are linked together by the sexes of the same species. 
This species appears rare. I have not hitherto taken it 
myself. Mr. Walker has captured it in the vicinity of 
London, in July ; and Mr. Stephens at Ripley in Surrey. 

Sp, 11. VAGUS. Lin. 

n'lger, Jlavo-maculatus, stemvmtihis in I'tneam curvam positis, 
dorsolo punctata $ 5 . 

length 4|— 5J lines. 
Fab. S. E. 375. 8 ; Spec. 1. 471. 10 ; Mant. 1. 296. 16 ; Ent. Syst. 2. 
298. 17 ; Piez. 313. 22 ; Panz. F. G. 46. 10 ; Rossi, F. Et. 2. 91. 
881 ; OHv. Ency. Meth. 6. 515. 18 ; Schrank, F. Boica, 2. 338. 2188 ; 
Latr. Histr. Nat. 13. 324. 4 ; \. d. Lind. pt. 2. 57. 16. 
I. 



T4G crabronid.t:. 

Sphex vag.i. Lin. F. S. 1661 ; Syst. Nat. ed. 12. 946. 36; Villers, 3. 

238, 44; Schaeff. Icon. Ins. Rat. pi. 94. fig. 4 & 5 ; and pi. 127. 

fig. 6. 
Solenius vagvs. St. Farg. 3. 722. 9. 

The head black, subpubescent, very thickly punctured ; the 
stemmata placed in a curve ; a deep canalicula occupying the 
whole face ; the antennae black, with the scape yellow, having 
a black patch behind ; the clypeus, which is strongly carinated 
in its centre, covered, as well as the inner orbits of the eyes, 
with a dense silvery pubescence ; the mandibles black, the inner 
margin yellow, and the apex piceous. 

The thorax black, pubescent, thickly punctured ; the base of 
the dorsolum with a central and two obsolete lateral carinse; 
the metathorax in front longitudinally, and behind transversely 
striate, and having a longitudinal central incisure throughout its 
whole length ; the peristethium having on each side, posteriorly, 
a transverse abbreviated carina; the collar with a transverse 
yellow band, frequently wanting, and the post-dorsolum some- 
times a yellow line in front ; the tegulag piceous ; the wings 
darkish, with their edge darker, the nervures piceous ; the legs 
black ; the anterior tibiee yellow above, and ferruginous in 
front, the intermediate pair yellow in front and above, and the 
posterior ones entirely yellow, the extreme apex of all ferru- 
ginous ; all the tarsi piceous, the anterior pair very slightly 
ciliated, and the intermediate and posterior tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen black, with three yellow bands, one at the base 
of the second segment, the second at the base of the fourth 
segment, and the last at that of the fifth, with every variety of 
interruption, sometimes all entire, the third generally so, and 
the third segment with sometimes a small transverse mark on 
each side $ . 

The $ agrees in having apparently the same number of joints 
to the antennae, but the fifth and sixth emarginate beneath ; the 
metathorax irregularly long^udinally striate in front, and trans- 
versely behind ; the anterior femora ferruginous above and in 



XXI. CRABRO. 



147 



front, black behind, and yellow beneath ; their tibae also ferru- 
ginous in front, yellow above, and black behind ; their anterior 
tarsi piceous, the first joint and base of the second pale, the 
former reddish at its base ; the intermediate femora black, their 
tibiae yellow above, ferruginous in front, and black behind ; and 
the posterior femora black, their tibiae yellow, with a black stain 
in front, and a ferruginous one behind ; the four posterior tarsi 
rufo-ferruginous, their basal joint being a little paler in the 
posterior pair, sometimes yellow ; the sixth segment of the ab- 
domen has sometimes some yellow markings, or a band, at its 
base. 



^ 5 in most Cabinets. 



fif This species is common. 



Sp. 12. SUBPUNCTATUS. RoSsi. 

niger, jiavo-maculatus, margine infero capitis ulrinque spina ar- 
mato, metathoracis basi Icevi $ j . 

length 3|— 5 lines. 
Rossi, F. E. 2. 156. 891 $ . Y. d. Lind. pt. 2. 58. 19. ^ J . 
Crahro A-maculatus. Fab. E. S. 2. 294. 4.; Piez. 308. 3. $. 

muroi-um. Latr. Hist. Nat. 13. 324, 5. J . 

Crossncerus subpunctalus. St. Farg. 3. 766. 3. ^ J . 

Head black, punctured, but not thickly ; several irregular de- 
pressions on the vertex ; the stemmata placed in a triangle in its 
centre ; a deep longitudinal depression, extending from the 
anterior stemma to the face, where it becomes a canalicula, oc- 
cupying all its space between the eyes ; the antennae black, with 
the base and apex of the scape generally fuscous ; the clypeus 
strongly carinated in the centre, and very loosely covered with 
a brassy pubescence; the mandibles fuscous, with their apex 
rufo-piceous, sometimes entirely piceous ; the carina which se- 
parates the jugulum from the genae terminated anteriorly in 
an acute tooth. 

The thorax black ; the dorsolum loosely punctured, its base 

L 2 



148 CRABRONID.E. 

has three obsolete parallel carinai ; the nietathorax with a 
longitudinal central incisure expanding just beyond the middle 
into a fossulet, and above which a transverse one divides it, 
curving upwards, and enclosing the anterior portion in a semi- 
circle, which is smooth and shining, sometimes very slightly 
obliquely striated at its exterior edge, and joining that which 
separates the post-dorsolum from the metathorax, the whole 
consute ; the posterior portion of the metathorax distinctly en- 
closed by lateral ridges, shining, anteriorly punctured, and be- 
hind tranversely striate, or the whole entirely so ; the collar and 
post-dorsolum with a transverse yellow line, the former generally 
interrupted, the latter sometimes wanting ; the tegulae testaceous ; 
the wings slightly coloured, their nervures piceous ; the legs 
black, with the apex of the coxee and base of the trochanters 
fuscous ; the anterior and intermediate tibiae, in front, and the 
posterior ones with a ring at their base, yellow ; the anterior 
and intermediate tarsi yellow at their base, rufo-piceous at their 
apex, the posterior pair entirely piceous ; the anterior tarsi 
slightly ciliated outside ; and the intermediate and posterior 
tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen black, elongato-ovate, with five yellow bands; 
the second, third, fourth, and fifth, very wide; the four first 
generally interrupted; the fourth sometimes merely emarginate 
in front; the fifth almost always entire; the first and third some- 
times reduced to a mere spot on each side ; the second and third 
generally the least interrupted ; the anal segment with generally 
a yellow spot on each side, and a central one beneath 5 . 

The $ has its antennae simple, and the clavolet fringed below, 
and differs from the 5 in the scape having sometimes a lateral 
yellow line ; the interior orbits of the eyes and clypeus covered 
with a loose silvery pubescence, the latter tridentate in front, 
and frequently a yellow spot on each side of its base behind ; 
the yellow markings on the collar and post-dorsolum generally 
wanting ; their anterior and intermediate femora fuscous in front, 
the latter also behind ; the abdomen elongate, the first segment 



XXr. CRABRO. 149 

gradually narrowing at its base into a petiole, and generally much 
less coloured than in the $ , it being most frequently limited to 
an ovate yellow spot on each side of the base of the second and 
third segments, sometimes a few spots at the base of the sixth 
segment, and very rarely the abdomen is entirely black. 

$ 2 hi most Cabinets. 

f -i-f This species, the descriptions will show, is extremely 
variable in the colour of its abdomen. I have a single 
specimen in which it is entirely black. It is not un- 
common in the vicinity of London. 

Sp. 13. VAGABUNDUS. PaUZ. 

niger, Jlavo-macidatus, metathorace Icevi $ . 
$ femoribus anticis subtils spind obtusd armatis. 

length 4g — 5j lines. 

Panz. F. G. 53. 16 $ . V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 57. 18. 

? Crabro mediatus. Fab. E. S. Sup. 270. 16—17 ; Piez. 312. 20. 

? Blepharipiis mediatus, St. Farg. 3. 734. 6. ^ J . 

Head black, punctured, but not thickly, somewhat shining; 
the vertex having on each side, within the eyes, an oblique 
fossulet, extending in the direction of the posterior stemmata ; 
the stemmata placed in a triangle about its centre, the anterior 
one having in front a longitudinal impression, which extends to 
the verge of the face, where it becomes a smooth and shining 
canalicula, occupying the whole face to the base of the clypeus ; 
the antennae black, with their scape yellow in front; the clypeus 
and interior of the orbits of the eyes, and lower portion of the 
cheeks, covered with a silvery down ; the mandibles black, with 
iheir apex piceous. 

The thorax black, subpubescent ; the dorsolum punctured, 
but not thickly, and slightly shining, having at its base a central 
longitudinal carina, extending to the disk ; the scutellum 
also slightly punctured ; the metathorax with a longitudinal 



160 CRABKONIDf. 

incisure crossed near its middle by a transverse one, which 
curves upwards on each side, and encloses a semicircular space, 
quite smooth and shining, and joining that which separates the 
metathorax from the postdorsolum, the whole incisure consute ; 
the posterior portion of the metathorax smooth and shining in 
front, and slightly transversely striate laterally and behind ; 
the peristethium having on each side behind a minute tooth ; 
the collar with an interrupted yellow band, and the scutellum 
slightly yellow in front ; the tegulae piceous ; the wings slightly 
coloured, and nervures piceous ; the legs with the femora black ; 
the tibiae yellow, with a black litura beneath the anterior and 
intermediate pairs, the posterior pair with a piceous spot at 
their apex within ; all the tarsi fuscous, paler at their base, the 
anterior pair very slightly ciliated on the exterior, and the 
intermediate and posterior tibiae slightly spinose. 

The abdomen black, with five yellow bands variously inter- 
rupted, sometimes all merely subinterrupted ; the anal segment 
yellow at its base on each side ; the intermediate space between 
the anal carinae punctured and black, its extreme tip ferru- 
ginous $ . 

The $ has the antennae simple, and differs in having their 
clavolet fimbriated beneath ; the yellow of the collar and scu- 
tellum generally wanting ; the wings with a dark spot within 
their marginal cell ; the anterior trochanters yellow, their fe- 
mora testaceous beneath and in front, and having a small pro- 
duced tooth on their exterior towards the base; the intermediate 
femora testaceous behind and in front ; in all else the legs re- 
semble the 5 ; the abdomen is oblong, with seldom more than 
a minute spot on each side of the first segment, a band, more 
or less interrupted, at the base of the second and third, a trans- 
verse line on each side of the fourth, a central ovate spot on the 
fifth, and a central transverse line on the sixth, but the markings 
of the first, fourth, and fifth segments are sometimes wanting. 

$ $ in my own Collection. 

f-j-f This species is not uncommon near London. 



XXI. CRABRO. 151 

Sp. 14. DIMIDIATUS. Fab. 

niger, Jlavo-maculatus , ahdomine aperte peliolato. 

length 4 J — 6 lines. 
Fab. Ent. Syst. 2. 298. 19 ; Piez. 313. 24 ; V. d. Lind. p. 2. 58. 20 ; 

Oliv. Ency. Meth. 6. 516. 24. 
Crubrn signatus. Panz. F. G. 43. 15. J. 
Blepharipus signatus. St. Farg. 3. 731. 4. 

Head black, subpubescent, smooth, or with a very few minute 
scattered punctures, and shining ; the stemmata placed in a 
triangle towards the posterior margin of the vertex, with a small 
elevation between the posterior pair, and a slight longitudinal 
line extending from the front of the anterior one to the verge 
of the vertex, which is slightly concave ; the anterior and pos- 
terior margins of the vertex and the sides next the eyes elevated, 
presenting a subquadrate superficies, the inner portion of which 
between the eyes and stemmata is concave ; the antennae black, 
the scape yellow, with a black stain above ; the face very 
slightly canaliculated ; the inner orbits, the lower portion of the 
cheeks, and clypeus, covered with a dense silvery down, the 
latter with sometimes a yellow spot on each side of its base, and 
its centre has a longitudinal carina ; the mandibles generally 
black at their base, then yellow, and their apex rufo-piceous, or 
sometimes entirely black, with their apex piceous. 

The thorax black, pubescent ; the dorsolum minutely and 
densely punctured, having in the centre, at its base, two very 
close parallel impressed lines extending to the disk ; the scu- 
tellum punctured ; the metathorax with a subcordate, smooth 
and shining space, which is enclosed all round by a consute 
incisure, and a longitudinal one down its centre, which dilates 
beyond it into a fossulet ; the posterior portion of the meta- 
thorax, on each side of this fossulet, pubescent, with a few 
scattered delicate punctures, and shining ; the collar with a 
transverse band, the apex of the tubercles, a spot on each side 
of the scutellum, and the post-dorsolum, generally yellow ; the 
tegulae piceous ; the wings coloured, their nervures piceous ; 



152 CRABRONID.E. 

the legs with the base and apex of the intermediate and posterior 
coxae rufo-piceous ; the apex of the trochanters yellow ; the 
femora all black ; the tibiae yellow, with a black stain beneath, 
extending sometimes irregularly within the posterior ones ; the 
tarsi rufo-piceous, with their basal joint yellow ; the anterior 
tarsi ciliated on the exterior, and all the tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen black, elongate, lanceolate (the first segment 
much narrowed towards its base, and forming a petiole), with 
five broad yellow bands variously interrupted, and the anus 
yellow, the first and last generally entire, that on the third seg- 
ment sometimes wanting, and those on the fourth, fifth, and 
sixth segments sometimes reduced to a small ovate transverse 
spot on each side, and the sixth occasionally abbreviated on 
each side 2 • 

The $ has the antennae simple, slender, and the scape fim- 
briated beneath, and differs in the latter having only a yellow 
line at the side ; the mandibles black ; the dorsolum less closely 
punctured, and shining ; and the thorax generally without any 
yellow markings ; the wings less deeply coloured, but darker 
on the anterior margin ; the legs black ; the anterior femora 
rufo-piceous at their base and within, the intermediate with a 
testaceous streak inside and outside ; the anterior tibiae yellow 
above, the intermediate on the exterior, and the posterior at the 
knees, and sometimes at the apex on the exterior, and all the 
tarsi piceous or rufo-piceous ; the anterior femora compressed 
and dilated a little behind, their tibiae angularly dilated behind 
towards the middle, and irregularly concave beneath, the inter- 
mediate femora concave beneath, and their tibiae irregularly 
excised on the exterior, with a pale dilatation extending along 
their margin ; the posterior coxae dilated into a flat and acute 
spine towards their base below, their femora slightly flattened 
within ; their tibiae clavate ; the colour of the abdomen gene- 
rally much less than in the $, and consisting frequently of 
merely a band on the first segment, a minute spot on each side 
of the second, a widely interrupted band on the third, another 



XXI, CRABRO. 15.3 

minute sj)ot on each side of the fourth, a spot or two in the 
centre of the sixth, yellow ; and the anus flavo-ferruginous. 
$ ? in my own and other Cabinets. 

f4-t This species is not common. It has been found in 
the Isle of Wight by F. Walker, Esq., at Ripley in Surrey 
by Mr. Stephens, in Lancashire by Mr. Davis, and it has 
occurred in Kent ; but I have never found it in the im- 
mediate vicinity of London. 

Sp. 15. i.EucosTOMA. Lin. 

niger, antennarum scapo taniuin a latere Jlavo s'ignato, rneta- 

thorace Icevi. 

length 4 — 5 lines. 

Fab. Sys. Ent. 376. 13 ; Spec. 1. 472. 17 ; Mant. 1. 297. 27 ; Ent. Syst. 

2. 301. 27 ; Oliv. Ency. Meth. 6. 518. 35 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 61. 24. 
Sphex leiicostoma. Lin. F. S. 1663; Syst. Nat. 1. 946. 36 ; Villers, 3. 

237. 43. 
PemphredoH leucostoma. Fab. Piez. 314. 1. 
Crossocerus leucostoma. St. Farg. 3. 777. 13. 
Crabro bidens. Haliday, Ent. Mag. 1. 516. $. 

Head black, shining, subpubescent ; the vertex with several 
irregular depressions, and a few scattered minute punctures ; 
the stemmata placed in a triangle in its centre, in front of the 
anterior one a deep longitudinal impression extending to the 
face, which is canaliculated, smooth, and shining ; the antennae 
black, the side of the scape with a yellow streak ; the inner 
orbits of the eyes and clypeus densely covered with a silvery 
pubescence ; the mandibles black, their apex piceous. 

The thorax black, subpubescent, smooth, and shining ; the 
dorsolum and scutellum with a very few minute scattered punc- 
tures, the former with two central parallel impressed lines running 
to the disk ; the metathorax with a central deep longitudinal 
incisure, a subcordiform, smooth, and shining space at its base, 
not always distinctly enclosed, beyond which it is minutely 



154> 



CRABRONIDiE. 



punctured ; the peristethium has on each side, behind, a minute 
tooth ; the tegulae piceous ; the wings with a dark cloud beyond 
their centre, their nervures piceous ; the legs entirely black ; 
the posterior tibiae subclavate ; the tarsi generally piceous, the 
anterior tarsi very slightly ciliated ; the intermediate and pos- 
terior tibiee spinose. 

The abdomen black, smooth, and shining ; the margins of 
the posterior segments sometimes piceous, and the apex ferru- 
ginous 5 • 

The $ has the antennae simple, the clavolet fimbriated be- 
neath, and only differs from the 2 in the clypeus having on 
each side a strongly produced tooth, concave beneath. 

■f^j- This species is common near London, and it has 
been found at 'New Lanark by F. Walker, Esq. The species 
described by Mr. Haliday is the $ of it. 

Sp. 16, ELpNGATULus. V. d. Lind. 

niger, elongatus, metathorace antice ohliqu^ striato, pedibus 
duohus anticis tantum suhtus Jlavis, mandihulis palpisque 
piceis. 

length 2i— 3 J lines. 
V. d. Lind. p. 2. 62. 25. 
Crossocerus etongatutus. St. Farg. 3. 790. 28. 

Head black, subquadrate ; the vertex minutely and thickly 
punctured ; the stemmata placed in a triangle in its centre, on 
each side of the posterior ones a smooth and shining depression, 
and between them a longitudinal impressed line, which does not 
extend beyond them posteriorly, the anterior one has in front 
sometimes an obsolete impressed line ; the antennae simple, 
black, the scape yellow at the sides, slightly rufescent at its 
base and apex, the clavolet fimbriated beneath ; the face ca- 
naliculated, and smooth and shining ; the inner orbits of the 
eyes and the clypeus covered with a dense silvery pubescence ; 



XXI. CKABRO. 155 

tlie mandibles black and piceous at their apex ; the palpi 
piceous. 

The thorax black, minutely and closely punctured ; the dor- 
solum with two central parallel slightly elevated lines at its base, 
extending to the disk, and two lateral ones much shorter ; the 
metathorax with a cruciform consute incisure, the transverse 
one somewhat curved, and enclosing the anterior portion of the 
metathorax, which is very convex, somewhat obliquely striate, 
and its posterior portion transversely ; the tegulse piceous ; the 
wings slightly iridescent, hyaline, their nervures piceous ; the 
legs black, the anterior and intermediate femora yellow in front, 
as well as the anterior tibiae ; the calcaria testaceous. 

The abdomen subclavate, black, and shining ; tlie dorsal 
margin of the two basal segments constricted i . 

I do not know the ? , but the following is Van der Linden's 
description of its difference from the $ : " Legs black, except- 
" ing the inside of the anterior tibiae, which are yellow." 

$ in my own and other Cabinets. 

■i4-t This is not uncommon in the vicinity of London. 

Sp. 17. LUTEiPALPis. St. Farg. 

niger, elongatus, metathorace antice oblique striato, mandihulis, 
j)alpis et tibiis quatuor anticis suhtusjlavis $ . 

length 2i— 3 lines. 
Crossocerus luteipalpis, St. Farg. 3. 785. 23. 

Black : head shining, punctured ; the stemmata placed in an 
equilateral triangle on the vertex, a minute longitudinal impres- 
sion between the two posterior ones, which scarcely passes them ; 
the scape of the antennae yellow laterally ; the clypeus, internal 
orbits and cheeks, covered with a dense silvery pubescence ; the 
mandibles and palpi yellow, the former rufescent at their apex. 

The thorax shining and punctured ; three longitudinal lines 
running from the collar to the disk of the dorsolum ; the two 
lobes of the subcordiform base of the metathorax very convex 
and longitudinally striated, the space beyond forming the trun- 



156 



CRABRONID-E. 



cation of the metatliorax transversely striated; the wings hyaline, 
iridescent, their nervures piceous ; the legs black, with the four 
anterior femora and tibiae yellow in front, and the extreme base 
of the posterior tibiae pale ; the tarsi piceous, and the calcaria 
pale testaceous. 

The abdomen has a slight silvery pubescence, and the dorsal 
margin of the two basal segments are somewhat constricted i . 

The ? I am unacquainted with. 

f in ray own Cabinet. 

■f^if Taken in the vicinity of London, where it is not 
uncommon : it occurs in company with the C. elongatulus, 
V. d. Lind., of which it is perhaps only a variety. 

Sp. 18. PRoxiMus. N. Sp. 

niger, elongatus, metathorace antice oblique strialo, viandibidis 
testaceis, tibiis {quatuor anticis exlUs nigris), tarsisque flavis S . 

length 2\ lines. 

Head black, punctured ; the stemmata placed in an equilateral 
triangle in the centre of the vertex, an oblique smooth depres- 
sion on each side of the posterior ones, and a longitudinal im- 
pression between them extending just beyond, another in front 
reaching the face, which is canaliculated ; the antennae simple, 
black, the scape in front yellow, and the clavolet fimbriated 
beneath ; the inner orbits of the eyes and clypeus covered with a 
dense silvery pubescence ; the mandibles black at their base, 
then testaceous, and their apex rufescent. 

The thorax black, shining, with scattered minute punctures ; 
the dorsolum with two central parallel obsolete carinae extending 
to the disk ; the metatliorax with a consute cruciform incisure, 
its anterior portion obliquely striate, and posterior transversely 
so, a minute dot on each side of the collar, and the tubercles 
yellow ; the tegulae testaceous ; the wings hyaline, iridescent, 
their nervures testaceous ; the legs yellow, with the anterior 



XXI. CRABRO. 157 

femora behind and the intermediate and posterior ones, except 
their knees, black, the anterior tibia? beneath and the inter- 
mediate ones with a litura at their apex beneath, and the posterior 
ones, excepting a ringe at their base, black ; the tarsi yellow, 
with their apical joints rufo-piceous, the posterior ones with the 
basal joint, and the base of the second only, yellow, the rest 
piceous. 

The abdomen subclavate, subpubescent, black, and shining ; 
the apical segment flavo- testaceous S. 

I am unacquainted with the 5 . 

$ in ihe collection of the Entomological 
Society of London. 

-|--j-j- This insect, which is unique in the above collection, 
exactly resembles the Crab, elongatulus in the sculpture of 
the metathorax; but the difference of the colour of the 
legs and tubercles, and other minute distinctions, permit me 
I think to consider it more than a variety and specifically 
distinct, it being of the same sex as those I know of that 
species. It is very like the $ of Crossocerus varus of St. 
Fargeau, but wants the yellow on the prothorax and scu- 
tellum, and minor differences, which prevent my treating 
it as that insect. 

Sp. 19. PODAGRicus. V. d. Lind. 

niger, abdomine clavato, metathoracis spat'to subcordiformi 
Icpvi, tibiis posticis voldi incrassatis, perislelhio denticulo 
armato $ 2- 

length 2|— 3^ lines. 
V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 60. 23. 
Crossocerus podagricus. St. Farg. 3. 786. 24. 

Head black, smooth, and shining ; the stemmata placed in a 
triangle in the centre of the vertex, a central longitudinal im- 
pression extending from the anterior one to the face, which is 



158 CRABRONID^. 

slightly canal iculated ; the antennae black, their scape yellow 
with a black line behind ; the inner orbits of the eyes and the 
clypeus covered with a dense silvery pubescence ; the mandibles 
rufescent at their apex. 

The thorax black, thickly covered with very minute punc- 
tures ; the dorsolum at its base with two central and two lateral 
longitudinal impressed lines extending to the disk ; the meta- 
thorax has at its base a subcordiform shining space very delicately 
punctured at its sides, enclosed around with a consute impres- 
sion, a longitudinal one in its centre, broad at the base, and nar- 
rowing towards the apex of the subcordiform space, where it 
becomes obsolete, beyond this it again widens into a deep fossulet 
which extends the whole length of the metathorax, the posterior 
portion of which is punctured in front and slightly transversely 
striate behind ; the peristethium has behind on each side a minute 
tooth ; a minute dot sometimes on each side of the collar, the 
tubercles and the extreme base of the wings (not the tegulae, 
which are piceous) yellow ; the wings slightly coloured, irides- 
cent, their nervures piceous ; the legs black, the anterior femora 
at the knee, their tibiae in front and above, the intermediate tibiae 
above, andtheposterior ones with a ring at their base, all yellow; 
the anterior and intermediate tarsi yellow at their base, and rufo- 
piceous at the apex ; the posterior ones entirely piceous, the 
anterior pair very slightly ciliated, and the intermediate and 
posterior tibiee slightly spinose, the latter very much thickened 
on the exterior towards the apex. 

The abdomen smooth, shining, clavate, longer than the head 
and thorax ; the last segment pinched on each side, presenting 
above a trilobate concavity, the apex rufescent $ . 

The $ has the antennae simple, and with their clavolet fimbri- 
ated beneath, and differs in having the anterior femora yellow 
inside, and above testaceous, with the posterior margin below 
fimbriated; the intermediate femora yellow-testaceous within, and 
a testaceous, sometimes yellow, stain behind ; the intermediate 
trochanters and femora fimbriated, the latter only at their 



XXI. CRABRO. lo9 

base, and the anterior tarsi also densely fimbriated on the edges, 

those as well as the intermediate more yellow, in other respects 

exactly like the 5 ; the abdomen subcylindrical, narrower, and 

more elongate. 

^ 2 in many Cabinets. 

f 4-t If the form of the anus and a difference of general 
habit constituted claims to generic separation, it is clear 
that St. Fargeau ought to have removed this species from 
his genus Crossocerus ; for, in the former peculiarity, it is 
more evidently distinct from the rest of this genus of his 
than are his Corynopus and Physoscelus from each other. 
This and the following species, which latter appears hitherto 
unknown, form, by their distinctly clavate abdomen, with 
the C. dimidiatus a direct link to division B., contain- 
ing the petiolated C. riifiventris and C. tibialis, which 
further proves the inutility of St. Fargeau's elaborate dis- 
tribution, there being, throughout all the species, direct 
points of contact which connect them together, although 
they cannot be arranged in a consecutive series. If in the 
multitude of modes of natural arrangement that have been 
proposed I might be allowed to suggest the intercalation 
of one, I should consider this genus Crahro a central 
group, whence, from the diversity of its forms, all the rest 
of the fossorial Hymenoptera would radiate ; yet, even then 
it will be found that this planet has its satellites, with occa- 
sionally a comet to cross their orbits ! Nature is too Protean 
to be bodiced. 

Sp. 20. CAPITOSUS. N. Sp. 

niger, capite quadrato, abdomine clavoto, metathorace Icevt, tibiis 
jwsticis valde incrassatis $ . 

length 85 lines. 

Entirely black : head large, siibquadrate, smooth and shinino- ; 



166 CRABRONFD.T.. 

the stemmata placed in a triangle in the centre of the vertex, which 
has a few scattered minute punctures and a slightly impressed 
longitudinal line passing from the anterior stemma to a little be- 
yond the posterior ones, and a deeper one in front extending to 
the face, which is canaliculated ; the antennae black, the base 
and apex of the scape sometimes rufo-piceous ; the inner orbits 
of the eyes and the clypeus, which is produced in the centre, in 
front, into a tooth, covered with a dense silvery down : the 
mandibles towards their apex piceous. 

The thorax narrower than the head, somewhat shining ; the 
dorsolum and scutellum with some scattered punctures, and the 
former with two central parallel impressions at its base extending 
to the disk ; the metathorax consute at its extreme base, smooth 
and shining, with a delicate central longitudinal line, which 
deepens beyond the middle, the anterior and posterior por- 
tions not distinctly separated, the former seen under a high 
power, having a few curved very delicate striae ; the tegulae 
rufo-piceous ; the wings subhyaline, very iridescent, their ner- 
vures piceous ; the legs black, the anterior tibiae yellow in 
front, the intermediate ones fuscous at their base and apex, 
the posterior coxae pale testaceous at their apex, and their tibiae, 
which are subclavate, with a pale yellow ring at the base ; the 
anterior and intermediate tarsi pale yellow at their base and 
rufo-piceous at the apex ; the posterior ones rufo-piceous ; the 
legs simple and covered with a thick pubescence. 

The abdomen clavate, the first segment much narrowed at its 
base, black, smooth, and shining ; the anus rufescent at its apex, 
where it is narrowed into a channel ? . 

I am unacquainted with the S . 

$ in my own Collection. 

•f^-f This species will not, strictly speaking, enter into 
any of St. Fargeau's genera, for it has the anus * acumine, 
creuse en gouttiere,'' which would place it in Solenius accord- 
ing to the female characters ; but then it has the ' ocelles en 



XXI. CRABRO, 161 

triangle tquilateral,' but he would probably have placed 
it in the repository Crossocerus, where, notwithstanding the 
characters he has laid down, he inserts insects with both an 
acuminate and channelled anus, and with incrassated pos- 
terior tibiae. See the observations under the preceding 
species, to which this is closely allied in general habit. I 
have taken it, but rarely, in Battersea Fields, and I have 
not observed it in any other collection. 

Sp. 21. HYALiNus. Steph. 

niger, elongatus, metathorace antice oblique striata, mandibulis 
nigris, genibus quatuor posticis tantumjlavis 5 . 

length 3^ lines. 
Stephens's MS. and Systematic Catalogue, pt. 1. 365. 4961. 33. 

Head black, punctured ; the stemmata placed in a triangle on 
the vertex, an impressed line between the posterior ones, but not 
extending beyond them, and another in front of the anterior 
one reaching to the face ; the antennae black, the side of the 
scape fulvescent ; the clypeus covered with a silvery down ; the 
mandibles black, with their apex piceous. 

The thorax black, punctured ; the metathorax with the en- 
closed space at its base obliquely striated, with a central longi- 
tudinal consute incisure ; the posterior portion of the meta- 
thorax transversely striate ; the tegulae piceous ; the wings 
hyaline, their nervures piceous ; the legs black, the anterior 
tibiae in front, and the knees of the others, yellow, the tarsi 
piceous, with their basal joint yellow, the anterior pair simple, 
but all the tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen black, subpubescent, shining j . 

The $ I am unacquainted with. 

$ in Mr. Stephens's Cabinet. 

tit This is not described by St. Fargeau, but would 
come into his genus Crossocerus. 

M 



16^ CRABRONIDjE. 

Sp. 32. TRANSVEnSALlS. N. Sp. 

niger, elongatus, metathorace antice transverse striata. 

length 2j^ lines. 

Head black, thickly punctured ; the stemmata placed in an 
equilateral triangle in the centre of the vertex, a longitudinal 
impressed line between the posterior ones passing not far beyond 
them, and another in front of the anterior one extending to the 
face, which is canaliculated, smooth, and shining ; the antennae 
black, with a fulvous stripe at the side of the scape, and the cla- 
volet fimbriated beneath ; the inner orbits of the eyes and the 
clypeus (which is carinated in the centre, and tridentate in front) 
covered with a dense silvery pubescence ; the mandibles yellow 
testaceous, their apex rufescent. 

The thorax black and thickly punctured ; the metathorax 
with a cruciform consute incisure, the longitudinal one wide at 
the base of the metathorax, narrowing towards the centre, just 
beyond which it dilates into a broad fossulet, the transverse one 
bending upwards and enclosing its anterior portion, which, as 
well as the posterior, is transversely striate ; the collar with two 
small pale spots ; the tegulas piceous ; the wings hyaline, subiri- 
descent, their nervures piceous ; the legs black, the anterior 
and intermediate femora beneath, the anterior tibiae in front, a 
small stain at the knee of the intermediate pair, and a small 
ring at the base of the posterior ones, yellow ; the tarsi piceous. 

The abdomen subclavate, black, smooth, and shining $ . 

I am unacquainted with the $ . 

$ in the Cabinet of Mr. Westwood. 

f-j-t This Crahro, which is unique in the cabinet of Mr. 
Westwood, is the only one I am acquainted with that has 
the anterior portion of the metathorax transversely striated, 
from which circumstance I have named it. It would come 
into St. Fargeau's genus Crossocerus, and near his Cros. 
pusillus, but it does not appear to be described by him. I 
cannot learn where it was taken. 



XXI. CRABRO. 1C3 

Sp. 23, SPINIPECTUS. N. Sp. 

niger, elongatus, thorace flavo-maculato, metathorace antice 
oblique stiiato, peristethio denliculo armato $ $ . 

length 2|— 3 lines. 

Head black, smooth, and shining, with scattered minute punc- 
tures ; the stemmata placed in an equilateral triangle in the 
centre of the vertex, on each side of the posterior ones a per- 
fectly smooth space, and between them a deep longitudinal im- 
pression which extends a short distance beyond, another in front 
of the anterior one extending to the face, which is smooth, 
shining, and canaliculated ; the antennge black, with the scape 
yellow at the sides; the inner orbits of the eyes and the clypeus 
(which is slightly carinated in the centre) covered with a dense 
silvery pubescence ; the mandibles black, with their apex rufes- 
cent. 

The thorax black, loosely punctured, and somewhat shining ; 
at the base of the dorsolum two central, parallel, longitudinal im- 
pressions, which extend to the disk, and an obsolete, abbreviated, 
longitudinal carina on each side of them ; the metathorax with 
a cruciform incisure, consute, widest at the base of the meta- 
thorax, the transverse one curving upwards and enclosing the 
anterior portion, which is obliquely striated, the striae sometimes 
obsolete ; the posterior portion transversely striate, sometimes 
only at its apex, its base having a few punctures ; the posterior 
portion of the peristethium having on each side a large acute 
tooth ; the collar with an interrupted yellow band or small dot 
on each side ; the tegulae testaceous ; the wings slightly irides- 
cent, a dark cloud beyond their middle, and the nervures piceous ; 
the legs black, with the anterior tibiae, in front, and the inter- 
mediate and posterior ones with a ring at their base, yellow, 
sometimes that of the intermediate wanting, and it also varies in 
having occasionally a yellow spot at the apex of the intermediate 
ones beneath, the tarsi piceous, with their basal joint, or merely 

M 2 



164 



CRABRONID£. 



its base, pale ; the anterior pair ciliated on the exterior, and al) 
the tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen subclavate, black, shining, subpubescent, with 
the margins of the segments sometimes piceous ? . 

The $ has the antennae simple, fimbriated beneath, and differs 
in having a yellow spot on the scutellum ; the anterior femora 
yellow above and behind, testaceous in front and black beneath, 
their tibiae black merely I)eneath ; the intermediate femora with 
a yellow stripe above and in front, their tibiae with merely a 
black stain behind ; the anterior and intermediate tarsi with 
their terminal joint piceous, and a piceous spot on the basal 
joint of the anterior ones ; the posterior legs like the $ ; the 
abdomen longer and narrower than the $ . 

^ 5 in my own Cabinet. 

fit This species is a good deal like the Crossocerus 
striatulus of St. Fargeau, but is very distinct. I do not 
find it yet described. I have captured it in the imme- 
diate vicinity of London. 

Sp. 24. Wesmaeli. V. d. Lind. 

niger, thorace Jlavo-rnaculuto, metathorace Icevi j . 

length 2—31 lii^s- 
V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 63. 26. 

Crossocerus Wesmaeli. St. Farg. 3. 783.20 ^ . 

Head black, minutely and delicately punctured ; the stemmata 
placed in a triangle about the centre of the vertex, between the 
posterior ones a slight longitudinal impression, which does not 
pass beyond them, and on each side of them an oblique smooth 
depression, in front of the anterior one another impressed line 
which extends to the face ; the antennae black, the scape beneath 
yellow, its extreme apex (as well as that of the pedicel) some- 
times ferruginous ; the face canaliculated, smooth, and shining ; 
the inner orbits of the eyes, the lower portion of the cheeks, and 



XXI. CRABUO. 165 

the clypeus (which is carinated in the centre), covered with a 
dense^ silvery pubescence; the mandibles black at their base, 
then testaceous or yellow, and their apex rufescent. 

The thorax black, delicately punctured, somewhat shining ; 
the metathorax smooth and shining, with a consute cruciform 
incisure, the transverse one curving upwards, and the posterior 
portion of the metathorax with a few minute scattered punc- 
tures ; the collar with a transverse band, sometimes interrupted, 
the tubercles, the base of the wings (not the tegulae, which are 
rufo-piceous), and a spot on the scutellum, all yellow ; the wings 
hyaline, iridescent, their nervures piceous ; the legs with the 
femora black, the tibiae yellow, the anterior and intermediate 
black beneath, as well as the apical half of the posterior ones, 
the tarsi rufo-piceous or rufo-testaceous, their basal joint more 
or less yellow ; the anterior pair ciliated on the exterior, and all 
the tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen elongate- ovate, black, pubescent, the first 
segment narrowed anteriorly into a petiole ; the anal segment 
coarsely punctured and ferruginous at its apex 2 . 

The ^ I do not know, but V. d. Linden describes it as being 
like the $ , only less yellow. 

5 in the Cabinets of Mr. Walker 
and the Author. 

f 4-t This species was captured by F. Walker, Esq., at 
New Lanark, in Scotland, to whom I am indebted for 
specimens. 

Sp. 25. PUBESCENS. N. Sp. 

niger, elongatus, capite et thorace pilis longis vestitis, metathorace 
Icevi $. 

length 3 lines. 

Head black, opaque, with punctures scattered over an irregular 
surface ; the stemmata placed in an equilateral triangle rather 



166 crabromdjG. 

behind the centre of the vertex, an impressed longitudinal line 
extending from the anterior one to the face ; the forehead, 
temples, and cheeks covered with a long pubescence ; the face 
canaliculated, smooth, and shining; the antennae black, fimbri- 
ated beneath, with a stripe at the sides of the scape yellow ; the 
inner orbits of the eyes, and the clypeus (which is produced in 
front), covered with a dense silvery pubescence ; the mandibles 
black. 

The thorax black, shining, delicately punctured ; the collar 
and dorsolum covered with a long black pubescence ; the meta- 
thorax with a subcordifcrm smooth and shining space at its base, 
which is divided from the posterior portion of the metathorax 
by a short consute transverse incisure, and it has down its centre 
a longitudinal deep incisure which beyond the transverse one 
dilates into a fossulet, at the sides of which it is smooth and 
shining ; the tegulae piceous ; the wings darkish, their nervures 
piceous ; the legs black, the anterior tibiae fulvous within, the 
intermediate femora with a fuscous stripe in front and behind, 
the tarsi piceous ; the anterior tibiae and tarsi densely fimbriated 
on the exterior. 

The abdomen elongato-ovate, black, subpubescent, and shin- 
ing ^• 

I am unacquainted with the $ . 

^ in the Cabinets of the Entomological 
Society and Mr. Stephens. 

•f\.-f This insect, which is only in the Cabinets of the 
Entomological Society of London and of Mr. Stephens, is 
distinguished from the rest of the small black ones by the 
great length of the hair on the head and thorax, and the 
densely fimbriated anterior tibiae and tarsi ; in the sculptm-e 
of the metathorax it in some degrees resembles the C. leu- 
costoma, particularly in the central longitudinal incisure, 
but in that insect the aubcordiform space is not so distinctly 
defined as in this. It would be a Crossocerus of St. Far- 



XXI. CRABRO. Ifi7 

geau, but he does not appear to liave described it. 1 
cannot learn where it was found. 

Sp. 26. OBLIQUUS. N. Sp. 

niger, elongaius, metathoracis spatii suhcord'iformi disco tantum 
Icevi, Umbo oblique striata, 

length 2^— 3| lines. 

Head black, subquadrate ; the vertex minutely and closely 
punctured ; the stemmata placed in a triangle in its centre, on 
each side of the posterior ones a smooth and shining depression, 
and between them a longitudinal impressed line which does not 
extend beyond them, the anterior one has in front a deep im- 
pressed line which extends to the face ; the antennae black, with 
the scape on each side yellow ; the face canaliculated, smooth, 
and shining : the inner orbits of the eyes and clypeus (which is 
carinated in the centre) covered with a dense silvery pubescence ; 
tlie mandibles black, testaceous, or yellow, their apex piceous 
or rufescent ; the palpi pale testaceous, or rufo-testaceous. 

The thorax black, closely and densely covered with minute 
punctures ; the dorsolum with two central parallel slightly ele- 
vated lines at its base extending to the disk, and two lateral ones 
much shorter ; the metathorax with a cruciform consute incisure, 
the transverse one somewhat curved and enclosing the anterior 
portion of the metathorax, the disk of which is smooth and 
shining, and the sides and limb behind obliquely striated, the 
posterior portion is transversely striated ; the collar with some- 
times a pale or yellow dot on each side ; the tegulae piceous ; 
the wings with a cloud beyond the middle, iridescent, and their 
nervures piceous ; the legs black, with the anterior tibiae yellow 
in front, and the intermediate and posterior ones yellow at their 
knees, the tarsi piceous, the basal joint of the intermediate 
and posterior pairs sometimes pale at the base ; the anterior tarsi 
simple, the intermediate and posterior tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen subclavate, black, minutely punctured, and 
shining $ . 



168 CRABRONIDiE. 

The $ differs in having the antennas fimbriated beneath ; and 
the scape in front, the intermediate tibiae in front, and the pos- 
terior ones at the base, all yellow. 

$ in the Cabinet of Mr. Stephens, 
5 in Mr, Walker's and my own. 

•\\.-\ This species approaches somewhat to the Crossocerus 
niger of St. Fargeau, but it is distinct. I have taken the 2 
in company with the C. elongatulus in the neighbourhood 
of London, and Mr. Walker has taken it at Barmouth. 

Sp. 27. PROPINQUUS. N. Sp. 

niger, elotigatus, metathorace Icevi, clypeo nigro. 

length 2i— 3| lines. 
? Crossocerus pallidipalpis. St. Farg. 3. 779. 15. 

Head black, minutely punctured ; the stemmata placed in a 
triangle in the middle of the vertex, a delicate longitudinal im- 
pression between the posterior ones which passes just beyond 
them, a smooth shining depression on each side of them, a deeper 
longitudinal depression in front of the anterior one extending to 
the face ; the antennae black, with a yellow line on the outside 
of the scape ; the inner orbits of the eyes, the lower part of the 
cheeks, and the clypeus, covered with a silvery pubescence ; the 
mandibles black, with their apex rufo-piceous. 

The thorax black, minutely punctured, somewhat shining ; two 
central parallel longitudinal lines at the base of the dorsolum, 
extending to the disk, and two shorter lateral ones ; the meta- 
thorax smooth and shining, having a consute cruciform incisure, 
the transverse one curving upwards, and the posterior portion 
of the metathorax with some scattered punctures ; the collar with 
sometimes a minute pale yellow dot on each side ; the tegulae 
piceous ; the wings slightly coloured, and their nervures piceous ; 
the legs black, the anterior tibiae in front yellow, and the inter- 
mediate and posterior ones yellow at the extreme base, the tarsi 



XXI. CRABRO. 169 

rufo-piceous or piceous, the base of the basal joint of the 
posterior ones sometimes paler. 

The abdomen subclavate, black, shining, subpubescent ; the 
apex of the last segment sometimes piceous 5 . 

The $ differs in having the antennae fimbriated beneath, and 
the intermediate tibiae yellow in front. 

^ ? in my own Collection. 

t-i-t This species resembles a good deal to the C. levipes 
of Van der Linden, but is distinguished from it in the 
shape of its head chiefly, and the colour of the legs ; it 
approaches very closely to the C. Wesmaeli, but from 
which it differs both in colour and the shape of its abdomen. 
It is also very like the Crossocerus pallidipalpis of St. Far- 
geau, of which it may possibly be a variety. I captured it 
in the vicinity of London. 

Sp. 28. GENicuLATus. Steph. 

niger, clypeoflavo-maculato, mandibulis nigris, metathorace Icevi. 

length 5 lines. 
Stephens's Systematic Catalogue, pt. 1. p. 365. 496, n. 

Head black, punctured, shining ; stemmata placed in a triangle 
on the vertex, with an impressed line in front of the anterior one 
extending to the base of the antennae, which are black, with the 
scape yellow, but having a black stain behind ; the interior orbits 
of the eyes and clypeus covered with a dense silvery pubescence, 
the latter having a yellow spot in its centre covering the carina; 
the mandibles black, with their apex piceous. 

The thorax black, punctured, shining ; the dorsolum with two 
central parallel lines, extending from the base to the disc ; the 
metathorax with the subcordiform space at its base smooth, and 
having down its centre a longitudinal consute incisure, the 
posterior portion also smooth or very slightly transversely stri- 
ated ; the tegulae piceous ; the wings slightly coloured, their 



170 



CRABRONID.F.. 



nervures piccous ; the legs yellow, with the femora, the anterior 
and intermediate tibiae beneath, and the posterior ones at their 
apex, black ; the terminal joint of the tarsi piceous ; the an- 
terior pair slightly ciliated, and the posterior tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen black, shining, subpubescent, with the margins 
of the segments and the apex of the last one piceous $ . 

The ^ I am unacquainted with. 

5 in the Cabinet of Mr. Stephens. 

t^t This conspicuous insect, of which I know but the 
unique specimen in Mr. Stephens's collection, and which 
he took at Ripley in Surrey, may, perhaps, be the $ of the 
Crossocerus himaculatus of St. Fargeau. 

Sp. 29. Walkeri. N. Sp. 

niger, orhitis internis oculorum mandibuUsqueJlavis, metalhorace 
Icevi, abdomine ovato-conico $ . 

length 3 lines. 

Head black, somewhat shining, loosely punctured ; the stem- 
mata placed in a triangle in the centre of the vertex, with a deli- 
cate, longitudinal, impressed line between the posterior ones ex- 
tending considerably beyond them behind, and another deeper, in 
front of the anterior one, reaching the face ; the antennae black, 
their scape yellow, with a black stain behind ; the face slightly 
canaliculated, smooth, and shining, with a yellow line on each 
side of the inner orbits of the eyes, which is loosely covered with 
a silvery pubescence, as well as the lower portion of the cheeks ; 
the clypeus slightly convex, yellow, very much produced in the 
centre in front, and more densely covered with the silvery down ; 
the mandibles yellow on the outside, piceous within, their apex 
rufescent ; the palpi pale testaceous. 

The thorax black, shining, loosely punctured ; the metathorax 
with a cordate space at its base smooth and shining, the sides of 
which in front have some delicate curved striae, and it has a 



XXI. CRAEUO. 171 

central longitudinal incisure which, as well as that which encloses 
it laterally and in front, is consute ; the posterior portion of the 
metathorax somewhat transversely striated ; the collar with a 
dot on each side, and the tuhercles yellow ; the tegulse testaceous ; 
the wings hyaline, iridescent, their nervures piceous ; the legs 
yellow, with the anterior femora black behind, and ferruginous 
beneath, their tibiae with a black stain below, the intermediate 
black behind, their tibiae also with a black stain beneath, the 
posterior femora entirely black, their tibiae with a black stain at 
the apex above, the anterior and intermediate tarsi of a pale 
yellow, with the terminal joint rufo-piceous, the posterior ones 
piceous, with their basal joint yellow. 

The abdomen elongate- conical, black, subpubescent ; the 
margins of the segments testaceous, and the apex of the anal 
segment ferruginous $ . 

The 2 I am unacquainted with. 

$ in my own Collection. 

•f-^-'f- This very distinct Crahro is unique in my Cabinet, 
to which it was kindly presented by F. Walker, Esq., to 
whom I have the pleasure of dedicating it; it and the 
Crossocerus luteicollis of St. Fargeau are the only ones of 
the genus that I am acquainted with, that have yellow 
markings on the face between the eyes. This insect will 
not enter into any of St. Fargeau's divisions ; it approachas 
most to his Crossocerus, div. 2. ; but its prothorax or 
collar is not " anguleuxy^ nor are its antennte " garnis 
d'une frange de polls," and the " appendice de la radial " 
runs parallel to the anterior margin of the wings. 

Sp. 30. ALBILABRIS. Fab. 

niger, stemniatibus in lineam curvam positis, capite thoracis 
latitudine, metathoracis hasi longitudinaliter striata, ahdomine 
ovalo-conico, mgro-viridi ; $ capite mutico. 

length 2|— 3i lines. 



172 



CRABRONID.*;. 



Fab. E. Syst. 2. 302. 31 ; V. d. Lind. pt, 2. 55. 28. 
Crabro leucostoma. Panz. F. G. 15. 24. 
Pemphredon albilabris. Fab. Piez. 316. 8. 
Lindenius albilabris. St. Farg. 3. 795. 4. 

Head slightly aeneous, punctured ; the stemmata placed in a 
curved line on the vertex, the posterior pair having an impressed 
line between them extending beyond but not quite to the occi- 
put, another in front of the anterior one, reaching to the centre 
of the face ; the antennae black, with the base and apex of the 
scape fuscous ; the inner orbits of the eyes and clypeus covered 
with a dense silvery pubescence, the latter slightly carinated ; 
the mandibles black, their apex piceous. 

The thorax black, punctured ; the metathorax having the sub- 
cordiform space at its base longitudinally striated, the posterior 
portion has a deep fossulet in its centre, and is slightly punctate 
in front, and transversely striated behind ; the tegulae piceous ; 
the extreme base of the wings yellow, the nervures testaceo- 
piceous, and the wings themselves coloured about the centre and 
pale towards their apex ; the legs black, with the anterior tibiae 
in front and the base of the two posterior pairs yellow, all the 
tarsi piceous, the basal joint being the darkest ; the anterior pair 
ciliated in front, and the intermediate and posterior tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen aeneous, pubescent, particularly conspicuous in 
angles on each side of the base of the segments, which thence have 
a silvery tinge ; the apex of the posterior segment fuscous ? . 

The $ differs in having the apex of the scape, an inter- 
rupted transverse line on the collar, the tubercles, the exterior 
of all the tibiae, and the basal joint of the tarsi, all yellow, the 
remainder of the latter graduating from testaceous to piceous ; 
the exterior of the apex of the intermediate tibiae and the 
plantae densely fringed with long curled hair ; the aeneous tinge 
of the body is stronger in this sex than in the 5 . 

$ in the Rev. G. T. Rudd's Collection ; 
$ in my own and other Collections. 

f-^t The i has been taken by the Rev. G. T. Rudd in 



XXI. CRABRO. 175 

the New Forest. The 5 is not uncommon in pathways, in 
Battersea Fields, especially where Cerceris ornata nidifi- 
cates ; but I have not yet captured the $ . 

Sp. 31. Panzeri. V. d, Lind. 

niger, stemmatibus in lineam curvam positis, capite magno, me- 
tathoracis basi longitudinaliter striato, abdomine ovato-conico. 
$ margine infero capitis utrinque spind armato. 

length If— 85 lines, 
V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 67. 29. 
Crabro scutatus 5 . Panz. F. G. 9. 15. 23. 
Lindenius Panzeri. St. Farg. 3. 798. 8. 

Black, pubescent ; the head wider than the thorax, quadrate ; 
the stemmata placed in a curve, an obsolete impressed line ex- 
tending from the anterior one to the sulcation of the face, and 
another behind it reaching to the occiput ; the scape of the an- 
tennae entirely and the mandibles yellow, the latter rufescent 
at their apex ; the clypeus and internal orbits covered with a 
silvery pubescence. 

The thorax punctured and pubescent ; the metathorax having 
the subcordiform space at its base longitudinally striated ; an 
interrupted line upon the collar, a spot upon the scutellum, and 
the tubercles yellow ; the tegulae testaceous ; the wings hyaline, 
a little darker towards their apex, and nervures piceous ; legs 
yellow, with their coxag, trochanters, femora, and exterior of the 
four anterior tibiae, and extremity of the posterior pair, black, 
the terminal joints of the tarsi rufescent ; the tibiae, especially 
the posterior ones, very spinose, and the anterior tarsi ciliated. 

The abdomen smooth and shining, with an aeneous tinge, and 
the base of the segments covered laterally with a dense grey 
pubescence ; the terminal segment rufescent $ . 

The $ differs only in having the head larger, a spine on each 
side beneath the cheeks ; the scape of the antennae black, with 
merely a lateral yellow streak, and seldom any yellow on the 



174 CRABRONID/E. 

scutelliim, and sometimes the whole thorax black, and the legs 
less varied with yellow. 

^ 5 in my own and other Collections. 

f^,f I have occasionally taken this species in Battersea 
Fields ; its habits seem similar to those of the C. albilahris. 
I have found them both frequenting pathways, in which 
they nidificated in company with Cerceris ornata ; but I 
have more frequently taken the present upon a red-currant 
bush infested by an Aphis. 

Sp. 32. ExiGuus. V. d. Lind. 

niger, metathoracis basi Icevi, peristethio denticulato, abdomine 
ovato-cordco. 

length I3 — 2 1 lines. 
V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 72. 33. 
Crossocerns exiguus. St. Farg. 3. 791. 30. 

Head black, smooth and shining, with scattered very minute 
punctures ; the stemmata placed in an equilateral triangle in 
the centre of the vertex, an oblique perfectly smooth depression 
on each side of the posterior ones, a longitudinal deep impres- 
sion between them, extending a little beyond, and another in 
front of the anterior one, reaching to the face, which is canali- 
culated, smooth, and shining; the antennae black, with the scape 
yellow in front ; the inner orbits of the eyes and the clypeus 
(which is carinated in the centre) covered with a dense silvery 
pubescence ; the mandibles black, with their apex piceous. 

The thorax black, shining, with scattered punctures, covered 
beneath with a loose silvery pubescence ; at the base of the dor- 
solum two central parallel longitudinal impressions, which ex- 
tend to the disk, and an abbreviated distinct carina on each 
side of them ; the metathorax with an enclosed subcordiform 
space at its base, smooth and shining, or merely very slightly 
obliquely striated at its extreme lateral edge, and having a 



XXI. CRABRO. 175 

central longitudinal incisure, broadest at its base, and narrowing 
towards its apex, where it dilates into a fossulet, the impression 
enclosing it consute ; the posterior portion of the metathorax 
also smooth and shining, its lateral edges having highly raised 
ridges ; the posterior portion of the peristethium with a minute 
tooth on each side ; the collar with a small yellow spot on each 
side, sometimes wanting ; the tegulae testaceous ; the extreme 
base of the wings yellow ; the wings subiridescent, slightly 
clouded beyond their middle, their nervures piceous ; the legs 
black, with the anterior and intermediate tibiae in front, and a 
ring at the base of the posterior ones, yellow ; the tarsi rufo- 
piceous, their basal joint pale ; the anterior tarsi slightly ciliated, 
and the tibias spinose. 

The abdomen elongato-ovate, slightly narrower than the tho- 
rax, black, subpubescent, shining, sometimes the margin of the 
posterior segments piceous, and the apex of the last ferru- 
ginous 5 . 

The $ differs in sometimes wanting the yellow spots on the 
collar ; the intermediate femora having a yellow stain beneath, 
the yellow ring at the base of the posterior tibies smaller, the 
four anterior tarsi piceous, and the posterior pair black. 

^ $ in my own Collection. 

tit I have taken both sexes of this insect in Battersea 
Fields. It approaches a good deal to my C. spinipectus. 

Sp. S3. BREVis. V. d. Lind. 

niger, sternmatibus in lineam curvam positis, metathoracis hast 

Icevi, abdomine thoracis longitudine, basi subtrimcato $ $ . 

length 2 — 2\ lines. 
V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 70. 32. 

Lindenius brevis. St. Farg. 3. 800. 10. 

Head wider than the thorax, black, shining, loosely but 
deeply punctured ; the stemmata placed in a curve about the 
centre of the vertex, an oblique smooth depression on each side 
towards the front of the posterior ones, which have a short Ion- 



176 CRABRONIDiE. 

gitudinal impression between them, extending a little beyond ; 
the antennae black, the scape yellow at the sides, and fulvous 
at its base ; the inner orbits of the eye and the clypeus, which 
is convex, covered with a dense silvery pubescence, and the 
lower part of the cheeks less densely so ; the mandibles black, 
their apex piceous or ferruginous, and having an obtuse tooth 
at their base on the exterior. 

The thorax black and shining, and having scattered punc- 
tures ; the metatborax with an enclosed subcordiform smooth 
space at its base, with a slight central longitudinal impression, 
the enclosing portion consute, the posterior portion smooth and 
shining, or only slightly punctured, its lateral edges not ridged ; 
the tubercles yellow ; the tegulae testaceous, or their anterior half 
yellow ; and the wings with a dark cloud beyond their centre, 
extending to their edge, the nervures piceous ; the legs black, 
with the anterior femora testaceous above, and the intermediate 
ones beneath at their apex, the anterior tibiae in front and above, 
the intermediate above and behind, and the posterior ones with 
a ring at their base, yellow, the anterior tarsi testaceous, the 
intermediate and posterior ones rufo-piceous, the tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen ovato-conical, scarcely longer than the thorax, 
and a little broader, black, with a griseous pubescence, and the 
margins of the posterior segments piceous, the apex of the last 
segment ferruginous $ . 

The $ has the antennae simple, and differs in its mandibles 
being yellow at their base, rufo-testaceous in the middle, and 
rufo-piceous at the apex ; the legs yellow, the anterior and in- 
termediate femora having a black stripe behind below, and the 
posterior ones entirely black, the intermediate and posterior 
tibiae with a piceous stain at their apex behind, and the apical 
joints of the tarsi ferruginous. 

^ $ in my own and 
other Cabinets. 

-|--|.-j- This insect presents a remarkable divarication from 



XXI. CRABRO. 177 

the type, in the form of its mandibles, as also in that of 
its abdomen, which is short and thick. I have taken it in 
Battersea Fields, and at Coombe in Surrey. 

Sp. 34. TIBIALIS. Fab. 

niger, ahdomine petiolato, primo segmento nodosa, tih'iarum pos- 

licoruni apice rufo. 

length 3 — S^ lines. 
Fab. Ent. Syst. Sup. 271 ; Panz. F. G. 83. 14 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 73. 35. 
Pemphredon tibialis. Fab. Piez. 315. 4. 
Corynopus tibialis. St. Farg. 3. 803. 1. 

Head black, shining, delicately punctured ; an impressed line 
running obliquely on each side of the anterior stemma, and 
passing the outside of the posterior ones ; the antennae black, 
the scape beneath yellow ; the clypeus covered with a silvery 
pubescence, very much produced, and projecting in front, having 
a sinus on each side ; the mandibles black at the base, then 
yellow, and tlie apex piceous. 

The thorax black, punctured ; the metathorax having the 
cordiform space occupying nearly its whole superficies extending 
posteriorly to its apex, enclosed at the sides, towards its apex, 
by a slightly elevated ridge, which becomes obsolete as it ad- 
vances forwards, its base very smooth and shining, the sides 
covered with a grey pubescence ; it has a longitudinal impression 
extending its whole length in the centre, and which from a re- 
gular line becomes a deep fossulet that reaches nearly to its apex ; 
the tubercles and the tegulae testaceous ; the wings hyaline, 
iridescent, with their nervures piceous ; the legs black, with the 
apex of the anterior femora, and their tibiae and tarsi yellow, 
the base of the intermediate and posterior tibiae and the tarsi 
of the former also yellow, and the apex of the intermediate and 
the posterior tibiae red, those of the latter most distinctly so ; 
the tibiae very spinose. 

The abdomen black, punctured, shining ; the margin of the 
petiole and of the two or three posterior segments sometimes 
piceous, the anal segment red $ . 

N 



178 CRABRONID.'E. 

The ^ (lifters in having the second joint of the antennae pro- 
duced at its apex into a tooth, the third very minute, not so long 
as tlie second, the fourth considerably swollen, and as long as 
the fifth, which is deeply emarginate, the remainder equal, and 
a little longer than the third ; the scape yellow beneath as well 
as the second joint or pedicel, the swollen portion of the fourth, 
and the margin of the fifth, fulvous, and the seventh, ninth and 
eleventh joints white ; the clypeus more produced and projecting 
further, and above slightly concave, and the ridge, which sepai'ates 
the genae from the jugulum, terminated in front, near the mouth, 
by a produced tooth ; the coxae and trochanters of the inter- 
mediate and the base of the coxae and entire trochanters of the 
posterior legs yellow, the apex of the intermediate tibiae also 
yellow ; the first joint of the anterior tarsi dilated on the in- 
side, of the intermediate on the outside towards its centre, and 
of the posterior compressed, slightly curved, flat beneath, and 
all fimbriated at their sides ; the posterior femora very pu- 
bescent beneath. 

$ $ In my own Collection. 

•\\.-\ Mr. Walker takes this species upon lime-trees in 
the vicinity of London. I have taken the $ at Darenth, 
and Mr. Westwood took several at Netley in Shropshire. 
Although St. Fargeau says the antennae of the $ have but 
twelve joints, they will be found upon inspection to have 
thirteen. 

Sp. 35. RUFivENTRis. Panz. 

niger, ahdomine nigro-rujbque petiolato, primo segmento nodosOy 

tibiarum posticorum apice nigro. 

length 2i— 3J: lines. 
Panz. F. G. 72. 12 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 72. 34. 
Physoscelus riijiventris, St. Farg. 3.805.1. 

Head black, delicately punctured, shining ; a slight longi- 
tudinal impression extending from the face to the anterior 



XXI. CRABRO. 179 

stemma, behind which it becomes a slightly elevated ridge, 
which passes a little beyond the posterior ones ; the inner orbits 
of the eyes and clypeus covered with a silvery pubescence ; the 
antennae black, with the scape entirely yellow, the pedicel tes- 
taceous, sometimes piceous, and the underside of the basal joint 
of the clavolet piceous ; the clypeus slightly produced, and pro- 
jecting in front ; the mandibles yellow, rufescent at their apex. 

The thorax black, delicately punctured, slightly shining ; the 
dorsolum with two central parallel impressed lines at its base 
terminating towards the disk ; the metathorax quite smooth and 
shining at the base in front, in the centre of which there is a 
slight variole and a deep fossulet commencing about its centre, 
and extending to the apex ; the sides covered with a sericeous 
down, and at the sides of the base sometimes very delicate 
longitudinal striae ; the tubercles yellow-testaceous ; the tegulae 
testaceous ; the wings iridescent, the nervures piceous ; the an- 
terior and intermediate legs entirely yellow, excepting the base 
of the femora only, which are piceous, and a piceous patch inside 
of the intermediate tibiae, the posterior pair black, with the 
apex of their coxae and base of the tibiae yellow, their tarsi 
piceous ; the intermediate and posterior tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen red, with the petiole (except its margin) and the 
base of the first segment, black, and the fifth segment generally 
piceous, sometimes the third segment only red, and the margin 
of ail piceous 5 . 

The $ differs in having the sixth joint of the antennas eraar- 
ginate, and all the joints slightly coloured above ; the anterior 
portion of the metathorax very delicately longitudinally striate, 
extending in the form of a semicircle from the base, beyond 
which it is delicately punctured, a central longitudinal impres- 
sion extending its whole length, and connected with the fossulet 
observed in the $ , and more pubescent about the same part ; 
the margin of the second segment, and base of the third only, 
red. 

S 2 in mv own and Rev. (i. T. Rudd's Collections. 



ISO CRABRONTD.E. 

t4't This species is found in the vicinity of London ; and 
the Rev. G. T. Rudd has taken it in the Isle of Wight, 
near Ryde. 

Genus XXII. — Stigmus. Jiir. 

Head subquadrate, the angles rounded, flattish on its superior 
surface in the $ , and convex in the $ , wider than the thorax 
in the $ , of about its width in the $ ; eyes oval, distant, lateral ; 
stemmata placed in an equilateral triangle far back upon the 
vertex ; antenncs inserted at the base of the clypeus, filiform, 
geniculate, the scape subclavate, the clavolet arcuate, with 
the joints cylindrical, excepting the pedicel, which is obconic ; 
clypeus rhomboidal, with the anterior edge emarginate ; labruni 
concealed; mandibles large, tridentate. Thorax oval; the 
mesothorax somewhat gibbous, truncated ; the collar trans- 
verse, with the angles acute ; the scutellum transverse, and 
the metathorax elongate, obtuse. Superior rvings with a very 
large lanceolate stigma, and one marginal cell, which becomes 
acuminated after the second submarginal, and two submarginal 
cells complete, the first twice the size of the second, and receiving 
near the middle the recurrent nervure, the second cell transverse ; 
the legs moderate, with a small pulvillus inserted in the furca 
of the bifid claw ; the posterior tibice with a few spines, and 
the anterior tarsi simple. Abdomen ellipsoidal, attached by a 
long linear petiole to the thorax, acuminate at the apex, the 
hypopygium in the $ produced beyond the podex, depressed, 

and obtuse at its extremity. 

Type, S. pendulus. Panz. 

■\\.-\ This genus was created by Jurine in 1804, and named 
from the extraordinary size of the stigma of the wing. It 
was immediately adopted by entomologists ; but it is re- 
markable that both Latreille and Dr. Leach placed the 
Pemphredon (Diodontus) minutus with it, notwithstanding 
J urine's fio-ure. 



XXII. STIGMUS. 181 

Sr. 1. PENDULUS. Panz. 

niger, mandibulis testaceis, pedibus anterioribus et tarsis poxl'wis 
ferrugineis. 

length 1^—3 lines. 
Panz. F. G. 14. 7; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 74. 1. 
Stigmus ater. Jurine, 139, pi. 9, g. 7 ; St. Farg. Ency. Meth. x. 493. 

Head smooth, with a longitudinal impression extending from 
the centre of the face to the anterior stemma ; the face very de- 
licately longitudinally striate ; the antennae with the basal joint 
piceous above and ferruginous beneath, the remainder of the 
joints also of the latter colour, slightly darker above ; the man- 
dibles testaceous, with their apex piceous, and the palpi tes- 
taceous. 

The thorax smooth ; the collar longitudinally striate ; the 
dorsolum with two slight, longitudinal, elevated lines in the 
centre at its base, extending to the middle of the disc, on each 
side of which it has also at the base a deep longitudinal abbre- 
viated impression; the epaulets of the tegulae consute, as well as 
the incisure which separates the scutellum from the dorsolum ; 
the scutellum itself sometimes with a central longitudinal im- 
pression ; the metathorax rugose, with the superior surface 
having a central longitudinal carina, and another on each side 
of it slightly curved ; the tubercles with a pale lunule ; the te- 
gulae testaceous; the wings iridescent, the stigma and nervures 
piceous, the recurrent nervure joining the first subraarginal cell 
at about two-thirds of its length ; legs black, entirely simple, 
with the anterior and intermediate tibiae and tarsi, and the pos- 
terior knees and tarsi, ferruginous. 

Abdomen black, smooth, and shining, attached to the thorax 
by a long petiole, which has a longitudinal carina running on 
each side, with the interstices shagreened $ . 

The $ differs in having the face covered with a silvery pubes- 
cence, and the parts, which are testaceous and ferruginous in 
the $ , yellow, with the exception of the tegulae, which are pi- 
ceous, and the exterior of the intermediate tibiae also piceous. 



182 CRABRONlD.i:. 

and all the articulations of the legs ferruginous ; the margins of 
the segments of the abdomen frequently piceous. 

^ 5 in my own Cabinet. 

t4-t This species has been taken at Coombe ; Mr. Walker 
takes it upon lime-trees and in windows near London ; 
and I have found it this year in Battersea Fields upon a 
red-currant bush infested by an Aphis. 

Genus XXIII. — Celia. Shuck. 

Head transverse, of about the width of the thorax; the stem- 
mata placed in an equilateral triangle, far back upon the 
vertex ; eyes lateral, oval ; antennt^ inserted on each side at 
the base of the clypeus, geniculated; /airM?w concealed; man- 
dibles simple, arcuate, in $ , bidentate at the apex in the $ . 
Thorax oval, gibbulous ; collar transverse, angles acute ; 
scutellum transverse ; metathorax elongate, truncated, its su- 
perficies having a cordate enclosed space ; superior- wings with 
a very large ovate stigma, the marginal cell of the usual form, 
the first suhmarginal cell nearly twice as large as the second, 
which is square, the recurrent nervure anastomoses, with the first 
transverso-cubital ; legs slender, simple. Abdomen subsessile, 

ovato-conic. 

Type, C. troglodytes. V, d. Lind. 

f^^-f- The name of this genus is derived from xvjXjj, which 
is synonymous with stigma. I have separated it from the 
preceding, both on account of the different neuration of 
the wings and its general difference of habit. 

Sp. 1. troglodytes. V. d. Lind. 

niger, pedibus piceis, tar sis p)osticis ferrugineis. 

$ naso, clypeo et mandibulis flavis. 

length \\ — If lines. 
Sligmus troglodytes. V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 74. 2. 

Head black, delicately punctured ; antenna; black, with the 



XXIII. CELIA. 183 

scape and pedicel ferruginous or piceous (sometimes entirely 
black) ; a carina running in the middle of the face from the base 
of the clypeus, half way to the vertex, where it becomes an 
impressed line extending to the anterior stemma. 

Thorax punctured; the collar longitudinally striate ; scutellum 
quadrate, the incisure at its base consute ; the metathorax having 
a longitudinal carina on each side of the centre of its superior 
surface, which is enclosed by an elevated ridge, the interstices 
transversely striate ; the tegulae testaceous ; the wings hyaline, 
iridescent, with the stigma and nervures black ; the legs black, 
with the anterior tibiae and tarsi, the apex of the intermediate 
tibiffi, and the whole of their tarsi, as well as the posterior ones, 
ferruginous, sometimes the intermediate and posterior tibiae are 
of the same colour, and sometimes the tarsi only are piceous ; 
the tarsi and tibiae entirely simple. 

The abdomen subsessile, black, smooth, and shining ; the 
margins of the segments sometimes piceous $ . 

The S differs in having the nasus very much produced, and 
bright yellow, as well as a large lobe on each side of it, extend- 
ing half way up the inner orbits of the eyes, sometimes merely 
the apex of the nasus, and the lobe within the eyes very small ; 
the clypeus and mandibles also yellow, the latter with their 
apex piceous ; the antennae piceous, their scape and pedicel 
testaceous, the former yellow beneath, and those portions of 
the legs testaceous or yellow-testaceous which are ferruginous or 
piceous in the $ . 

^ 5 in my own and other Cabinets. 

•f^f Mr. Walker has taken this species in the same lo- 
cality with the preceding, and also in the Isle of Wight. 
Mr. Stephens took it frequently in his windows at the 
Hermitage, South Lambeth, Mr. Westwood has taken 
it at Coombe, and I found a single ? this year (1836) at 
Battersea. 



184 



CRABRONID.E. 



b. Mandibles strong, dentate ; two recurrent nervures. 
Genus XXIV. — Diodontus. Curt. 
Head large, subquadrate, of the width of the thorax ; eyes oval, 
very distant, placed at the sides of the head ; antennce geni- 
culated, a little longer than the head, and inserted at the base 
of the clypeus, not approximated; the scape obconic, the 
second joint subglobose, the rest cylindrical, very slightly in- 
creasing, sometimes subserrate in the males within ; the clypeus 
transverse, tridentate ; labrum emarginate ; the mandibles bi- 
dentate. Thorax oval ; the collar transverse, linear ; the 
scutellum transverse, lunulate ; the metathorax short, obtuse ; 
the superior wings with one marginal cell narrowing beyond the 
second submarginal, and two submarginal cells, the first oblong, 
receiving towards its end the first recurrent nervure, the second 
forming an isosceles triangle, truncated at its apex, and re- 
ceiving the second recurrent nervure ; the legs moderate, slight, 
frequently spinose. The Abdomen subsessile, ovato-conical ; 
the terminal segment in the $ constricted at its apex into an 
acute upcurved spine. 

Type, D. tristis. V. d. Lind. 

tit The etymology of this genus is Aj, two, and oSovroa;, 
to furnish with teeth, from the emargination of the labrum. 
Mr. Curtis has taken the details from the Pemphredon 
tristis, which he incorrectly makes synonymous with the 
Psen pallipes of Panzer ; this therefore is his type, although, 
in illustration of the genus, he figures a different and new 
species, which, according to my view, belongs to a distinct 
genus, and I consequently separate it as such, and form 
of it, with two others, one of which is the Pemphredon 
insignis of Vander Linden, the genus Passaloecus. Latreille, 
in his * Precis,' evidently makes a species of the present 
genus the type of his genus Pemphredon, but in his ' Genera' 
he places it in the genus Siigmus, and by his generic de- 



XXIV. DIODONTUS. 185 

scription treats the P. lugiibris as the type of the genus 
Pemphredon, which subsequently always remained as such 
in his works. He no wheie mentions the emargination of 
the labrum, or the processes which arm the clypeus, in the 
first species of the present genus. 

Sp. 1. MiNUTUs. Fab. 

ater, viandihulis lute'is, basi ct ap'ice nigris. 

length l\ — If lines. 
Curtis, Brit. Entomology, folio 496. 
Crabro minutus. Fab. Ent. Sys. 2. 302. 32. 
Pemphredon minutus. Fab. Piez. 316. 9 ; St. Farg. Ency. M6th. 10. 

48. 2. 2 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 78. 2. 
Cemoinis minutus, Jurine, 214. 
Stigmus minictus. Latr. Gen. 4. 84. 

Head black, with scattered punctures ; clypeus with three 
dentations ; mandibles yellow, with their apex rufo-piceous. 

Thorax black, with some scattered punctures on the dor- 
solum, which has also two or three obsolete longitudinal impres- 
sions ; metathorax rugose, with a few longitudinal striae at its 
base ; tubercles of a yellowish white ; tegulae piceo-testaceous ; 
wings very slightly coloured, iridescent, the nervures black ; the 
legs black, with the anterior tibiae yellow, having a brown spot 
on the outside, their tarsi testaceous, the knees, apex of the 
tibiae and tarsi of the intermediate and posterior pairs, rufo- 
piceous ; the intermediate and posterior legs spinose, and the 
anterior tibiae slightly ciliated. 

The abdomen black, slightly pubescent, and delicately punc- 
tured ? . 

The $ differs in having the face in front covered with a 
silvery pubescence, and the underside of the antennae from the 
pedicel yellow, with only the margins of the joints black, and 
having that yellow which in the legs of the female is testaceous 
and rufo-piceous, the extreme joints of the intermediate and 
posterior tarsi being testaceous, and the first joint of the an- 



186 rUABRONID.T:. 

terior tarsi much bent, and of the intermediate pair dilated ex- 
ternally towards tlie extremity, where it is pectinated. 

^ $ in my own and other Cabinets. 

i4f Mr. Westwood possesses a remarkable specimen of 
the S of this insect, in which the head is nearly as wide 
again as the thorax. This species is common. 

Sp. 2. LUPERUS. N. Sp. 

ater, incisuru inter dorsolum ct scutellum simpUcc. 

length IJ— 21 lines. 

Head black, punctured, chiefly on the face, less so on the 
vertex ; a short longitudinal impressed line between the anterior 
stemma and the centre of the face ; the mandibles entirely black. 

The thorax black, with a few scattered punctures ; three longi- 
tudinal elevated obsolete lines extending down the centre from 
the base of the dorsolum ; the incisure which separates the 
scutellum from the dorsolum with only a central division, or 
quite plain ; the metathorax very short, longitudinally striated 
at its base, and rugose beyond ; the pectus smooth or merely 
slightly punctured ; the wings slightly coloured, iridescent at 
their extremity ; the legs black, the anterior tibiae with more or 
less yellow running down the front, their apex rufo-fuscous, as 
well as all the tarsi ; the intermediate and posterior tibiae very 
spinose, and the anterior tarsi slightly ciliated. 

The abdomen minutely punctured, subpubescent, with the 
margin of the last two segments piceous $ . 

The $ differs in having the anterior tibiae and tarsi yellow, 
the former with a longitudinal piceous stain behind ; the knees, 
apex of the tibiae and tarsi, except their apical articulations, 
flavo-rufescent. 

^ $ in my own Cabinet. 

^--l-t f his^ species is very distinct both from the preceding 



XXIV. DlOnONTUS. 



187 



and the succeeding ; in size it is intermediate between the 
two. It appears to have been hitherto overlooked or 
mixed with the following species, from which it differs 
in the sculpture of the incisure between the dorsolum and 
scutellum, and also in size ; it appears to be not uncommon, 

Sp. S. TRisTrs. V. d. Lind. 

ater, hic'isaru inter dorsolum et .scutellum consutd. 

length 2i— 3i lines. 
V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 76. 1. 
? Pemphredon miinitus. $ St. Farg. 10. 48. 2. 

Head black, shining, punctured, more thickly so on tlie face ; 
mandibles rufescent at their apex. 

Thorax black, shining, subpubescent ; the dorsolum with a 
few scattered punctures, and having an impressed longitudinal 
line on each side forming a kind of epaulet to the tegulae, and 
somewhat slightly longitudinally striated down its centre, occu- 
pying about the third of its superficies, in some the striae are 
seen only at the base and apex ; the deep incisure that separates 
the dorsolum from the scutellum consute ; the pectus transversely 
wrinkled ; the scutellum very shining, with a very few scattered 
punctures, and sometimes having a longitudinal line in its centre ; 
the metathorax very rugose ; the wings iridescent, with their 
nervures piceous, and a dark cloud about their middle ; the legs 
black, with the tarsi sometimes nigro-piceous, or a shade 
lighter, but generally black ; the calcaria testaceous ; the an- 
terior tarsi very slightly ciliated, and the intermediate and pos- 
terior tibiae spinose. 

The abdoinen black, ovato-conic, subpubescent, and very 
minutely punctured $ . 

The $ differs in having the head and thorax more deeply 
punctured ; the striae of the dorsolum obsolete ; the legs, with 
the anterior tibiae in front, and their tarsi, entirely yellow ; the 
intermediate and posterior tibiae yellow-testaceous, with the ex- 
ception of an irregular spot in front, which sometimes encircles it 



I8tf crabronid.t:. 

in a ring ; tlieir tarsi of the same colour, with their terminal 
joints piceous ; the legs less spinose than in the $ . 

^ 5 in my own Collection. 

fit This species, which was first described by V. d. Lin- 
den, is tolerably common at Highgate. Panzer's synonyme 
certainly belongs to the S of Psen atratus. 

Genus XXV. — Passalcecus. Shuck. 

Head subglobose, wider than the thorax ; eyes lateral, ovate ; 
stemmata placed in a triangle on the vertex near the forehead ; 
antenncs inserted at the base of the clypeus, not approximate, 
the scape obconical, the pedicel subglobose, the joints of the 
clavolet cylindrical ; clypeus transverse, convex, marginate in 
front, where it is slightly produced and tridentate, or merely 
obsoletely so ; lahrum entire, triangular or semicircular ; m«n- 
rfi6/es gradually widening towards the apex, where they are bi- 
or tridentate, in the former case the inner tooth is molar. 
Thorax sublinear ; collar transverse, slightly constricted into 
a short neck ; 5cwie//Mm transverse, lunate ; metalhorax elon- 
gate, obtusely truncated at its extremity ; the superior wings 
with one marginal cell acuminate beyond the second suhmarginal 
and two suhmarginal cells, the first oblong receiving the first re- 
current nervure near its extremity, the second transverse, slightly 
narrowed towards the marginal cell, and receiving the second 
recurrent nervure about its centre ; the legs moderate, slender, 
simple. The Abdomen elongate, subsessile, the second seg- 
ment constricted slightly at its base, as also the third, but less 
so ; the terminal segment in the $ produced into an upcurved 
spine. 

Type, P, insignis. V. d. Lind. 

Ht I called this genus Xyloecus in my table, in refer- 
ence to its dwelling in wood, and it was printed before I 
discovered that Serville had used the same for a genus of 



XXV. PASSALCECUS. 189 

longicorn beetles ; he consequently has tlie priority, and my 
original name must necessarily be changed ; it may there- 
fore stand as Passalcecus, which has nearly the same sig- 
nification, viz. T:u(j(Ta\oQ, a stake or jmling, and oixoj, a house, 
from their burrowing in palings, &:c. Mr. Curtis included 
two of these insects in his genus Diodontus, and the obser- 
vations under that genus and under Pemphredon may be 
referred to, in explanation of my reasons for having still 
further subdivided them. 

Sp. 1. iNsiGNis. V. d. Lind. 

ater, mand'ihul'is jmlpisque Jlavis, cornicido inter antennas ohso- 
leto J ; jwrrecto $ . 

length 2i— 3 lines. 
Pemphredon insignis. V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 79. 3. 5 only. 
Viodontus insignis. Curtis's Brit. Ent. folio 497. 

Head black, thickly punctured ; an impressed longitudinal 
line extending from the anterior stemraa to the middle of the 
face ; the clypeus transverse, convex, marginate in front, and 
obsoletely tridentate ; the labrum triangular ; antennte black, 
with the scape beneath cream-coloured ; the mandibles cream- 
coloured, with their apex ferruginous and tridentate ; the palpi 
yellow, except the outside of their basal joints. 

Thorax black, delicately punctured, shining ; the epaulets of 
the tegulae consute, a longitudinal scratch on each side parallel 
with the middle of the epaulet, and a longitudinal deep impres- 
sion on each side within the scratches, extending from the base 
of the dorsolum to its disk, where it gradually becomes obso- 
lete ; the scutellum delicately punctured ; the metathorax very 
rugose and obtusely truncate at its extremity ; the tubercles 
white ; the tegulse testaceous, with their margins black ; the 
wings iridescent, the stigma large, the nervures piceous ; the 
legs black, with the articulations of the femora, their apex, and 
entire tibiae and tarsi, ferrusfinous. 



190 cuarronid.t:. 

The abdomen black, as long as the head and thorax, finely 
punctured, subpubescent; the margins of the three first seg- 
ments constricted $ . 

The $ differs in having a short acute horn between the basal 
joints of the antennae ; the clypeus covered with a silvery pubes- 
cence, and those portions of the legs luteous which are ferru- 
ginous in the j , and the hypopygium produced into an acute 
upcurved spine. 

,J 5 in my own Cabinet. 

f 4.t This species is not uncommon about palings, posts, 
and outhouses. I have not been able to detect its prey. 
The $ which V. d. Linden ascribes to it belongs to another 
species. 

Sp. 2. GRACILIS. Curt. 

ater, mandibulls macula laded, corniculo in utrisque sexibus 
deficiente, 

length 2-J— 2f lines. 
Diodontvs gracilis. Curtis 's Brit. Ent. Vol. 7. fol. 496. pi. 496. 

Head black, thickly punctured ; a longitudinal impression ex- 
tending from the anterior stemma to the middle of the face ; 
the scape of the antennas pale yellow in front ; the clypeus 
anteriorly marginate, the margin obsoletely tridentate ; labrum 
large, triangular, convex, with a central depression at its base ; 
mandibles with a broad pale yellow stripe, their apex ferruginous 
and bidentate, the inner tooth a molar ; the palpi piceous. 

The thorax black, thickly punctured, except the scutellum, 
which is very shiny ; the dorsolum with the epaulets of the 
tegulse consute, and a slight scratch parallel with the middle of 
the epaulet, a consute longitudinal line on each side towards the 
middle extending from the base to the apex, within which at the 
base there are two slight abbreviated elevated lines ; the meta- 
thorax rugose and shiny ; the tegulfe piceous ; the wings irides- 



XXV. PASSAr.CECUS. 191 

cent ; the legs black, with the anterior pair within, their tarsi, 
and the knees and tarsi of the intermediate, rufescent, and a 
pale luteous ring at the base of the posterior tibiae. 

The abdomen very black and shiny ; and the margins of the 
first three segments constricted 5 . 

The ^ differs only in having a silvery pubescence on the face 
and clypeus ; the metathorax more rugose, and those portions, 
which are rufescent in the legs of the j , in this sex luteous ; 
and the ring at the base of the posterior tibiae pale yellow, as 
are also sometimes the tubercles. 

$ 5 in my own Collection. 

^■\.-\ I have met with this species not uncommonly in 
Battersea Fields, and likewise at Highgate. Mr. F. Walker 
possesses a remarkable specimen of the $ , in which the 
first transverse cubital nervure is wanting on both sides. 

Sp. 3. CORNIGER. N. Sp. 

(iter, corniculo inter antennas porrecto 5 ; obsoJeto ^. 

length 2 — 3 lines. 

Head black, punctured, slightly shining ; an impressed line 
extending from the anterior stemma to the acute spine which 
stands in the centre of the face just above the insertion of the 
antennae, the scape of which is fulvous or rufescent, either 
entirely in front or at its base and apex merely ; the clypeus 
distinctly tridentate ; the central tooth the largest ; the labrum 
semicircular, convex ; mandibles tridentate, rufescent at the 
apex ; the palpi fulvous. 

The thorax black, punctured, slightly shining ; the epaulets 
of the tegulee consute, and a slight scratch parallel with their 
middle, a consute longitudinal line on each side towards the 
middle extending from the base to the apex, within which at the 
base there are two slight abbreviated elevated lines ; the meta- 
thorax very rugose ; the tegulae piceous ; the tubercles generally 



192 CRABRONID.'E. 

whitish ; the wings iridescent, hyaline, but darkish towards their 
apical margin ; the legs black, with the knees of the anterior 
femora, their tibiae and tarsi, the base and apex of the inter- 
mediate tibiae and their tarsi entirely, and the base and apex of 
the posterior tibiae, fulvous. 

The abdomen black, witli the margins of the first three seg- 
ments constricted, especially the back of the two first 5 . 

The ^ differs by the obsolete or deficient tubercle of the 

face, the latter, as well as the clypeus, has a silvery pubescence ; 

the scape of the antennae entirely black ; the anterior tibiae in 

front merely, and the other portions of the legs, which in the $ 

are fulvous, here are luteous, excepting the apex of the posterior 

tibiae, which is black. 

^j^ $ in my own Collection. 

f-j-f The marked differences of these three insects war- 
rant my considering them as distinct species, especially as 
my opinion is formed from a great number, which all agree. 
It is remarkable, that the horn in the centre of the face is 
found only, and that very conspicuously, in the $ of the in- 
signis ; in the $ it is not present, nor in either of the sexes 
of the gracilis ; but in the $ of corniger it is again very 
prominent, and only obsoletely present in the $ . What 
can be its use ? It is evidently not a sexual character, as 
the first and the last of these species have it in the opposite 
sexes ; and we find a somewhat similar appendage in both 
sexes of the Pemphredon {Ceratophorus) morio. I have 
hitherto detected nothing in its economy which at all leads 
even to a supposition. The species is not uncommon in 
Battersea Fields, where I have captured it upon a currant- 
bush infested by an Aphis. 

Genus XXV I.^— Pemphredon. Latr. 

Head large, subquadrate ; eyes small, ovate, placed at the 
lateral angles of the head ; the stemmala in a triangle on the 



XXVr. PEMPIIRF.DOK. 193 

vertex ; the antennce geniculated, inserted at tlie base of the 
clypeus, but not approximate, subserrate in the $ ; clypeus 
transverse, the centre of its anterior margin produced, trun- 
cated, entire, and slightly reflexed ; the lahrum minute, trian- 
gular, entire (in P. morio very large) ; mandibles very strong, 
spoon-shaped and quadridentate at their apex (in P. morio $ 
bidentate). Thorax short, ovate, somewhat gibbous ; collar 
linear, almost concealed by the gibbosity of the dorsolum ; 
scutcUum transverse, lunulate ; the metathorax very gibbous ; 
the superior wings with one marginal and two submarginal cells, 
the first submarginal oblong, receiving the first recurrent nervure 
about its centre, the second submarginal square (in P. morio 
widest towards the marginal) receiving the second recurrent 
nervure near its commencement; the legs moderately long, 
slender, slightly spinose. The abdomen lanceolate, with a 
very long petiole, which viewed laterally is slightly curved and 
longer than the first segment of tlie abdomen (in P. morio 
only one half as long as the first segment), the last segment 
terminated by an acute spine in the $ , and canaliculated in 
the 2 . 

Type, P. lugubris. Fab. 

t-^t Ahe derivation of the name is 7rsjW.(pp>]8a;v, a flying 
insect, and was established by Latreille in his ' Precis,'' 
without naming any type ; but it may be presumed to 
have been a ,? of a species of the present genus Dio- 
dontus, from his description of the mandibles. In his 
next work, the ' Histoire,' vol. xiii. p. 325, in naming the 
genus Pemphredon, he does not describe the mandibles, 
but refers to the Crabro lugubris, Fab. — Sphex unicolor, 
Panz., as the ' best determined species of this genus.' In 
his ' Genera (which ought to be considered his final view, 
for in his last work, the ' Regne AnimaV of Cuvier, vols, 
iv. and v. he constantly refers to it), he describes the genus 



194 CRAnKONlD.?".. 

Pemphredon as having spoon-shaped and quadridentate 
mandibles, and adduces the P. luguhris of his * Histoire' 
as the type, and refers the P. minutus (which he there for 
the first time states to have been the original type of his 
genus Pemphredon in the ' Precis'), to the genus Stigmus 
of Jurine, and makes it the first section of this genus. 
In the ' Nouveau Diction. d'Hist. Naturelle^ torn. xv. 
p. 151, 1817, he further confirms this, by stating that the 
mandibles of Pemphredon ' are stronger (in comparison 
with Stigmus), and dentate all along their inner edge : 
thus, therefore, although the original type of this genus was 
the Pemphredon {Diodontus) minutus, F. ; yet as Latreille 
subsequently changed his views, I necessarily follow the 
course he adopted, and consider the Crabro luguhris, F., 
as the true type of the genus Pemphredon. I have given 
this history of the genus in consequence of Mr. Westwood 
having, by a string of inaccuracies in a recent periodical,* 
introduced confusion where the course was exceedingly 
cleai-, and this is the more unfortunate, as they are pro- 
duced as an example in a paper on nomenclature, where 
the strictest correctness was requisite, and even addition- 
ally requisite, if such a condition be possible where ac- 
curacy is always indispensable, because he there corrects 
what he considers the inaccuracy of Mr. Curtis, but who 
is certainly right. I hope this will be read and understood 
in its proper sense, and not be misconstrued into invi- 
dious carping, as it is my wish to do uniform justice, 
without which, truth, which should be the great and para- 
mount object of us all, is unmercifully sacrificed. It is 
remarkable that St. Fargeau should not have subdivided 

* Loudon's Magazine of Natural History, No. 67, vol. 9, p, 565. 



XXVI. PEMPHUEDON. 195 

this genus as it stands in Latreille, especially as he has 
more recently done so in Gorytes and Crabro upon much 
less justifiable considerations, which may be seen in the 
observations I have made under those genera. In follow^- 
ing out the alary system, which I consider the chief and 
best mode whereby the fossorial Hymenoptera may be 
naturally subdivided, I have been obliged to re-estabhsh 
Jurine's genus Cemonus, which St. Fargeau and V. d. Lin- 
den had suppressed, as also to form two new ones ; thus 
the insects which in Latreille, St. Fargeau, and V. d. Linden 
constitute the sections and subsections of one genus, I con- 
sider as forming five, viz. Diodontus, Passalcecus, Pem- 
phredon, Ceratophorus, and Cemonus ; and my views ap- 
pear to be confirmed by each genus containing species 
which agree precisely in habit, with the exception of the 
JR. morio of V. d. Linden, which stands solitary, but differs 
so considerably from the typical Pemphredon, that V. d. 
Linden must have separated it, at least from its contiguity 
to the P. luguhris, could he have examined it. The different 
form of its second submarginal cell, the shape of its head, 
the bidentate mandibles in the $, tubercle of the face, 
large labrum, short petiole of the abdomen, all combine 
to produce a very different habit, which agrees better with 
the genus Diodontiis, from which however it sufficiently 
differs, especially in the entire labrum and distinctly pe- 
tiolated abdomen ; in the tubercle of the face it resembles 
Passalcecus, in which however it is acute and not emar- 
ginate, and in the sculpture of the metathorax a Cemonus. 
Had I been acquainted with the insect before my table 
was printed, I should certainly have treated it as a genus, 
and which I now propose by the name of Ceratophorus, 
xsp«j, a horn, ^opoc, hearing, from the tubercle of its face. 



196 t'UAI'.UONlD.E. 

Scctio 1. The petiole of tlie abdoir.en long ; the second sub- 
marginal cell square. 

Sp. 1. LUGUBRIS. Fab. 

ater, pnhescens, metathorace rugoso, margine ohliquk slriato, 

abdominis pctiolo longo. 

length 3^ — 5^ lines. 
Latr. Hist, Nat. 13. 325; Nouv. Diet, ^nd ed. 25. 151 ; Fab. Piez. 

315. 2 ; St. Farg. Ency. Meth. 10. 48. 1 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 80. 4. 
Crahro luguhris. Fab. E. S. 2. 302. 30. 
Sphex unicolor. Panz. F. G. 52. 24. 
Cemonus unicolor. Jurine, pi. 11. G. 28. 
liigubris. Jur. p. 214. 

Head black, pilose ; the face longitudinally and somewhat 
irregularly striate in front from the vertex to the clypeus, which 
have scattered punctures, those on the vertex decreasing towards 
the occiput ; the whole head loosely covered with long griseous 
hairs, which are longest on the clypeus, mandibles, cheeks, and 
occiput. 

The thorax black, opaque, pilose ; the dorsolum having three 
abbreviated, longitudinal, impressed lines in front, and two 
deeper ones on each side parallel with the centre of the epaulet of 
the tegulee ; the whole thorax very coarsely rugose, somewhat less 
in front of the dorsolum ; the metathorax having a semicircular 
space at its base enclosed by an elevated ridge at the verge of 
the truncation, and the truncation with a deep fossulet in its 
centre ; the pubescence is longest at the sides and apex of the 
metathorax, and towards the collar; the wings are coloured, 
slightly iridescent, with their nervures piceous, and a cloud fre- 
quently occupying the centre of their disk ; the legs somewhat 
hairy ; the anterior tarsi slightly ciliated ; and the intermediate 
and posterior tibiae subspinose. 

The abdomen black, pubescent, shining ; the petiole much 
longer than the remainder of the first segment, much curved, 
and its upper surface very coarsely punctured ; the pubescence 
is longest on the petiole and apical segments j . 



XXVI. PEMPHREDOX. 197 

The $ differs only in having the face covered with a silvery 
pubescence, and the dorsolum appears coarsely punctured instead 
of rugose. 

^ $ in my own and other Collections. 

f 4,f Very common, inhabiting posts and rails. It sup- 
plies its young with Aphides. I have never seen it con- 
struct its own cell, but consider it very probable, from the 
structure of its mandibles. 

Sp. 2. LUCTUOSUS. N. Sp. 

ater, pubescens, marg'mis inetalhoracis sutnmo tantum Icsvi, abdo- 
minis petiolo longo. 

length 3f lines. 

Entirely black : head very pubescent, deeply punctured and 
shining ; clypeus covered with a silvery down. 

Thorax very pubescent and punctured ; peristethium trans- 
versely wrinkled ; nnetathorax rugose, the subcordiform space 
at its base enclosed by an elevated smooth and very shining ridge ; 
wings hyaline, their nervures piceous. 

Abdomen having the petiole rugose, with a central longitudinal 
channel and longer than the remainder of the first segment, the 
terminal segments hirsute $ . 

$ in my own Collection. 

tl-j- The solitary specimen from which I have drawn 
the above description I took in Battersea Fields. Although 
unique, the remarkable difference in the sculpture of the 
metathorax admits of my considering it a distinct species ; 
for the value of this character is exemplified throughout 
the Fossores, in species where there is no lack of speci- 
mens to corroborate it, and in which it is never found to 
vary. 



198 



CRABRONIDiE. 



Sectio 2. The petiole of the abdomen short, the second sub- 
marginal cell widest towards the marginal. 

Sp. 3. MORio. V. d. Lind. 

ater, marginis metathoracis summo Icevi, abdominis petiolo brevi, 

length 2^—3 lines. 
V. d. Linden, pt. 2. 82. 5. 

Entirely black, head punctured, pubescent, shining ; an obtuse 
tubercle, slightly ernarginate at the apex, in the centre of the 
face, just above the insertion of the antennae, and the face on 
each side between it and the eyes very prominent ; the clypeus 
tridentate, the central tooth obsolete ; labrum large, prominent, 
triangular, convex, but canaliculated down the centre ; mandi- 
bles bidentate at the apex, where they are rufescent. 

The thorax pubescent, shining ; the sides of the pectus rugose ; 
the peristethium obsoletely transversely wrinkled, and a deep 
longitudinal depression down the centre, in the middle of which 
there is an elevated line ; metathorax rugose, excepting a broad, 
smooth, and shining margin to the subcordiform space ; wings 
hyaline, or but slightly tinged, the nervures piceous ; the second 
submarginal cell not so square as in the P. higubris, and widest 
towards the marginal cell ; legs entirely simple. 

The abdomen hirsute, especially the terminal segments ; the 
petiole very short, being about one half the length of the re- 
mainder of the first segment, rugose, canaliculated down the 
centre ; the extreme margin of the two or three last segments 
frequently piceous $ . 

The $ differs in the tubercle of the face being less obtuse 
and not emarginate, and in the mandibles being tridentate. 

<? $ in my own Collection. 

t-^t Of this insect, which may be henceforth considered 
the type of the genus Ceraiopkorus, I have taken both 
sexes in Battersea Fields; but I have not been able to 
ascertain its habits, nor did I detect its being a British 



XXVII. CEMONUS. 



199 



species until recently, upon examining my this year's 
[1836] captures, I found it intermixed with the species of 
the genus Diodontus. It is further distinguished from all 
Van der Linden's and St. Fargeau's Pemphredones, by not 
having a silvery pubescence on the face in either sex, and 
which is a remarkable distinction in this family- 

Genus XXVII. — Cemonus. Jurine. 

Head large, subquadrate ; eyes small, oval, placed at the lateral 
angles of the head and very distant ; antenncE geniculated, 
inserted at the base of the clypeus but not approximate ; the 
anterior margin of the clypeus acutely produced in the centre ; 
the lahnim small, entire, triangular, deflexed laterally ; the man- 
dibles spoon-shaped, quinquedentate, the third inner tooth very 
obtuse and the largest, the rest acute. The thorax ovate ; 
the collar transverse, linear ; the dorsoluin somewhat gibbous ; 
the scutellum transverse, quadrate, the posterior angles round- 
ed ; the metalhorax obtusely truncate ; the superior wings with 
one marginal and two sid)marginal cells, the first sithmarginal 
oblong receiving both the recurrent nervures, the first towards 
its centre, and the second towards its extremity — the second sub- 
marginal almost square, slightly wider towards the marginal 
cell; the legs moderately long. The abdomen oval, petio- 
lated ; the petiole slightly curved and not longer than the first 

segment of the abdomen. 

Type, C. unicolor. F. 

f4-t This genus was formed by Jurine for the insects 
which Latreille had previously named Pemphredon, and 
which he divided into two families ; it consequently fell 
into a synonyme of that genus as they stood prior to my 
separation of them as his division was not admitted by sub- 
sequent writers ; I therefore think it but just to Jurine to 
re-establish his genus by the type he intended for it, al- 
though by some accident he figured the Pemphredon lu- 
gubris, F., by that name. This genus consequently con- 



300 CKABRONID^. 

sists of his second family, as I consider that the strictest 
rules of nomenclature admit of my using his name for that 
division, which does not furnish a type for a previously 
established genus. 

Si'. 1. uNicoLOR. Latr. 

ater, nietathoracis basis limbo Iceci et summo circumscripto. 

length 2| — 4^ lines. 
Jurine, p. 214. (2nd family, note, without the synonymes). 
Pemphredon unicolor. Latr. G. 4. 84 ; St. Farg. Ency. Meth. 10. 48. 
3 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 83. 6. (without the synonymes). 

Entirely black : head pubescent, deeply punctured, the punc- 
tures irregular and somewhat reticvdated, becoming striae on the 
face, and but sparingly punctured towards the occiput ; a deep 
longitudinal impression extending from the anterior stemma to 
the base of the antennae, and the face with a silvery pubescence. 

The thorax black, pubescent ; the dorsolum punctured thickly 
at its base towards the collar and at the sides, sparingly towards • 
the disk, where it is shining ; one or two deep longitudinal 
central impressions at its base, and another short one on each 
side parallel with the epaulet of the tegulae ; the scutellum slightly 
punctured ; the metathorax with a subcordate space at its base 
either longitudinally striated or rugose, and enclosed behind by 
a smooth shining limbus distinctly defined on its posterior 
margin ; the sides and posterior portion of the metathorax 
rugose and covered with scattered long griseous hairs, and a 
deep fossulet in the centre ; the wings slightly coloured (some- 
times fuscous), the nervures piceous ; the legs pubescent, with 
the anterior tarsi slightly ciliated, and the intermediate and 
posterior tibiae subspinose. 

The abdomen black, pubescent, punctured ; the petiole 
curved, coarsely and deeply punctured above, scarcely longer 
than the remainder of the first segment, and covered with long 
griseous hairs as well as the apical and ventral segments, but 
where they are not so long $ . 



XXVII. f EMONUS, 



201 



The $ does not differ, except in having more of the silvery 

pubescence on the face. 

$ $ in my own Collection. 

•f^-f I have shown under Psen ater that the usual Fa- 
brician synonymes cannot come here. Common in hedge- 
rows and upon shrubs. 

Sp. 2. LETHIFER. N. Sp. 

ater, metathoracis basis limbo Icevi sed summo non distincte cir- 

cumscripto. 

length 2^ — 85 lines. 

Entirely black : head pubescent, deeply punctured, more 
thickly upon the face, where they generally form longitudinal 
striae ; the face very shiny, a deep impression rising from the 
base of the antennae upwards towards the anterior stemma, but 
terminating before it reaches it ; the mandibles quadridentate, 
the clypeus, cheeks, and occiput with long scattered griseous 
Jiairs. 

The thorax punctured ; the dorsolum having two central lon- 
gitudinal abbreviated impressed lines at the base, and another 
on each side, parallel with and over the middle of the epaulet ; 
the metathorax with a subcordiform space at its base, longi- 
tudinally striated, and enclosed by a smooth and shiny limbus, 
not defined on its posterior margin, the sides and posterior por- 
tion of the metathorax punctured, the punctures decreasing 
gradually upwards towards the limbus, at the centre of the pos- 
terior margin whereof there is a deep fossulet extending towards 
the apex of the metathorax, on the sides of which and on the 
collar are long griseous hairs ; the wings slightly coloured, the 
nervures piceous, and sometimes a coloured cloud on the disk ; 
the anterior tarsi very slightly ciliated, and a very few slight 
spines on the outside of the intermediate and posterior tibiae. 

The abdomen pubescent, punctured ; the petiole curved, deeply 
punctured, not longer than the remainder of the segment, and 
very hairy, as well as the apical segments $ , 



202 CKABKONID.E. 

The $ does not differ except in having the silvery pubescence 
much thicker on the lower part of the face. 

^ $ in my own Collection. 

■f\.f Although the differences are slight which separate 
this from the preceding species, yet they are uniform in 
the sexes, and unvarying in the great number of both 
which I have examined. It is equally common, and found 
in similar situations. 

B. Either three or four submarginal cells complete, 
a. Antennae filiform, mandibles strong, tridentate in ? . 

Genus XXVIII. — Mellinus. Fab. 

Head large, transverse, vertical ; eyes large, oval, distant ; 
stemmata seated on the vertex towards the front ; antennce 
inserted in the lower portion of the face, towards the clypeus, 
distant at their base, filiform, somewhat thicker in the $, the 
scape subobconic ; the clypeus transverse, rounded in front, 
armed in the centre of its anterior margin with three dentate 
processes ; lahrum transverse, linear, concealed ; the mandibles 
tridentate in the ?, bidentate in the $, the apical tooth acu- 
minate, and much advanced beyond the others. The thorax 
ovate ; the collar transverse ; the scutellum subquadrate ; the 
metathorax obtuse, with an ovate plane space at its base, en- 
closed by a smooth frame ; the superior wings with one mar- 
ginal cell, elongate and narrow, and four submarginal cells, the 
Jirst oblong, and as large as the two following, receiving the 
first recurrent nervure near its junction with the second, which is 
much narrowed towards the marginal, the third also slightly so, 
and receiving near its commencement the second recurrent ner- 
vure, the fourth reaching the apex of the wing; the legs 
slender, moderate, subspinose. The abdomen lanceolate, 
the first segment prolonged into a very long petiole, nodose 



XXVIII. MELLINUS. 203 

at its extremity ; the apical segment flat, with a longitudinal 
carina on each side, and obtuse at its extremity. 

Type, M. arvensis. Lin. 

"f^f This genus, of which the etymology is uncertain, 
was first established by Fabricius in his 'Entomologia Sys- 
tematica,' in 1793 ; but with him it always comprised, in 
conjunction, the insects which Latreille subsequently se- 
parated by the name of Gorytes, but who also confounded 
species of that genus and Alyson with it, until Jurine's 
system cleared up the confusion. The genus Gorytes was 
formed upon the true type of the present genus, viz. the 
Sphex mystacea, Lin., but as nothing could be gained by 
subverting what has taken place, and in which all writers 
have hitherto tacitly concurred, I leave it as it is. 

^Sp. 1. ARVENSIS. Lin, 

niger, abdomine fasciis quatuor (tertid interrwptd), pcdibusque 
Jlavis. 

length 3^—7^ lines. 
Fab. Ent. Syst. 2. 287. 7 5 Piez.299. lOj Latr. Hist. 13.319.3 ; Nouv. 
Diet. 2 ed. 20. 100 ; Dumeril, Diet, des Sc. Nat. 30. 2. 2 ; V. d. Lind. 
pt. 2. 84. 1. $. 
Vespa arvensis. Lin. Syst. Nat. 1. 950. 12 ; F. S. 1678 ; Fab. Syst. Ent. 
368. 30 ; Sp. 1. 465. 50 ; Mant. 1. 291. 49 ; Villers, 3. 269. 9 ; Christ. 
234. $. 
Vespa superbtis. Harris, Expos, p. 227. 3. pi. 37. fig. 3. J . 
Vespa Iricincta. Vill. 3. 279. 33. $ . 
Crabro U.fiavum. Panz. F. G. 17. 20. $ . 
Crahro bipunctatus. Fab. Mantissa, 1.296.18; Olivier, Ency. Meth. 

6 516.20. $. 
Mellinus bipunctatus. Fab. Ent. Syst. 2. 286. 4 ; Piez. 298. 6 ; Latr. 
H. N. 13. 320. 5 ; Nouv. Diet. 2 ed. 20. 100. $ . 

Head black, punctured, pubescent ; the face with the internal 
orbits of the eyes having a marginal yellow line, and a transverse 



204 CllARItOMD.'E. 

one frequently at tlie base of the clypeus, sometimes inter- 
rupted ; the antennoc black, with the scape yellow, excepting 
a small black mark above, and the remaining joints more or 
less fulvous beneath ; the mandibles with a yellow spot at their 
base. 

The thorax black, punctured ; the metathorax witli an ovate 
space at its base, rugose, and enclosed in a frame of the shape 
of a horse-shoe, which is very delicately punctured, beyond 
which it is entirely rugose ; the collar, tubercles, and scutellum 
yellow ; the tegulae testaceous, with a yellow spot in front ; 
the wings hyaline, their nervures testaceous ; the legs yellow, 
with the base of the femora black, and a piceous marking to- 
wards the apex of the anterior tibiaa, within which, in the pos- 
terior pair, it is ferruginous ; the tarsi flavo-ferruginous, and 
sometimes they all have a ferruginous stain, chiefly at the knees ; 
the anterior tarsi slightly ciliated, and the intermediate and pos- 
terior tibiae very slightly spinose. 

The abdomen black, punctured, shining, subpubescent, the 
first segment sometimes with a small yellow spot on each side 
at its apex, and occasionally a central longitudinal line, but 
more frequently entirely black, a broad band occupying the se- 
cond, third, fourth, and fifth segments, except their margin, very 
seldom interrupted in the second segment, but generally having 
two minute black spots in the centre of its base, very frequently 
broadly interrupted in the fourth, more frequently reduced to a 
mere small ovate transverse spot upon that segment, with its 
margin testaceous or piceous $ . 

The $ differs in having the yellow more strongly marked on 
the face, and connected with the transverse markings of the 
clypeus ; the mandibles yellow, with their apex piceous ; the 
legs generally more ferruginous than in the female ; the ab- 
domen with a yellow band upon the second segment, rarely en- 
tire, occasionally reduced to a mere lateral spot, sometimes 
entirely wanting, another band upon the third segment, gene- 
rally interrupted or subinterrupted^ an ovate spot on each side 



XXVIII. MF.I-MNUS. 20.7 

of tlie fourth segment, frequently very small, and rarely en- 
tirely wanting, a narrow central transverse abbreviated line on 
tbe fifth segment, generally wanting, and an abbreviated trans- 
verse irregular spot at the centre of the base of the sixth seg- 
ment, always present, the margins of the fifth and sixth seg- 
ments and the apex of the terminal one piceous $. 

^ $ in most Collections. 

f4-t I have been induced to give a minute description of 
all the variations of markings in both sexes of this insect, 
in consequence of their having been separated into distinct 
species in many cabinets ; but as I possess a long series 
which are so closely linked together as not even to admit 
of a subdivision into varieties, I have considered them as 
but a varying species without constant varieties. It is very 
common in sandy districts, where I have found it to prey 
upon the Diptera, especially the 3IiiscidcB ; but Panzer 
took it preying upon an Aphis. 

Sp. 2. sABULosus. Fab. 

niger, abdomine maculis cpiatuor fasc'uique posticd Jlavis, pe- 
dibus ferrugineis. 

length 3| — 6 lines. 
Fab. E. S. 2. 286. 2 ; Piez. 297. 2 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 87. 3. 
Crahro sabulosus. Fab. M. 1. 296. 17 ; Oliv. Eney. Meth. 6. 515. 19. ^ . 

petiolatiis. Panz. F. G. 46. 1:2. $ . 

frontalis. Panz. F. G. 46. 11. ,^ . 

Mellitius ruficcrnis. Fab. E. S. 2. 286. 3 ; Piez. 298. 3 ; Panz. 77. 
17 ; Latr. H. N, 13. 519. 4; Dumeril, Consid. sur les Ins. pt. 31. 
fig. 4. $ . 

The head black, punctured ; the antennae ferruginous ; the 
inner orbits of the eyes, and a spot on each side of the clypeus, 
yellow ; mandibles rufescent. 

The thorax black, punctured; the metatliorax with a horse- 
shoe shaped smooth space at its base, punctured posteriorly ; 



)?0C CUABUONID.r.. 

the collar with an interrupted transverse band, the tubercles, 
and a spot on the scutellunr), yellow; the tegulac testaceous ; the 
wings slightly coloured ; the legs ferruginous, with their coxae 
black. 

The abdomen black, shining, with an ovate transverse yellow 
spot on each side of the second and third segments, and a yellow 
band occupying the fifth $ . 

The $ differs in having the antennae ferruginous, with the 
basal joint above, the second entirely, and the five following 
above, black, the basal joint yellow beneath ; the base of the 
clypeus entirely yellow ; the tegulae yellowish ; the legs fulvous, 
with the thighs black, and the anterior tibiae in front and the 
knees of the rest yellowish ; the abdomen with a transverse 
band at the base of the third segment, and another entire at the 
base of the sixth segment, of a yellowish white. 

^ ? in Mr. Curtis's and the Entomological 
Society's Collections ; $ in my own, and 
$ in that of the British Museum and 
Mr. Stephens. 

•f'-j-i" All the specimens I have seen have come from Nor- 
folk or Suffolk ; mine I obtained at Mr. Haworth's sale, 
and it probably came from the same quarter, where it ap- 
pears to be local : those in the Entomological Society's 
Collection came in the Rev. Mr. Kirby's Cabinet, and Mr. 
Curtis has taken it at Wrentham in Suffolk, at the end of 
June. 

Genus XXIX. — Alyson. Jur. 
Head subrotund ; antennce filiform, inserted at the base of the 
clypeus, the scape slightly bent ; the clypeus transverse, con- 
vex, the anterior edge with a slight margin, and tridentate 
(edentate in the $ ) ; the mandibles tridentate, the teeth obtuse ; 
the labrum concealed. The thorax sublinear ; tlie collai- 
transverse, quadrate, considerably narrower than the thorax ; 



XXIX. AT.YSON'. • 207 

the metathorax elongate, truncated posteriorly, with a spine 
on each side near the vertex of the truncation ; the superior 
■wings with one marginal and three suhmarginal cells, the first 
suhmarginal cell longitudinal, and receiving the first recurrent 
nervure near its apex, the second semicircular, petiolated above, 
and receiving the second recurrent also near its apex, the third 
narrow, transverse; the legs slender, moderately long, the 
anterior tarsi having the first joint long, the three following 
very minute, and the terminal one larger, armed at the apex 
with a bifid claw, which has a large pulvillus placed within 
the furca, the other tarsi with their joints gradating in length, 
the first being the longest, the posterior femora with a small 
dentiform process beneath at their apex. The abdomen ovate, 
acuminate at the apex in the 5, truncated in the ^, with a 
small spine at the angles of the truncation. 

Type, A. spinosus. Fab. 

'\:\.f The derivation of this name is probably from aXycrcrov, 
the name of a plant in Plutarch ; Jurine drops one of the 
(Tcr, but Panzer, in his ' Kritische Revision,' spells it cor- 
rectly, although it is necessary to adopt Jurine's ortho- 
graphy. 

Sp. 1. LVXICORNIS. Fab. 

niger, abdominis segmentis duohus primis rufis, tibiis tarsisque 
quatuor posticis fusc^ rxifis, alarum superiorum fascid trans- 
versali fused. 
$ antennarum articulo ultimo lunato. 

length 3 — 3^ lines. 
Latr. Gen. 4. 86 ; St. Farg. Ency. I\Ieth. 10. 50. 1 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 

88. 1. 
Pompilus lunicornis. Fab. E. S. Sup. 249. 21 ; Piez. 194. 32. $. 
Alyson Kennedii. Curtis, Brit. Ent. fol. 584. J . 

Head black, delicately punctured ; the antennae piceous above,^ 
the scape rufescent in front, and the remainder fulvous beneath ; 



208 (.RABRONID.*:. 

the dypciis nili. scent iii fioiU ; the mandibles yeUow, with their 
apex piceous. 

Thorax black, delicately punctured ; the metathorax having 
at its base an elongate triangular space, rounded at the sides, 
and enclosed by an elevated ridge, within which it is rugose, 
and externally covered with oblique striae, diverging from the 
centre, and inclining backwards, and a sericeous spot below the 
spines of the metathorax ; the tegulae testaceous or piceous ; the 
wings slightly coloured, and having a transverse fascia running 
from the marginal cell, which it covers, backwards, extending 
half-way across the third discoidal cell, the nervures piceous ; 
the legs simple, black, with the knees of the anterior femora, 
and the inside of the anterior tibiae (the exterior either piceous 
or fulvous), as well as their tarsi, yellowish testaceous, the in- 
termediate and posterior tibiae and tarsi rufo-piceous, the pos- 
terior tibiae rufescent towards their base, their tarsi piceous, 
and the articulations of all the coxae and trochanters fulvous. 

The abdomen black, pubescent, with the two first segments, 
and sometimes the base of the third, red, covered on each side, 
towards their margin, with a triangular sericeous spot, most 
conspicuous on the second segment, but frequently rubbed off; 
the apical segment covered with a fuscous pubescence 5 . 

The $ differs in having the terminal joint of the antennae 
lunulate, all less coloured beneath ; the clypeus black, but covered 
slightly with a silvery pubescence, and generally with only the 
basal half of the second segment of the abdomen red ; the 
terminal spines pale testaceous. 

^ 5 in the Cabinet of the Rev. G. T. Rudd 
and my own, $ in Mr. Curtis's. 

fij- Mr. Curtis first introduced this species to the 
British Fauna by a $ , which he took near Hastings some 
years ago ; and the Rev. G. T. Rudd has completed the 
species by capturing both sexes this year [1836] in a wood 
near Ryde, in the Isle of Wight, and it is to his liberality, 



XXIX. ALYSON. 209 

which I have so often the pleasure to record, that I am in- 
debted for the sexes. He tells me, that the $ (of which 
he took only two specimens) is much more rare than the $ . 
This I should consider merely accidental, from his not hav- 
ing fallen upon the spot where the 5 nidificates, the insects 
having been caught by brushing amongst the leaves of 
shrubs. I am led to this supposition by having experienced 
the same thing in the genera Gorytes, Arpactits, and IVys- 
son; but when I have discovered the nestling-place of the 
$, she has generally occurred in equal abundance with 
the $. 

b. The mandibles moderate, arcuate, bidentate at their ex- 
tremity ; antennae sometimes slightly increasing towards their 
apex. 

Genus XXX. — Gorytes. Latr. 

Head transverse, in some much depressed in front ; eyes oval, 
lateral ; stemmata placed upon the vertex, very forward, and 
generally in a curve ; antennae subfiliform, inserted at the base 
of the clypeus, longer in the males than in the females and 
very slightly tliickened towards the apex, in the former gene- 
rally as long or longer than the thorax ; the clypeus transverse, 
rounded in front ; the lahrum exserted, transverse, anteriorly 
rounded and fringed with long setae ; mandibles bidentate, the 
teeth rather obtuse. The thorax ovate ; collar transverse, 
linear ; scutellum transverse, quadrangular ; the metathorax 
with a triangle at its base, and obtuse or gibbous, and trun- 
cated at its extremity ; the superior wings with one long narrow 
marginal cell and four siihmarginal cells, thejirst nearly as long 
as the two following — the second much narrowed towards the 
viarginal and receiving both the recurrent nervures — the third 
quadrangular, the exterior somewhat rounded — the fourth extend- 
ing to the apex of the wing, although sometimes only obsoletely 

p 



210 CRABRONID/E. 

indicated; the legs moderately long, and having generally a 
very large pulvillus between their terminal bifid claw. The 
ABDOMEN ovato-couic, much curved at its extremity, and the 
second ventral segment, in some species, produced in front and 
at right angles with its plane. 

Type, G. mystaceus. Lin. 

f^t The etymology of the name is probably ywpvTog, in 
obscure allusion perhaps to the arcuation of the antennae ; 
it was established by Latreille in his ' Histoire,' torn. xiii. 
I am here again, as in the genus Crabro, obliged to reduce 
the genera established by St. Fargeau, from Latreille's 
genus Gorytes, to specific synonymes, as I conceive, with 
one exception only, (see the observations under the genus 
Arpactus), that he has subdivided them upon false premises 
and too nice a distinction of recondite and trifling differ- 
ences. With respect to the former, in accordance with his 
theory of parasitism founded upon the presence or absence 
of cilia to the anterior tarsi, and lateral spines to the posterior 
tibiae, he was induced to consider it incongruous that the 
same genus should contain both the parasite and the insect 
upon which it is parasitic. This, it is true, appears plausible, 
and were it substantiated might justify an anxious search 
for characters to support a subdivision. But when expe- 
rience teaches us that the supposed parasites are predatory, 
as I have found to be the case in both of our species which 
from structure were considered parasites, I think it more 
rational to proceed upon the uniform principle adopted, than 
to introduce hypercritical distinctions in one or two genera, 
when every genus which consists of three or four, or more, 
species would equally and as rationally admit of sub- 
division. Such a procedure has the effect of making 
obscure what sound generic separation tends to facilitate. 



XXX. GORYTES. 



211 



And, besides, exclusive of the character of the wing, these 
insects are held together by general habit, and even by their 
colour and its distribution ; for instance, they are all more 
or less banded with yellow on a black ground. Nor do these 
observations militate against what I have done in the genera 
Stigmus and Pemphredon, where the divisions are intro- 
duced upon ' the uniform principle adopted,' viz. the neu- 
ration of the wings ; and borne out by those, and other 
marked, discrepancies. The synonymy of some of the 
following species is very confused. 

Sp. 1. MYSTACEUs. Lin. 

niger, scutello flavo ( $ concolore), ahdomine fasciis tr'ibus vel 
quatuor Jlavis, primd interruptd, t'lbiis ferrugineis, {$ flavis 
nigrisque). 
S antennis thorace longioribus. 

length 4i— 6|^ lines. 
Latr. Gen. 4. 89 ; Illig. F. Etr. 2. 144. 873 ; V. d. Lind, 2. 94. 9 ; St 

Farg. Ann. de la S. E. de F. 1. 57. 1. 
Sphex mystacea. Lin. S. N. 1. 944. 21 ; F. S. 1653 ; Villers, 3. 231. 

32; Christ. 270. 
Crabro mystaceus. Fab. S. E. 375. 9 ; Spec. 1. 471. 11 ; Mant. 1. 297. 

19 ; Oliv. Ency. Meth. 6. 516. 21. 
Mellinus mystaceus. Fab. E. S. 2. 285. 1 ; Piez. 297. 1 ; Panz. F. G. 
53. 11. 

1 Arpactus. Fab. Piez. 300. 12. 

Arpactus mystaceus. Jurine, 194. 

Vespa campestris. Lin. F. S. 1677 ; S. N. 950. 13 ; Fab. S. E. 369. 
31 ; Spec. 1. 465. 41 ; Mant. 1. 291. 50 ; Rossi, 2. 88. 873 ; Christ. 
234 ; Oliv. Ency. M^th. 6. 689. 96. 
Mellinus campestris. Fab. E. S. 2. 287. 6 ; S. Piez, 299. 9. 
Arpactus campestris. Panz. Rev. 2. 165. 

Head black, punctured, pubescent ; antennae entirely black, 
nearly the length of head and thorax ; an ovate oblique yellow 
spot on each side at the base of the clypeus, frequently united ; 
mandibles black. 

r2 



212 CRABRONID^. 

Thorax black, punctured, pubescent ; the metathorax obtusely 
truncated at its extremity, having the triangle at its base longi- 
tudinally striated, beyond which it is very coarsely rugose, and 
with a deep central incisure ; the collar, tubercles, a spot beneath 
the base of the wings, and the post-dorsolum, yellow ; the tegulse 
piceous ; the wings fuscous, with a darker stain occupying their 
marginal cell and extending a little beyond it, and the extreme 
edge of the wings also somewhat darker, the stigma testaceous, 
and their nervures piceous ; the legs ferruginous, with the femora 
black ; the tibiae and tarsi entirely simple. 

The abdomen black, pubescent ; at the base very minutely 
punctured and shining ; an ovate transverse yellow spot on each 
side of the margin of the first segment, and a band of the same 
colour occupying the margin of the second and third segments, 
waved in front of the former and dilated at the sides, and some- 
times another, abbreviated at the sides, on the fourth segment 5 . 

The ^ differs in having a silvery pubescence on the clypeus, 
the ovate yellow spots upon it frequently united ; the antennae 
considerably longer than the head and thorax united, and the 
joints subarcuate; the yellow markings on the thorax often 
obsolete or entirely wanting, which is rarely however the case 
with the line on the prothorax, but is occasionally interrupted or 
abbreviated ; the legs black, with the anterior and intermediate 
tibiae yellow, having a black patch behind, the first joint of their 
tarsi also yellow, and the posterior tibiae with merely a yellow 
line in front descending half-way down the limb ; their tarsi, as 
well as the remaining joints of the others, piceous, increasing in 
colour from the base. 

(J 5 in most Cabinets. 

t-i-f The Linnean Cabinet, as well as the ' tibice ferru- 
ginecB ' of the description, prove that Van der Linden was 
right in considering the Vespa campestris of Linne a variety 
of this insect, and which is by no means uncommon ; St. 
Fargeau consequently is incorrect in treating the next as 



XXX. GORYTES. 213 

it. It is remarkable, that Linne's accurate eye should not 
have observed the iden-ity of his Sp. mystacea and Vespa 
campestris, and especially as he notices that the Sp. 
mystacea has sometimes a fourth yellow band. Why I 
place a sign of doubt in citing Fabricius's MeUinus Arpactus 
is, because he describes the tibias as yellow, and the pos- 
terior ones in the $ (he evidently describes a ^) of the 
above species are black, with the exception of a ring at the 
extreme base and a line at the base, on the exterior, yellow. 
St. Fargeau wrongly cites it as the synonyme of his variety 
c. of the $ G. mystaceus, for his variety is founded on the 
absence of yellow on the prothorax ; whereas Fabricius 
describes his as having a narrow yellow line on the anterior 
margin of the thorax : there is evidently an omission in 
Fabricius's description, for the * strigisque tribiis Jlavis ' 
must certainly refer to the three following segments and 
not to the first, as it would appear ; for no hymenopterous 
insect, that I am acquainted with, has three bands of the 
same colour on one segment of the abdomen. Panzer in 
his ' Revision,' p. 165, has clearly mixed two species, for 
he has mistaken the Linnean Vespa campesti'ls to be his 
Mellimis arenarius, which however is very different and not 
identical with any yet discovered British species ; and I am 
also inclined to suspect that he had specimens of my next 
species in his eye at the same time. This species is com- 
mon in June and July about woods, and on Umhelliferce. 
I have captured it with its prey, consisting of the larva of 
a species of AphropJwra, with which it was entering a sand 
bank, although its structure, according to St. Fargeau 's 
theory, would make it a parasite, which this fact however 
contradicts. 



2fI4 CKABRONIDiE. 

Sp. 2. Fargeii. N. Sp. 

niger, prothorace, lined sub scutello, segmentis quatuor ahdominis 

fascid, tihiis tarsisque Jlavis. 
$ antennis thorace longioribus. 

length 4| — 5^ lines. 
Gorytes campestris. St. Farg. Ann. de la S. E. de Fr. 1, 

■? quadrifasciatus. V. d. Lind. (description of ^ at the bottom of 

the page and not the J or synonymes.) 
Mellinus quadrifasciatus. Panz. F. G. 98. 17. ^ . 
Arpactus quadrifasciatus, (his J , which is a ^ , and only the reference 
to the above figure). Panz. Revis. 2. 165. 

Head black, punctured, pubescent ; antennae entirely black ; 
the clypeus with a broad transverse yellow band at its base ; the 
labrum fringed with long red setae ; the mandibles black, with 
their apex piceous. 

The thorax black, punctured, pubescent ; a scratch on each 
side of the dorsolum, parallel with the epaulet of the tegulae ; 
the incisure at the base of the scutellum consute ; the triangle at 
the base of the metathorax not strongly defined, and longitudi- 
nally striate, rugose beyond, having a central longitudinal very 
deep impression, and truncated posteriorly ; the collar, tubercles, 
a lunule beneath the base of the wings and the post-dorsolum, 
yellow ; the tegulse testaceous ; the wings slightly fuscous, with 
a slightly darker stain occupying the marginal cell, the stigma 
and nervures testaceous ; the legs with the femora black, except 
the knees, which, with the outsides of the tibiae, are yellow, the 
inside of the tibiae testaceous, with a piceous stain, and the tarsi 
also testaceous ; the legs entirely simple. 

The abdomen black, with a yellow band occupying the mar- 
gins of the first, second, third, and fourth segments, waved in 
front and much broader at the sides, but the extreme margin of 
the first segment testaceous, and the fifth segment having some- 
times a small transverse abbreviated line $ . 

The $ differs in having a silvery pubescence on the clypeus ; 
the antennae a little longer than the head and thorax together ; 



XXX, CiORYTES. 215 

ihe anterior femora with a little yellow beneath at their apex, as 
well as the knees of all ; the entire tibiae (excepting the stain 
within) and the first joint of the tarsi also yellow, the remaining 
joints of the tarsi piceous. 

$ 2 in most Cabinets. ' 

f-j-t St. Fargeau justly doubted having the Linneaii 
Vespa campestris when he described this insect ; the name 
of campestris, consequently, which he applied to it, must be 
changed, that insect being merely a variety of the Gorytes 
mystaceus. I have, therefore, called it after him, as a testi- 
mony of respect for his exertions in the order, and because 
I could not give it one characteristic without adding to the 
confusion of ihefasciati and cincti. This and the preced- 
ing are the only species in the genus I am acquainted 
with that have the antennae in both sexes entirely black. 
It is not uncommon on UmheUiferce, at Highgate and 
Battersea, in July. I have captured the $ conveying the 
larva of Aphrophora spumaria, which thus further contra- 
dicts St. Fargeau's theory, as from habit it would be a 
true parasite. 

Sp. 3. QUADRIFASCIATUS. Fab. 

niger, antennarum scapo suhtils Jlavo, flagello suhtils fuloo, pio- 
thorace, scutelli margine poslcriore {$ nigro), et abdomine 
fascUs quatuor flavis, tibiis tarsisque ferrugineis. 

length 3^ — Sg lines. 
Latr. Gen. 4. 90. ^ $ ? V. d. Lmd. 2. 96. 10 (the desciiption of llie 

5 , and second line of synonymes only). 
3Ielliiius quadrifasciattis. Fab. Piez. 298. 5. $ . 
? Gorytes arenarius. V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 97. 11 (the description of the 

first $ only, also without the synonymes). 
'' Hnplisus 5-cinctus. St. Farg. Ann. de la S. E. de F. 1. 62. Var. a. Q 

and 63 $ only. 
Gorytes tibitinarius. Curt, Brit. Ent. folio 524. 



216 CRABRONIDiE. 

Head black, minutely punctured, pubescent ; antennae black, 
with the scape yellow in front, the pedicel entirely black, and 
the basal joints of the flagellum fulvous beneath ; a small yellow 
spot or line on each side of the lower part of the face at the 
margin of the eyes ; the clypeus with a broad transverse yellow 
stripe at the base ; and the labrum yellow at its anterior margin ; 
the mandibles piceous. 

The thorax black, minutely punctured ; the incisure at the 
base of the scutellum consute ; the metathorax obtuse, with the 
triangle at its base distinctly defined and longitudinally striated, 
beyond which it is coarsely rugose ; the collar, a spot beneath 
the base of the wings, and a transverse line at the posterior 
margin of the scutellum, yellow, the latter sometimes obsolete ; 
the tegulae piceous ; the wings hyaline, with a cloud occupying 
the marginal, and a portion of the first and the entire second 
submarginal cells, the stigma and nervures testaceous ; the legs 
ferruginous, with the femora black, except towards the knees in 
front, the anterior pair yellow in front, the tibiae with a piceous 
stain towards their apex behind, the pulvilli large and piceous ; 
the anterior tarsi very strongly ciliated, and the intermediate 
and posterior tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen black, delicately punctured, shining ; with a 
yellow band on the margin of the four or five first segments, 
that of the first and second broadest, much dilated on the sides, 
but all narrow, and the second, third, and fourth generally con- 
tinued beneath ; the fifth frequently obsolete or entirely want- 
ing $ . 

The $ differs in having the antennae entirely black, except 
the scape, which is yellow in front, and the pedicel, which has 
a minute yellow dot in front ; the legs with the femora black, 
their apex ferruginous ; the tibiae yellow in front, ferruginous 
behind, with a long black stain towards their apex behind ; 
the anterior and intermediate tarsi yellow testaceous, with 
their extreme joints piceous at the extremity, the posterior pair 
piceous, with their basal joint ferruginous $ . 

$ ? in my own and other Cabinets, 



XXX. GORYTES. 217 

t4-t Much confusion has also been introduced into the 
synonymy of this insect, the $ of which is evidently Fa- 
bricius's Mellinus quadrifasciatus. Van der Linden has 
introduced three distinct species into the synonyraes of 
this single one, for the figure of the 2 which he cites 
certainly belongs to another, although allied, species ; but 
the 5 he describes is the correct one, and the synonyme 
of Spinola belongs to St. Fargeau's Euspongus laticinctus, 
and both sexes of which Van der Linden describes under 
his Gorytes arenarius ; but the first ^ there described is 
our $ also ; and St. Fargeau has added to the confusion 
by evidently mixing three species in his Hoplisus quinque- 
cinctus and its varieties ; those above cited, however, refer 
alone to one species. Mr. Curtis not having had leisure 
to disentangle this knot, has treated this as a new species. 
I find it abundantly in Battersea Fields in July, and at 
Birchwood in August, on Umhelliferce. 

Sp. 4. LATICINCTUS. St. Farg. 

niger, antennarum scapo et Jlagello suites (<J nigro) Jlavo ; 
prothorace, scutelli (^ nigro) margine posteriore, abdomi- 
neque fasciis quatuor (secundo latisshno) Jlavis. 

length 4f — 5^ lines. 
Euspongus laticinctus. St. Farg. Ann. de la S. E. de F. 1. 66. 1. 
Gorytes quadrifasciatus. Spinola, 1. 93. 2. 

arenarius. V. de Lind. pt. 2. 97. 11 (the description of the 

second $ , and the $ , without the synonymes). 

Head black, shining, delicately punctured ; antennae black, 
the scape yellow in front, and the remainder beneath, excepting 
the two last joints, of a fulvous yellow, with a slight black line 
above ; the lower portion of the inner orbits of the eyes, the 
clypeus, and the labrum, yellow ; the mandibles black, their 
apex piceous. 

The thorax black, shining, delicately punctured, with four 



218 CRABRONIC.E. 

parallel longitudinal impressed lines extending from tlie base of 
the dorsolum to the disk ; the metathorax very rugose, and ob- 
tusely truncated ; the epaulet over the tegulae and the incisure 
at the base and posterior margin of the scutellum, consute ; 
the collar, a spot beneath the base of the wings, a minute dot 
in the middle of the epaulet, and a transverse line on the scu- 
tellum, yellow ; the wings slightly coloured, the stigma and ner- 
vures testaceous, the marginal cell and proximate parts of the 
submarginal cells occupied by a dark cloud ; the legs yellow, 
the anterior and intermediate femora above, and the posterior 
entirely, black, excepting towards their apex above ; all the 
tibiae black on the exterior ; the apex of the anterior and inter- 
mediate tarsi piceous, the posterior ones entirely so ; the an- 
terior pair strongly ciliated, and the tibiae slightly spinose. 

The abdomen black, shining, with a broad yellow band oc- 
cupying the margin of the four first segments, the second being 
much the broadest, slightly emarginate in front ; the second, 
third, and fourth continued narrowly on the margin of the ventral 
segment, the first of these the widest 5 . 

The $ differs in having the antennae entirely black, with the 
exception of a slight yellow spot beneath the scape ; the clypeus 
covered with a silvery pubescence ; the palpi yellow ; the 
tubercles black ; a yellow spot beneath the base of the wings ; 
the scutellum entirely black ; the nervures of the wings piceous ; 
the legs black, with the anterior and intermediate femora at their 
apex in front, the front and knees of their tibiae, and their tarsi, 
yellow, the apical joint piceous, the knees of the posterior pair 
ferruginous, their tibi« yellow beneath, and their tarsi en- 
tirely black ; the fifth segment of the abdomen has on its margin 
a yellow band abbreviated at the sides, and the sixth and seventh 
are covered with a fuscous pubescence. 

^ $ in my own and Mr. Stephens's 
Cabinets; and $ in that of Mr. 
Curtis. 



XXX. GORYTE*. 219 

•|-4't My specimens of this beautiful species were cap- 
tured in the New Forest. Mr. Stephens does not re- 
member where his were taken. Van der Linden has again 
here caused confusion by associating this very distinct in- 
sect with Panzer's 3IeUmus arenarius. 

Sp. 5. BiciNCTus, Rossi. 

ater, antennts subtits fen-ugineis, arttculo primo Jlavo ; pro- 
thorace, abdomine fasciis duahus, primo segmento (coarctato) 
puncto utrinque Jlavis. 

length 3i-4i lines. 
V. d. Lind. pt 2. 93. 7 ; Curtis, Brit. Ent. V. 11. pi. 524. 
Crabro bicinctus. Rossi, F. Etr. App. 123. 110. 
Lestiphorus bicinctus. St. Farg. Ann. de la S. E. de F. 1. 70. 1. 

Head black, opaque, very delicately punctured ; the antennee 
very slender, black, the scape beneath yellow, the clavolet pale- 
fuscous beneath, excepting the two or three last joints ; the 
lower portion of the face beneath the antennae, the clypeus and 
labrum, yellow ; the mandibles with a small fuscous spot about 
their middle. 

The thorax black, very delicately punctured ; the dorsolum 
having two slightly impressed longitudinal lines at its base, ex- 
tending to the disk ; the triangular space at the base of the 
metathorax longitudinally striate, with a carina in the centre ; 
the collar, tubercles, and two spots at the scutellum, yellow ; 
the wings with the stigma fulvous, the nervures piceous, a dark 
cloud occupying the marginal, second submarginal, and a por- 
tion of the third discoidal cells ; the legs black, with the apex 
of the anterior coxae and trochanters and the femora and tibiae 
entirely, beneath, yellow, the intermediate femora with their 
apex beneath, and their tibiae entirely beneath, also yellow ; 
the posterior tibiae with their extreme base beneath fulvous ; 
the anterior and intermediate tarsi fulvous, the last joint of the 
latter piceous, and the posterior ones entirely so, the pulvilli of 



220 CRABRONIDiB. 

the anterior pair very large ; the legs spinose, and tlie anterior 
tarsi strongly ciliated. 

The abdomen black, delicately punctured, slightly shining; 
the first segment subpyriform, and having a large triangular 
yellow spot on each side, forming a broad band, attenuated in 
the centre, and very slightly interrupted ; the second segment 
with a broad yellow band just before the margin, and the third 
with a narrower one placed at the margin, the band of the 
second segment continued across the venter $ . 

The $ differs in having the inner orbits of the eyes yellow, 
which extends to near the vertex ; the mandibles also yellow, 
their apex piceous ; the tarsi yellow testaceous ; the posterior 
tibiae yellow on the outside at their base, and the terminal seg- 
ment of the abdomen having two strong setae. 

$ in Mr. Curtis's Cabinet ; 
$ in my own, 

t-|-f Mr. Curtis does not remember where his specimen 
was taken. Mine was captured in the vicinity of London. 

Genus XXXI. — Arpactus. Jurine. 

Head subrotund, as wide as the thorax ; eyes oval, lateral ; 
stemmata placed forward on the vertex ; antennce very slightly 
increasing towards the apex, in the 2 much curved, in the 
$ porrect, and not longer than those of the $ , inserted at 
the base of the clypeus; clypeus transverse, convex, slightly 
marginate in front ; lahrum triangular ; mandibles bidentate. 
The THORAX ovate ; the collar slightly narrowed in front into 
a neck ; the scutellum transverse ; the metathorax truncated, 
and having a triangular enclosure at its base ; the superior 
wings with one narrow marginal cell and three submarginal 
cells, the second receiving both the recurrent nervures ; the legs 
with the anterior tarsi strongly ciliated, and the intermediate 
and posterior tibice spinose. The abdomen ovato-conical, 
much acuminated, and bent downwards at its extreniity. 

Type, A. formosus. Jurine. 



XXXI. ARP ACTUS. 221 

4-'t'4- 'I'h^ name is derived from dfrruKrog — dprra^co, to 
•plunder, in allusion to its predatory habits ; it should 
therefore be written Harpactus. The genus is suffi- 
ciently distinguished from Gorytes, in having but three 
submarginal cells, and the antennae of the $ not longer 
than those of the $ . Nature seems also to have separated 
them by colour ; for more or less red invariably prevails, 
and that colour has not yet been found upon a true Go- 
rytes. 

Sp. 1. LiEvis. Latr. 

niger, thoracis dorso, pedibusque rufis, ahdom'me fasciis duabus 

albis. 

length 3^ lines. 
St Farg. Ann. de la S. E. de Fr. 1. 74. 1. 

Mutilla liEvis. Latr. Act. de la Soc. d'Hist, Nat. de Paris, 1. 11, 12. 

Sphex cruenta. Fab. E. S. Sup. 244. 54—55. 

Mellinus cruentatus. Latr. H. N. 13. 318. 1. 

Pompilus emeritus. Panz. 84. 20 ;, Fab. Piez. 192. 20 ; Coquebert, 1. 

23. pi. 5. fig. 10. 
Gorytes lavis. V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 91. 1. 

Head black, punctured, with a vvhite line at the interior of 
the orbits of the eyes ; antennae black, piceous beneath ; man- 
dibles rufescent. 

Thorax punctured, red above, black beneath, with the tri- 
angle beyond the scutellum piceous ; the tubercles black ; and a 
spot beneath the origin of the wings red ; the wings slightly 
coloured, their nervures piceous ; legs black, with the interior 
of the anterior pair fulvous, as well as the intermediate tibiae, 
the two anterior and intermediate tarsi piceous ; the tibiae sub- 
spinose. 

Abdomen black, shghtly punctured, shining, the margin of 
the second segment with a white fascia, waved in the middle, 
dilated at the sides, the margin of the fifth segment also with a 
white fascia ; all the margins slightly depressed $ . 



222 CRABRONJDiE. 

The 5 has not yet been captured to my knowledge in Eng- 
land ; I therefore give St. Fargeau's description of it : " An- 
" tennae black, the first joint beneath of a yellowish white. 
" Head black, base of the mandibles and lower portion of the 
" clypeus white, mixed with red; the anterior orbits of the 
" eyes white. The thorax beneath black, as well as the pro- 
" thorax, the latter having on each side a red humeral spot ; 
" the tubercles, upper portion of the thorax, as well as meta- 
" thorax, red, as well as their sides above. Abdomen black, the 
" second segment having on its posterior margin a white band, 
" widened at the sides ; the fifth with one at its base, enlarged in 
" the centre and at the sides. Legs black, the four anterior fe- 
" mora red beneath, as also their tibiae and tarsi. Wings hya- 
" line, the marginal cell and second submarginal slightly clouded ; 
" stigma brown." 

S in the Collection of the 
British Museum. 

f 4-t I cannot learn where this beautiful insect was taken ; 
it is unique in the Cabinet of the British Museum. 

Sr. 2. TUMiDus. Panz. 

niger, abdomine rufo, apice nigro, lunulis duahus jjone medium, 

maculaque anali alhis. 

length 2i— 3| lines. 
Jur. 194 ; St. Farg. An. de la S. E. de F. 1. 77. 3. 

Pompilus tumidus. Panz. 81. 15. ^. 

Gorytes tumidus. V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 92. 4. 

Head black, delicately punctured, pubescent ; the face and 
clypeus covered with a silvery down ; a longitudinal impression 
extending from the base of the antennae to the anterior stemma ; 
the stemmata placed in a curve ; the posterior margin of the 
eyes occupied by a sanguineous mark, which extends half-way 
down to the cheek ; the antennae black, with a white mark in 
front of the scape, which is testaceous at its base and apex ; the 



XXXI. ARPACTUS, 223 

inner orbits of the eyes having a white line joining that which 
occupies the anterior margin of the clypeus, the latter sometimes 
testaceous in the middle ; the labrum white, fringed with a few 
silvery setae ; the mandibles yellow testaceous, and piceoiis at 
their apex. 

The thorax black, delicately punctured, pubescent ; the dor- 
solum with two or three central longitudinal lines, which ter- 
minate at the disk ; the incisure at the base of the scutellum 
consute ; the triangle at the base of the metathorax has two 
longitudinal parallel carina in its centre, the interstices filled 
with oblique striae, sometimes obsolete or smooth, and the whole 
enclosed by an elevated ridge, which is encircled by abbrevi- 
ated radiating striae, beyond which it is smooth, and covered at 
the sides with a silvery pubescence ; the posterior edge of the 
tubercles and the centre of the scutellum with a white spot ; 
the tegulae testaceous ; the wings slightly coloured, their ner- 
vures piceous ; the legs black, the anterior and intermediate 
femora beneath and in front, and the tibiae in front, yellow-tes- 
taceous ; the posterior tibiae ferruginous at their base ; all the 
tarsi piceous, the anterior pair strongly ciliated, and the inter- 
mediate and posterior tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen black, delicately punctured, the two first seg- 
ments red, with a white ovate spot on the lateral margins of the 
second, and another at the centre of the base of the fifth $ . 

The ^ differs in having more of the silvery pubescence on 
the face ; the antennae, except the basal joint, piceous beneath, 
the white spot on the fifth segment forming a band, a little di- 
lated in the middle, and the sixth with a longitudinal white line 
in its centre ; and it varies in the white markings of the clypeus 
being sometimes wanting, as are also the white mark on the 
scutellum, and those on the second segment, the band or mark 
on the fifth and sixth segments with or without each other, and 
in some all the white marks are deficient. 

^ $ in my own and other Cabinets. 

tlf I once found the $ of this insect in abundance on 



224 CRABRONIDiE. 

Hampstead Heath, on a spot frequented also by Nysson 
dimidiatus and Hedychrum roseum, and the ? I have 
taken at Highgate in sandy situations, in which it bur- 
rows ; it is excessively active in its flight, and the $ runs 
along the ground like a Pompilus, and is very difficult to 
secure. 

II. Antennae inserted in the middle of the face, always larger 
towards their extremity. 

1. Clypeus almost square, not trilobate. The first segment 
of the abdomen forming a long, slender, sudden petiole. 

Genus XXXII. — Psen. Latr. 

Head transverse, convex^ as wide as the thorax ; eyes oval, 
placed at the lateral angles of the head, very distant ; the 
stemmata placed in a triangle on the vertex, slightly raised ; 
xheface below the antennae and clypeus generally, sometimes 
the clypeus only, covered with a dense silvery pubescence ; 
the antenncs inserted in the middle of the face, and sub- 
clavate ; the clypeus transverse, rounded in front ; lahrum 
concealed ; mandibles bidentate. The thorax rotundate ; the 
collar transverse, linear ; the scutellum transverse ; the meta- 
thorax truncated ; the superior wings with one marginal cell 
very long, and extending to nearly the apex of the wing, and 
three submarginal cells, the first very long, and the second and 
third much narrowed towards ,the marginal cell, and each re- 
ceioing a recurrent nervure near their commencement, the third 
cell distant from the apex of the wing ; the legs simple, short, 
and having a large pulvillus placed between their bifid claw. 
The ABDOMEN ellipsoid, attached to the thorax by an elon- 
gate abrupt petiole, forming the anterior half of the first 
segment, which is either plane above or carinated, the hypo- 
pygium of the ^ prolonged into an acute upcurved spine. 

Type, P. ater 5 . Panz. 



XXXII. PSEN. 225 

•j-^f The name of this genus is derived from Tro-yjy, the 
Greek name of the Cynips employed in the caprification 
of the fig-trees. It was estabhshed by Latreille in 1796, 
in his 'Precis.' Much confusion, however, long existed, 
until J urine united them by a permanent character ; but 
even he here contradicted his own system by receiving 
into the same genus insects so distinct in the neuration of 
the wings as this, and the next genus which I have been 
obliged to establish for those that are most essentially 
fossorial, viz. which nidificate in sand, the original type 
being one of the present. 

Sp. 1. ATER. Fab. 

ater^ clypeo argenteo villoso, facie Itjevi 5 . 

$ antennis ferriigineis, compressis, suhserratis. 

length 5^ lines. 

V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 102. 1 ; ? Latr. Hist. 13. 310 ; Gen. 4. 92 ; Nouv. 

Diet. 28. 192. 
Sphei atra. Fab. Sup. 244. 18-19. $ ; Panz. F. G. 72. 7. $. 
Pelppxus unicotor. Fab. Piez. 204. 10. (without the reference to 

Panzer). 
Pelopceus compressicornis. Fab. Piez. 204. 11. ^. 
Trypoiylon atratum. Fab. Piez. 182. 5. $ ? 
Psenatra. Panz. Revis. 2. 108. 

pallipes. Spin. 194. 2. $ . 

serraticoriiis. Jurine, pi. 8. g. 6. $ . 

Entirely black ; head shining, delicately punctured ; the face 
covered with a dense silvery pubescence ; antennae piceous be- 
neath. 

Thorax delicately punctured, pubescent ; the metathorax ob- 
tuse, rugose ; wings hyaline, with the nervures black ; legs black, 
very pubescent, and die posterior pairs densely spinose ; the 
tarsi piceous, with the anterior pair slightly ciliated on the ex- 
terior, and the pulvillus very large between the bifid claw at their 
extremity. 

The abdomen shining, slightly pubescent, and delicately punc- 

Q 



226 CUABRONID.F.. 

tured, the petiole very long, slightly curved, smooth above, and 
shining, the extreme margin of the four last segments rufo- 
piceous 2 . 

The $ differs in having the antennae compressed, the first 
joint very large and fulvous, as well as the underside of the re- 
mainder, and the fifth, sixth, and seventh also above, the eighth, 
ninth, and tenth serrated below ; the mandibles yellow, with their 
apex rufescent ; the anterior and intermediate legs yellow, with a 
black line beneath the femora, the anterior tarsi yellow, the in- 
termediate ferruginous, with the first joint produced on the ex- 
terior into two curved spiny processes, the apical one bifid, 
and the three following joints also slightly produced at their 
apex on the exterior, the posterior pair piceous. 

^ in the Cabinet of the Entomological 

Society, and of Mr. Stephens. 
5 in my own and other Cabinets. 

-\\r\ The Fabrician synonymes certainly refer to this in- 
sect, although Van der Linden rejects the two first, be- 
cause Fabricius says his PelopcBus unicolor is less than 
Panzer's Crahro unicolor. Van der Linden must therefore 
have forgotten that the latter is the Pemphredon lugubris, 
than which the Psen ater, although the largest of the 
genus, is certainly smaller. Panzer says positively that 
his and Fabricius' Sphex atra are the same insect (I pre- 
sume he means the opposite sexes), and quotes the latter 
under the new name of Pelopceus unicolor, which Fabri- 
cius gives it in his ' Systema Piezatorum,' with the exclu- 
sion of the reference to his Sphex unicolor. Some doubt 
attaches to the reference to Fabricius' Trypoxylon atratum^ 
for Panzer cites it as the other sex of his Sphex pallipes, 
which is always smaller than even the smallest red Psen 
{Mimesa) ; but as Fabricius says it is larger than his Tr-y- 
poxylon equestris fmy Mimesa eq.), I admit it as a probable 



XXXII. psEN. 237 

synonyme of the present species. I am induced to give 
much weight to the authority of Panzer, for he supphed 
Fabricius with very many of his German species, and be- 
sides had, I think, a more correct eye. The present appears 
to be rare, or at least very local ; those in the Cabinet of 
the Entomological Society came from the Rev. Mr. Kirby. 

Sp. 2. ATRATUS. Panz. 

(iter, clypeo argcntco, facie car'inatd, tibiis anticis suhtils tar- 

s'lsque omnibus ferrugineis ant piceis. 

length 2 — 3 lines. 
V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 103. 2. 

Sphex pallipes. Panz. F. G. 52.22. $. 

Trypoxyloii atratum. Panz. F. G. 98. 15. 

Psen atra. Panz. Revis. 2. 109. (without the reference to Fabricius), 

Black : head punctured, pubescent, shining ; the lower part 
of the face covered with a silvery down ; antennae short, cla- 
vate, but little longer than the head ; a longitudinal carina, 
rather elevated, rising at the centre of the face, and passing 
between the base of the antennae, where it joins the centre of a 
transverse one, parallel with the base of the clypeus, an excised 
notch at the base of the longitudinal one. 

Thorax pubescent, shining, punctured, with two or three lon- 
gitudinal scratches at the base of the dorsolum, and a few striae 
at its apex; a triangular depression at the base of the tneta- 
thorax, longitudinally striate in front, and transversely behind, 
the sides of the metathorax beyond it very delicately obliquely 
striated ; the tegulae piceous ; the wings iridescent, their ner- 
vures piceous ; the legs black, very pubescent ; the anterior 
tibiae in front and their tarsi ferruginous, the intermediate and 
posterior tarsi piceous, or sometimes ferruginous, the calcariae 
very pale, and the tibiae subspinose. 

The abdomen very pubescent, shining ; the petiole very short, 
not so long as the remainder of the segment, and canaliculated 

« 2 



228 CKABIIONID.E. 

above, sometimes the margin of the last two or three segments 
piceous, the last segment slightly produced at its apex $ . 

The $ differs in having the antennae beneath fulvous, as long 
as the head and thorax, and proportionably thinner ; the meta- 
thorax very rugose, and the petiole of the abdomen as long as 
the remainder of the first segment. 

f-l-f The Sjohex pallipes of Panzer, both figure and de- 
scription, are certainly this insect ; and Van der Linden 
is wrong in referring it to his Pemphredon tristis, for the 
petiole will not admit of its being that or any other species 
of the genus Diodontus of Curtis ; nor can it be a petiolated 
Pemphredon, which would place it with my Cemoni or 
Pemphredones, for the form of the head is so totally 
different ; and Sturm was more likely to err in the neu- 
ration of the wings prior to its introduction as a character, 
than he was in the general habit, and his figure exactly 
resembles the $ of the present species. 

Genus XXXIIL— Mimesa. Shuck. 

Head transverse, a little wider than the thorax ; face covered 
with a silvery down ; eijes oval, lateral ; stemmata placed in 
a triangle on the vertex ; antennce inserted about the middle 
of the face, clavate, rather longer in the $ , and less clavate ; 
the clypeus transverse, rounded in front, convex, with a small 
transverse elevation just within its anterior margin, which is 
very slightly emarginate ; lahriim concealed ; mandibles bi- 
dentate, the inner tooth considerably the smallest, the ex- 
terior one obtuse. The thorax subrotund ; the collar trans- 
verse, linear ; scutellum transverse, subquadrate ; the meta- 
thorax short, gibbous ; the superior wings with one lanceolate 
submarginal cell and three submarginal cells, the second the 
smallest, narrowed towards the marginal, and receiving both 
recurrent nervures, the third distant from the apex of the wing, 



XXXIII. MIMESA. 229 

and quadrate; the legs short. The abdomen ellipsoid, pe- 
tiolated, the apex in the $ armed with an upcurved spine. 

Type, P. equestris. F. 

f4-t Although these insects exactly agree with the pre- 
ceding in habit, yet from the neuration of the wings being 
different, I necessarily separate them as a new genus. 
The name is derived from ju-jju-tjo-jj, imitation, in allusion to 
their resemblance to their recent congeners, 

Sp. 1. EQUESTRIS. Fab. 

ater^ abdominis segmento primo secundoque rvfo, petiolo tere- 

tiusculo supra rugoso. 

length 3^—4^ lines. 

Psen eqwstris. W d. Lind. pt. 2. 107. 4 ; Latr. Nouv. Diet. ed. 2. 28. 

193 ; Curt. Brit. Ent. vol. i. pi. 25. 

Trypoiylon equestre. Fab. Piez. 182. 6. 

Psen rufa. Panz. 96. 17. 

Head black, pubescent, punctured ; the face covered with 
silvery down ; the antennae black, — yellow, piceous, or fulvous 
beneath, and at their apex ; the mandibles piceous at their 
apex ; the anterior margin of the clypeus slightly reflexed. 

Thorax black, punctured, having two longitudinal impressions 
at the base of the dorsolum, which extend to the disc ; the 
metathorax rugose, with a triangular enclosure at its base, the 
base of which is longitudinally striate ; the tegulae testaceous ; 
the wings hyaline, iridescent, the nervures black ; the legs black, 
with the apex of the tarsi ferruginous, the anterior tarsi cili- 
ated on the outside, and the intermediate and posterior tibiae 
spinose. 

The abdomen having its petiole wider at its extremity than at 
its base, plane above, or irregularly concave and rugose, some- 
what shorter than the remainder of the segment, black, the re- 
mainder of the first segment and the entire second red, the 
rest black, the hypopygium slightly produced, and the podex 
covered with fuscous pubescence 2 . 



230 CRABRONID^C. 

The ± differs in having the antennae longer, the pubescence 
of the face denser ; less colour beneath the antennae ; and the 
tarsi a little more ferruginous ; the first segment of the abdomen 
black, excepting the sides ; and the hypopygium produced into 
an acute upcurved spine. 

^ $ in my own Collection. 

■j-^-t Apparently solitary in its habits, taken occasionally 
at Hampstead. Under this species it is evident that the 
majority of former writers have mixed two. 

Sp. 2. BicoLOR. Jurine. 

ater, abdominis segmentis trihus antic'is rufis, petiolo lineuri, 
supra longitudinaliter carinato. 

length 2| — 4J lines. 
Psen bicolor. Jurine, pi. 13. 

Head black, punctured, pubescent ; the face covered with a 
silvery down ; the antennae black, fulvous beneath, commencing 
about the third joint, and increasing in intensity to the apex; 
the anterior margin of the clypeus slightly reflexed. 

Thorax black, punctured ; the metathorax rugose, with an 
enclosed triangle at its base, the base of which is longitudinally 
striated ; the tegulae testaceous ; the wings iridescent, their ner- 
vures black ; the legs black ; the anterior tibiae ferruginous in 
front, as well as the knees and apex of the tibiae of the inter- 
mediate and posterior pairs, which on the exterior are spinose ; 
the anterior and intermediate tarsi ferruginous, and the posterior 
piceous, the anterior pair slightly ciliated. 

The abdomen with the petiole linear, longitudinally carinated 
above, and of the length of the remainder of the segment, 
black, as well as a very small space at the base of the first 
segment, the remainder of which, as well as the second and 
major part of the third, red, the rest black, the hypopygium 
slightly produced $ . 

The i does not differ except in having more silvery pubes- 



XXXIII. MIMESA. 231 

cence on the face, the legs more ferruginous, the antennaj 
sh'ghter, and ferruginous at their apex above as well as be- 
neath, the posterior tarsi being of that colour ; more black at 
the base of the abdomen, which is longer, narrower ; and some- 
times merely the second segment red, and the hypopygium pro- 
duced into an upcurved acute spine. 

^ $ in my own Collection, 

f-j-f This species, which is the most common of the two 
red ones, has evidently been mixed with the preceding, 
from which it differs somewhat in general habit, but es- 
pecially in the form of the petiole of the abdomen. Ju- 
rine's figure is excellent, and perfectly represents it, as does 
Mr. Curtis's the preceding species. It is gregarious, being 
found in multitudes upon Hampstead Heath, Black Heath, 
and in most sandy situations. 

Sp. 3. UNicoLOR. V. d. Lind. 

ater, lemtcr griseo jmbescens, cJijpeo gihhoso et fronte plana 
argenteo pubescentlbus ; metathorace reticulato-rngoso, tars'ts 

riifescentibus. 

length 2J— 3i lines. 
Fsen unicolor. V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 105. 3. 

Entirely black : head punctured, pubescent ; the face covered 
with a silvery down ; a very slight carina between the base of 
the antennae extending upwards to the vertex, and terminating 
abruptly at a slight transverse one, which extends on each side 
to their points of insertion ; the clypeus very convex, reflexed 
in front, where, in the centre, it is slightly emarginate ; the apex 
of the mandibles rufescent. 

Thorax punctured, pubescent ; the dorsolum with two cen- 
tral parallel impressions at its base, which extend to the disk, 
and a scratch on each side parallel with the middle of the epaulet 
of the tegulae ; the incisure at the base of the scutellum con- 
sute ; the metathorax reticulated ; the tegulas piceous or black ; 



232 CHABRONID/i:. 

the wings very slightly coloured, iridescent, the nervures black ; 
the legs black ; the apical joints of the tarsi piceous, the an- 
terior tarsi slightly ciliated, and the intermediate and posterior 
tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen shining, delicately punctured, covered with a 
sericeous pubescence ; the petiole about the length or a little 
longer than the remainder of the first segment, and carinated 
above, the carina acuminate at its apex, and sometimes bifid 
at its base, or obliquely striated, the hypopygium slightly pro- 
duced 5 . 

The $ differs in having more of the silvery pubescence on 
the face ; the antennae longer and slighter, and the anterior and 
intermediate tarsi testaceous, and the posterior ferruginous, or 
all ferruginous, and the hypopygium produced into an up- 
curved pale spine. 

•1-4- -j- I think it is very probable that this is the Psen 
ater of Latreille ; but he having given no satisfactory de- 
scription of it, it is very uncertain. I have found it at 
Darenth Wood in Kent, and Mr. Walker has taken it in 
North Wales, inhabiting posts and rails. 

2. The clypeus trilobate. The abdomen not constricted at 
its base into a long and slender petiole. 

Genus XXXIV. — Cerceris. Latr. 

Head subquadrate, transverse, wider than the thorax; the /ace 
vertical ; the eyes ovate, placed at the lateral angles of the 
head ; the stemmata slightly elevated on the vertex ; the an- 
tennce subclavate, inserted near the middle of the face on 
each side of a carina, which runs from the centre of the face 
to the base of the clypeus, the middle lobe of which it em- 
braces ; the clypeus trilobate, the central lobe the largest, and 
having anteriorly a narrow margin ; labrum concealed ; the 
mandibles very stout, tridentate, the apical tooth acuminate, 



XXXIV. CERCEKIS, 05,3 

the second obtuse, and placed half-way within, and the third 
more acute, and nearer the base. Thorax ovate ; the collar 
transverse, as also the scutellum ; the metathorax obtusely 
truncated, having a triangular enclosure at its base ; the su- 
perior wings with one marginal cell oblong, rounded at its apex, 
and three suhmarginal cells, the first very long, the second tri- 
angular and petiolated, receiving the first recurrent nervure in 
its centre, the third distant from the apex of the wing, receiving 
near its commencement the second recurrent nervure ; the legs 
moderately long, very stout, and spinose ; the anterior tarsi 
ciliated on the exterior. The abdomen oblong, the first seg- 
ment narrowed into half the width of the rest, the base and 
margins of all crenate ; the apical segment with a pair of 
carinas, concave between on each side, the surface between 
the inner ones plane, and either truncated or furcate at its 
extremity. 

Type, C. Arenaria. Lin. 

■|-4-f The derivation of the name is uncertain. The genus 
was established by Latreille in his ' Histoire,'' where he 
separated them from the Phllanthus of Fabricius. Jurine, 
from mistaking the type of the latter author, applied the 
name of PJdlanthus to these insects. Their synonymy 
appears very much confused. 

Sp. 1. ARENARIA. Lin. 

niger, abdominis fasciis quatuor ( $ quinque) flavis, jnimo seg- 

mento duobus jiunctis flavis, tibiis ferrugineis. 

length 4^— 7i lines. 
V. d. Lind. Pt. 2. 109. 3. 

Sphex arenaria. Lin. F. S. 1660; S. N. 1. 946. .31. $ ; Villers, 3. 

235. 38. 
Crahro arenarius. Fab. Mant. 1. 297. 20 ; Sclir. F. B. 2. 335. 2184 ; 

Oliv. Ency. Meth. 6. 516. 22. 5 . 
Philanthus IcEtus. Panz. F. G. 63. 11. 
Cerceris aurita ? Fab. E. S. Supp. 268. 1 ; Piez. 301. 2. $ ; Latr. Hist, 

Nat. 13. 315. 1 ; Spin. 1. 96. 1. $ ; Latr. Xouv. Diet. ed. 2. 512. 



231 CKABROXID.E. 

? Crabro 5-cinrtus. Fab. iM. 1. 295. 11 ; Oliv. Ency. M^th. 6. 514. 13 ; 

Schrank, F. B. 2. 335. 2182. $. 
PbiluiUhus quinquechtctus. Fab. E. S. 291. 9 ; Piez. 304. 15. $. 

tictus. Fab. E. S. 2. 291. 10 ; Piez. 305. 18, $ . 

Vespa extiltiis et petulans. Harris, Expos, pi. 37. fig. 1, 2. 

? I'hilanthus i-fasdatus. Panz. F. G. 63. 14 ; Fab. Piez. 305. 16, 

Cerceris la:ta. Curt. Brit. Ent. vol. 6. f'ol. 269, 

Head black, very coarsely punctured, pubescent; antennae 
black, the second joint beneath, the third entirely, and the fourth 
and fifth beneath, ferruginous ; a spot on each side behind the 
posterior margin of the eyes, another large one within their 
orbits in front, a semicircular one in the centre of the clypeus, 
and a smaller one on each side of it, all yellow ; the mandibles 
black. 

The thorax black, coarsely punctured ; a triangle at the base 
of the metathorax longitudinally striated, with a deep central 
incisure, beyond the triangle it is rugose ; the collar with a trans- 
verse line on each side, the tegulse in front, the post-dorsolum, 
and an ovate vertical spot on each side of the metathorax, all 
yellow, the latter sometimes wanting ; the base of the tegulae 
piceous ; the wings slightly fuscous, with their exterior margin 
and edge darker, the nervures testaceous, with the post-costal 
black ; the legs yellow testaceous, the anterior femora below and 
behind, the base of the intermediate, and the base and superior 
surface of the posterior pairs, black ; the apical joints of the 
posterior tarsi piceous ; the anterior tarsi strongly ciliated, and 
all the tibiae very spinose. 

The abdomen black, deeply punctured ; a small yellow spot 
on each side of the first segment, and a broad yellow band on 
the margins of the four following — that on the second deeply 
emarginate in front, the two following slightly attenuated in the 
middle, and the fourth waved in front— the lateral carinas on the 
sixth segment parallel, the intermediate surface rugose and 
opaque, and slightly produced at the apex $ . 

The $ differs in having the entire face yellow, as well as the 



XXXIV. CKRCEKIS. 235 

carina between the base of tlie antennte, that calour extending 
in a cui've to the upper part of the interior orbits of the eyes ; 
the first joint of the antennce yellow beneath, the rest fulvous 
and above piceous ; the legs yellow, with the anterior coxae, 
trochanters, and base of the thighs above, the intermediate coxae, 
the trochanters above and the base of the thighs above, the 
upper part of the posterior coxae and trochanters, and a ring at 
the apex of their thighs, all black ; the posterior tibiae with a 
piceous stain at their apex, and their tarsi, excepting the first 
joint, also piceous ; the abdomen with an additional yellow band 
on the sixth segment, those of the third and fourth, continuing 
on the margin of the ventral segment, sometimes interrupted ; 
the intermediate space between the carinee of the anal segment 
deeply punctured and shining. 

<?■ $ in my own and other Cabinets. 

•t--j^f The Philanthus quinquecinctus of Panzer is cer- 
tainly the $ of his Ph. interruptus, although Van der 
Linden considers it a ^ of this species, which cannot be 
the case, from its posterior tibiae and all the tarsi being 
yellow ; and the black mark of the upper portion of the in- 
termediate femora also extends further towards the knee in 
the present species, besides his figure exactly resembles all 
the $ of the C.interrupta I have ever captured. The present 
species is very abundant at Hampstead, and at Charlton, 
near Woolwich ; the ? preys on a small Cvrculio of the 
genus StropJiosomus : at Hampstead it makes its burrows on 
the sandy flat above the Vale of Health, on the spot where 
a short time before its appearance the Panurgus ursinus 
abounds. It is a powerful insect ; notwithstanding which, 
and even the hardness of the integument of its prey, I have 
never found it to sting, although I have captured many 
hundreds with my fingers ; in fact, I have never observed 
the genus Cerceris to make use of that organ. It appears 
to be widely distributed over the country. 



236 CKAISUONID.E. 

Sp. 2, i.AEiATA. Fab. 

»iger, Jlavo-maculatus, cli/pei dlvisione medid allevatd, porrec- 

tuqiie, ahdominc fasciis quinque Jlavis, pedibus ferrugineis ? . 

^ cbj2^eo piano, liedibus Jlavis. 

length 5 — 7 lines. 
V. d. Lind, pt. 2. 111.5. ^. $. 

Crabro labiatus. Fab. E. S. 2. 296. 11. $ . 

cunicularis. Schr. F. B. 2. 334. 2181. $ . 

bidens. Schr. F. B. 2. 335. 2183. 

Philanihus labiatus. Piinz. F. G. 63. 16 ; Fab. Piez. 303. 10. 5 , 

arenarius. Panz. F. G. 46. 2. $ . 

Cerceris namta. Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect. 4. 94. ^. $. 

Head black, deeply punctured ; the central lobe of the clypeus 
ibrnicate, projecting from its base, emarginate in front, and at 
its base a longitudinal carina extending backwards between the 
basal joints of the antennae ; the antennae black, with the scape 
beneath yellow, and the six following joints ferruginous beneath, 
the second, third, and fourth joints more or less so above ; a 
large ovate spot on each side of the head behind, another, semi- 
circular, within the margin of the eyes in front, and the whole 
of the jjorrect plate above, yellow, with the exception of the 
anterior edge ; the mandibles yellow, with their apex piceous. 

The thorax black, punctured, with (sometimes) a short tri- 
angular smooth space running backwards from the centre of the 
base of the dorsolum towards its disc, where it terminates ; the 
metathorax rugose, with the triangle at its base longitudinally 
striated ; a large yellow spot on each side of the collar, a trans- 
verse line on the post-dorsolum, and a large ovate spot placed 
vertically (sometimes wanting) of the same colour on each side 
of the metathorax ; the tegulae testaceous ; the wings fuscous ; 
the legs fulvous or ferruginous, with the coxae and extreme base 
of the femora black. 

The abdomen black, punctured, with a broad yellow band on 
each of the segments but the last, the first slightly interrupted, 
the rest attenuated in the centre, most so in the second, and the 
last nearly entire ; the venter with a subtriangular yellow spot 



XXXIV. CERCERIS, 2,J ( 

on each side of the second, third, and fourtli segments (some- 
times wanting) ; the intermediate carina of the anal segment 
parallel, and the surface between them punctured and opaque $. 
The $ differs in having the lateral lobes of the clypeus with a 
rigid fringe of golden setae, and the central one obsoletely 
trifid ; all the joints of the antenna? ferruginous beneath, ex- 
cepting the scape, which is yellow, and the apical joints entirely 
ferruginous ; the face below the antennae yellow, as well as on 
each side at the inner orbits of the eyes extending half-way to the 
vertex ; the clypeus entirely yellow ; the yellow sjjot behind 
the eyes, and the spot on each side of the metathorax, wanting ; 
the tegulae yellow ; the coxae with yellow markings, and the base 
of the posterior femora not black, but with black spots towards 
the apex within ; the abdomen with a narrow band on each of 
the segments, excepting the first, which has a small yellow spot 
on each side, the bands of the rest much attenuated in the 
middle, and the penultimate ventral segment with a strong denti- 
form process on each side. 

^ $ in the Cabinet of the British 
Museum; $ in Mr. Curtis's and 
Mr. Stephens's. 

f4.f Never having been fortunate enough to fall in with 
this species, I do not possess a specimen, much less a series, 
by which alone it is possible to determine any insect's 
range of variation. It is extremely like the following, the 
$ especially ; and this sex appears to want a sufficient 
character to separate it from the same sex of the follow- 
ing, which I have no doubt would present itself. The $ 
seems to be distinguishable from the following, solely by 
the superior elevation of the central lobe of the clypeus, 
which is entirely raised up and holds only by its base. It 
is also generally larger than the largest I have ever met 
with of the following species. I cannot ascertain its dis- 
tinct locality. 



S.'JS CllABUONID.r. 

Sp. 3. INTERKUI'TA. FailZ. 

nt(rer,Jlavo-maculatu.<t, clypei divtsione medld convexd ant'ice tan- 
tilm excavatd, ahdomine fasciis quinque Jlavis, pedibus ferru- 

gineis, 

$ clypeo j)lano, pedibus Jlavis. 

length 31 — 5 lines. 

V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 113. 7. 

1 Philanthus interruptus. Panz. F. G. 63. 17. $. 

quinqueciiictus. Panz. F. G. 63. 12. (the figure without 

the references) $ . 

The head black, punctured; the antennae with the scape 
entirely black or piceous in front only, the second black above, 
and the remainder fuscous above, and all ferruginous beneath, 
with the terminal one also above ; the central lobe of the clypeus 
very convex and excavated in front, above yellow, as also a 
semicircular mark on each side within the eyes and another be- 
hind them above ; the mandibles with their base yellow and 
apex piceous. 

The thorax black, punctured, shining ; the triangular space at 
the base of the metathorax longitudinally striated ; a large dot 
on each side of the collar, the tegulee, and post-dorsolum, all 
yellow ; the wings subfuscous, darker towards the apex ; the 
stigma and nervures testaceous ; the legs flavo-ferruginous, with 
the coxae, trochanters, and extreme base of the two anterior 
pairs of femora, and sometimes of the posterior ones, black. 

The abdomen black, punctured, and shining ; with a yellow 
band on the margin of each of the five first segments, either all 
entire or all interrupted ; the anal segment entirely black and 
the central carinas widest apart at their base, and the plane be- 
tween them punctured and opaque $ . 

The $ differs in having the face beneath the antennae, the 
inner orbits of the eyes, the carina between the antennae, with 
the first joint of the latter in front, all yellow ; the flagellum of 
the antennae black above, the penultimate joint produced above 
at its apex, and the last slightly lunulate: the legs yellow; the 



XXXIV. CERCERIS. 239 

anterior coxae and trochanters beneath, and the intermediate 
and posterior ones, entirely yellow ; a black spot above towards 
the knees of the posterior femora ; and the abdomen with an 
additional yellow band. 

^ 5 in my own and Mr. F. Smith's 
Collections. 

t-l-t The only doubt which attaches to this being Pan- 
zer's insect is, that he says the clypeus is entirely black, 
and that he figures the posterior coxse and trochanters of 
the same colour as the rest of the legs. I have not the 
least doubt that his Phil, quinquecinctus is the $ of it. 
Van der Linden therefore is incorrect in referring it to the 
Cerceris arenariiis, which it cannot be, from the colour of 
the posterior tibiae. The 5 of the present insect differs 
very slightly from the preceding, somewhat in size, but es- 
pecially in the degree of the elevation of the central lobe 
of the clypeus. It occurs in abundance at Birchwood, in 
Kent, where I took it this summer. 

Sp. 4. ORNATA. Fab. 

7iiger, Jlavo-maculatus, ihorace interdum toto nigro, ahdomine 
fasciis Iribus jiavis. 

length 3|— 6i lines. 
Latr. Hist. 13. 317. 3 ; Nouv. Diet. ed. 2. 5. 512 ; Walck. surle genre 

Halicte, 80 ; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 117. 13. 
Philanthus orriutus. Fab. S. E. 2. 290. 6; Piez. 304. 11 ; Panz. F. G. 

63. 10; Revis. 2. 174. (excluding the reference to Ph. emarginatus). 
Crahro variabilis. Schr, F. Boi. 2. 339. 2190. 
Philanthus semicinctus. Panz. 47. 24. $ . 

Head black, deeply punctured, pubescent ; the whole of the 
face below the antennae, extending on each side above them 
within the inner orbits of the eyes, yellow ; the antennae black ; 
the scape in front yellow, and the clavolet beneath fuscous (some- 



210 CIS ACRONID*;. 

times, at the base only); tlie clypeus yellow; the mandibles 
yellow, with their apex piceous. 

The thorax black, coarsely punctured, pubescent ; two abbre- 
viated parallel longitudinal lines at the base of the dorsolum in 
the centre ; the triangle at the base of the metathorax nearly 
smooth, the centre having a longitudinal impressed line and the 
edges of the sides longitudinally striate, beyond which it is very 
coarsely punctured ; a spot on each side of the collar (generally 
wanting), the tegula?, and a transverse line on the post-dorsolum 
(frequently wanting), all yellow ; the wings slightly coloured, 
their anterior margin and apical edge more deeply so ; the legs 
yellow, with the femora black, the anterior pair of which are 
yellow in front, their knees ferruginous, the intermediate pair 
yellow in front towards the knees, and the apical joints of the 
tarsi also ferruginous ; the anterior tarsi strongly ciliated, and 
all the tibia2 very spinose. 

The abdomen black, coarsely punctured ; a yellow band at the 
base of the second segment, abbreviated at the sides, frequently 
emarginate behind, and frequently a minute dot on each side at 
the margin of this segment, a second generally occupying the 
whole of the third segment, frequently deeply emarginate in front, 
and a third entire on the fifth segment, very rarely emarginate 
in front, frequently an irregular mark on each side of the fourth 
segment, which extremely rarely forms an entire band ; generally 
a triangular spot or interrupted band on the third ventral seg- 
ment, and when the fourth is entirely yellow above, the ventral 
segment has also a yellow band ; the space between the central 
longitudinal carinse of the anal segment, which are widest apart 
at their base, punctured and opaque $ . 

The $ differs in having the mandibles generally black or with 
merely a yellow spot at their base, a yellow band on both the 
fifth and sixth segments, the former emarginate in front and 
sometimes reduced to merely a small mark on each side, that on 
the sixth always entire ; the intermediate carinas of the anal 
segment more nearly parallel with the intermediate space, deeply 



XXXIV. CERCERIS. 241 

punctured and shining, and having frequently a yellow spot at 
its base. 

$ 5 in my own and other Collections. 

•|--|--j- The variation of colour in this species very naturally 
leads me to the consideration of the colouring of these in- 
sects generally, which involves a question of considerable im- 
portance and deep interest in Natural History, namely, that 
of species and varieties. Are we, for instance, still to con- 
sider those individuals as types which accident first threw 
in the way of being described ? or should we take Nature's 
types — her most perfect specimens, those most thoroughly 
organised or intensely coloured — as the true types, and sink 
the rest into varieties ? I have chosen a middle path in the 
present work, and introduced the range of variety into the 
description of the species, for frequently a half a dozen 
alphabets would not enumerate the shades of difference, 
which vary in almost every individual ; yet which, where 
it is possible to fall upon the objects and collect at pleasure, 
are found upon a proper selection of specimens to gradate 
so much into each other that no separation can be made. 
This I have experienced to be the case always in the present 
tribe, and would it not probably happen in every other 
branch of Natural History, where similar opportunities for 
collecting numbers occurred ? But to return to my original 
object — the colouring of these insects — I may observe that 
the degree of colour of the abdomen is found to affect the 
colouring of the thorax and of the legs ; for instance, in 
the present species when there are large yellow markings on 
the fourth segment, there is a yellow spot on each side of 
the collar and a transverse line of yellow on the post- 
dorsolura. And in Gorytes mystaceus, in the variety cam- 
pestris of Linne, which comprises those specimens that 

R 



242 crabuonid.t:. 

have a transverse band on the fourth segment of the abdo- 
men, generally also accompanied by the otlier bands being 
more strongly coloured, the legs likewise participate and 
incline more to yellow or are marked w^ith yellow, whereas 
they are usually red ; and I could adduce very many other 
instances. It is singular, that the intensity affects only the 
thorax, and rai'ely the head ; for as the legs originate from 
the thorax, I may here consider them as forming a part 
of it. Those parts of the thorax usually affected are the 
collar, tubercles, scutellum, and post-dorsolum, with occa- 
sionally the metathorax. What determines the colour to 
these parts ? I have no theory to propound, for theorising 
in this science has been converted into the alias of dogma- 
tising which, without a solecism, may fairly be considered 
the ' Romance of Natural History.' Does it arise from a 
superabundant secretion of the colouring matter in the 
■pupa state dependant upon the food of the larva, yet not 
in its quantity but quality, for the most highly coloured are 
not always the largest ; and this superabundance, after sup- 
plying the abdomen as far as the specific limitations allow, 
finds vent at those parts of the thorax ? Or, on a defective 
secretion, does specific identity better bear its deficiency on 
the thorax than it would on the abdomen ? By specific 
identity I allude to the facility of our discriminating them, 
and not to sexual discrimination ; for evidently an instinct 
and not sight determines that impulse to its object. And 
this view, I think, I may indulge, for we are allowed to 
consider the creation as subjected to man's intellect, and 
for the exercise of his faculties, which without some clue 
would frequently be at fault : therefore may we not thus, 
even in the trivial circumstance of colour, trace a proof of 
design ? I do not hereby assert that structure would not 
present more permanent characters, but in such small 



XXXIV. CERCERIS. 243 

objects it is not so obvious, and from the former sufficing 
it is overlooked. 

To return from this digression, I cannot with Van der 
Linden consider the Philanthus emarginatus of Panzer as 
a variety of the present species, for he figures it with the 
legs entirely yellow, and also describes it so, with the ex- 
ception of the apex of the posterior tibiae ; nor does Pan- 
zer's Phil, sahulosus belong here, as will be seen in my 
sixth species. I have found this very beautiful insect in 
great abundance in Battersea Fields, where it forms its 
burrows in the beaten pathways of a market garden, and 
supplies its young with the Halictus rubicundus, H. fulvo- 
cinctus, and H. leucos:onius. I have also found it equally 
abundant in a sandy lane near Green Street Green, in 
Kent, where occasionally very highly coloured specimens 
occur. 

Sp. 5. QUADRICINCTA. PeHZ. 

niger, thorace maculato, abdomine fasciis quatuor Jlavis con- 

tinuis, intermediis angustiorihus. 

length 3| — 5^ lines. 

Latr. Hist. 13. 316. 2. $ ; V. d. Lind. pt. 2. 114. 8. ^ $ . 

Philanthus quadricinctus. Panz. F. G. 63. 15. J . 

Cercerisfasciata. Spin. 1.97.2. J. 

Head black, deeply punctured, pubescent ; the antennae black ; 
the scape yellow, with a black spot above, and the remainder 
fulvous beneath ; the carina between the basal joints of the an- 
tennae, a large ovate spot on the margin of the anterior orbits 
of the eyes, the clypeus, which has its central lobe slightly 
fornicate, the mandibles at their base, all yellow. 

Thorax black, deeply punctured, pubescent ; a triangle at the 
base of the metathorax rather irregularly longitudinally striate, 
beyond which it is rugose ; a transverse ovate spot on each side 
of the collar, the tegulae, the post-dorsolum, and a large ovate 

R 2 



244 cnABnoN'iD^. 

vertical spot on each side of the metatliorax (sometimes wanting), 
all yellow ; the wings slightly coloured, the nerviires black, the 
stigma testaceous, the anterior margin of the wing, and to- 
wards the apex, very dark ; the legs yellow, with the coxae, 
trochanters, and base of the thighs of the anterior and inter- 
mediate, and the coxae and trochanters of the posterior, and a 
ring at the apex of their femora, all black, the four last joints 
of the intermediate tarsi, and the whole posterior, ferruginous 
or piceous, the latter paler at their base. 

The abdomen black, punctured, pubescent ; a yellow band on 
the second to the fifth segments, that on the second and the 
fifth occupying the whole segment, the two intermediate ones 
attenuated in the middle, the second, third, and fourth con- 
tinued on the margin of the ventral segment, the two last some- 
times interrupted ; the longitudinal carinse upon the apical seg- 
ment more distant apart at their base than at their apex, and 
the intermediate space rugose and opaque $ . 

I am unacquainted with the $ . 

5 in my own Collection. 

■f.\.f Several specimens of this species were taken by Mr. 
Harding near Faversham, in Kent, in the year 1834. I 
know no other locality for it. The next is probably its ^, 
but of which I am not sure. 

Sp. 6. sABULOSA. Panz. 

niger, thorace maculato, ahdomine fasciis quinque, pedibitsque 
Jlavis, tarsis ferrugineis. 

length 4^ lines. 
Philanthus sabulosus. Panz. F. G. 63. 13. 

Head black, pubescent, punctui-ed ; the face entirely yellow ; 
the surface of the carina being also of that colour, which gives 
a trifid marking towards the antennae, the lateral divisions occu- 
pying the inner orbits of the eyes; the antennae with the scape 



XXXIV. pnir-ANTHUs. 245 

entirely yellow, the pedicel black, and the following joints 
ferruginous. 

The thorax black, punctured ; the triangle at the base of the 
nietathorax with a profound longitudinal impression in its centre, 
whence oblique striae diverge laterally ; the collar with a spot 
on each side, the scutellum with sometimes an interrupted 
line, the post-dorsolum with a transverse line, and a spot on 
each side of the nietathorax (sometimes wanting), as also the 
tegulae, all yellow ; the wings slightly coloured, with their 
margins darker ; the legs yellow, their coxae black, and the 
posterior knees and tarsi ferruginous. 

The abdomen black, with a yellow band on the second to the 
sixth segment, that on the second occupying its anterior por- 
tion, and being emarginate on its posterior edge (sometimes 
entire), and having a small black spot on each side, those on 
the second and sixth generally occupying the entire segment, 
and the fourth and fifth much attenuated in the middle, and that 
on the third occasionally emarginate in front $ . 

The 5 I am unacquainted with. 

$ in the Collection of the 
' British Museum. 

f -)-f Panzer's insect is evidently a slight variety of this, 
and it is so very different from the ^ of C ornata, that I 
am surprised Van der Linden should refer it to that species. 
I am unacquainted with the $, but I think it very pro- 
bably may be the C. quadricincta, the species preceding 
this. 

Genus XXXV. — Philanthus. Fab. 

Head large, wider than the thorax, suborbiculate ; eyes lateral, 
emarginate ; antennce clavate, and very thick in the middle 
(not so stout in the $), not approximate, inserted in the 
middle of the face within a depression, thus forming an ele- 



246 CRABRONIDiC. 

vation between them ; the clypeus trilobate, the central lobe 
being subrotund, and slightly emarginate in front ; the stem- 
mata placed close together at the vertex ; the labrum con- 
cealed ; the mandibles unidentate, acuminate. The thorax 
ovate ; the collar transverse, linear, the lateral edges angular; 
the scittellum transverse ; the metathorax obtuse ; the superior 
wings with one marginal cell and three suhmarginal cells, the 
marginal being very long and narrow, the second and third 
submaTginal cells narrowed towards the marginal, and each re- 
ceiving a recurrent nervure, and the third distant from the apex 
of the wing ; the legs moderately long, and somewhat stout ; 
the anterior tarsi strongly ciliated, and the posterior tibice 
spinose. The abdomen ovate ; the margins of the segments 
depressed, and the apical segment obtuse. 

Type, Phil, coronatus. F. 

-(■-|-t The name is derived from <^<Asa;, to love, and av^og, 
flower. Fabricius first established this genus in his ' En- 
tomologia Systematica,' in 1793, and included in it, even 
in his last work on the order, the insects which Latreille 
had separated by the name of Cerceris. Jurine, by mis- 
taking Latreille's type, considered the present Cerceres as 
the Philanthi, and proposed for the latter the name of 
Simhlephilus, which necessarily becomes merely a syno- 
nyme. 



Sp. 1. TRIANGULUM. Fab. 

niger, ahdomine flavo, segmentis triangulo dorsali nigro. 

length 6 — 7 lines. 
Fab. E. S. 2. 289. 2 ; Piez. 302. 4 ; Dumeril, Consid. pt. 59. fig. 6 & 7. 
Vespa triangulum. Fab. S. E. 373. 49 ; Sp. 1 . 469. 68 ; Mant. 294, 82 ; 

Villers, 3. 276. 25; Christ. 136 ; Oliv. Ency. Meth. 6. 692. 116. 
Veipa limbata, Olivier, 6. 693. 118. 
Ciabr,^ nndroguinis. Rossi, F. E. INIant. 1. 138. 305. 



XXXV. PHILANTHUS. 247 

Pliilaiithus picttis. Panz. F. S. 43. 23 ^ ; Fab. Piez. 302. 5. 

apivonis. Latr. Fourmis, 317. pi. 12. f. 2 ; Hist. 13. 314. 2 ; 

Nouv. Diet. ed. 2. 25. 523. 
Simblephilus diadema. Jurine, pi. 10. genus 18. 
Pliilantlius aiidrogynus. Curt. Brit. Ent. vol. 6. pt. 273. 5. 

Head black, punctured ; the face and clypeus yellow ; the 
mandibles rufescent, their apex piceoiis; the head having behind 
a large fulvous mark, which rises upwards towards the occiput. 

The thorax black, punctured, pubescent ; the collar, the tu- 
bercles, the tegulae, and a transverse line upon the post-dor- 
solum, yellow ; the metathorax very finely punctured, with a 
longitudinal central impressed line at its base ; the wings slightly 
coloured ; the legs yellow, the anterior pair inclining to fuscous ; 
the base of all the femora black ; the anterior tarsi strongly 
ciliated, and all the tibiae spinose. 

The abdomen yellow, with a large triangular black spot in 
the centre of each of the segments, largest in the second and 
third 5 . 

The ^ differs in having the antennae more slender, a tricus- 
pidate or trident-shaped yellow mark in the centre of the face, 
the base attached to the base of the clypeus ; the spot behind 
the eyes at the back of the head yellow ; a couple of small 
yellow spots on the scutellum ; all the legs of a bright yellow, 
excepting the base of the femora, which are as in the 5 ; the 
abdomen has the bands on the third, fourth, and fifth segments 
very much attenuated in front. 

$ in my own Collection ; 
2 in that of Mr. Curtis. 

-f--|-t ^^' Curtis first introduced this beautiful insect to 
our Fauna ; he found it at the back of the Isle of Wight, 
and also near Heron Court in Hampshire. This was some 
years ago, but neither himself nor any body else have 
been able to find it since, although very diligent search 
has been made. I suspect it is extremely local ; but when 



248 CRABRONID^. 

its metropolis shall be discovered it will be taken in abund- 
ance, which is the case wherever it occurs on the continent. 
A new locality was found this year for it at Snaresbrook 
in Epping Forest, Essex, where Mr. Harding captured the 
only $ that has yet occurred, and very kindly presented it 
to my Collection, all those taken by Mr. Curtis having 
been 5 . It is recorded to prey upon species of the genus 
Halictus ; my $ was caught on a thistle-head, in company 
with a Conops, and upon visiting the spot, which I lost no 
time in doing, it appeared to abound with very many 
Halicti, but the weather being gusty and coldish (early in 
September), I was unsuccessful, but hope next year to dis- 
cover its habitation. I had the additional pleasure of re- 
ceiving this beautiful insect alive in a pill-box; and on 
calling upon my friend Mr. Waterhouse, we observed it for 
some time under a large glass : upon offering to touch it, 
it opened its mandibles, and lifted up its head and one of 
its fore-legs in a threatening attitude ; I expect therefore 
that it is a very bold insect. Few English Entomologists 
have had the pleasure of seeing this pretty creature alive ; 
but I hope when this much neglected tribe shall be more 
studied and collected, which it is my object to promote by 
publishing this ' Essay,' that very many new and beautiful 
insects will be discovered. 



APPENDIX. 



The first seven sheets of this work having been printed as 
long back as August, 1835, it will necessarily happen that 
new observations have been made, and new localities found, 
for many of the species previously described, and which I 
will here record, referring to the pages where they would 
most apiDropriately come. 

P. 17. In the ' Transactions of the Entomological So- 
ciety,' pt. iii. will be found my paper upon the theory of 
the neuration of the superior wing of the Hymenoptera, 
with a table containing a comparative view of the nomen- 
clature of the several authors who have written upon the 
subject. 

F.32, MuTiLLA EPHiPPiuM. In a field near the Thames 
at Chiswick, the 5 in abundance, by my friend Mr. W. 
Pickering, who pointed out the spot to me. 

P. 34. Myrmosa melanocephala <^. In abundance 
at Birchwood; varying from 2| — 4 lines. 

P. 35. Methoca ichneumonides ^ {Tengyra Sanvi- 
tali. Lat.)- A single specimen of the <^ , which I had the 
pleasure of presenting to my kind friend the Rev. G, T. 



250 APPENDIX. 

Rudd; a couple of specimens have also been taken by 
Mr. Dale in Dorsetshire. 

P. 40. TiPHiA FEMORATA. I captured both sexes, fre- 
quently in copula, of this species, and thus confirm what I 
there say on the authority of Messrs. Davis and Newman. 
It varies very much in size, for I captured females at Birch- 
wood of 2j — 5g lines in length, and a specimen of this sex 
3 lines long, in which the truncation of the metathorax and 
first segment of the abdomen are red. 

P. 46. Sapyga clavicornis $ $. Have occurred in 
abundance near Nottingham and near Birmingham. 

P. 54. PoMPiLus PETiOLATUs. At Darcnth ; the i 
abundant. 

P. 56. PoMPiLUs PUNCTUM. A single specimen in the 
Cabinet of the British Museum, which I overlooked when 
I described the insects there. 

P. 57. PoMPiLUS HYALiNATUs. Several specimens on 
a currant-bush in Battersea Fields infested by an Aphis, as 
well as on the umbels of the Pastinacca ; the insect is ex- 
cessively rapid in its flight. Amongst them one extraordi- 
nary specimen, in which the first transverse cubital nervure 
is wanting on both sides, and another specimen in which the 
second transverse cubital extends only half way from the 
€ubital nervure to the radial ; the posterior femora occa- 
sionally black. 

P. 66. PoMPiLus AFFiNis. By my friend Mr. F. Smith, 
at Blackwater, Hants. 



APPENDIX. 251 

P. 67. PoMPiLus EXALTATUs. The red-legged variety 
at Turnham Green, Middlesex ; Green Street Green and 
Birchwood, Kent — both sexes. I am strongly inclined to 
consider this variety a good species; for now that I possess 
a series, I can observe some difference of structure. I 
therefore propose the name of agilis for it — it varies in 
size from 2| — 3| lines — a small specimen of the ^ has the 
third submarginal cell petiolated on both sides. 

P. 68. PoMPiLus FASciATELLus. In Battersca Fields 
and Hackney Marshes ; but nothing has yet occurred 
which with any probability may be considered its $ . 

P. 70. Ceropales variegata. On Parley Heath, in 
the autumn of last year (1835), the Rev. G. T. Rudd con- 
firmed Dr. Leach's previous capture, by taking a single 
specimen of each of the sexes. The $ agrees with the 
$ in colouring, and is smaller in size. 

P. 81. Miscus CAMPESTRis- Mr. Curtis has figured 
this species as an Ammopkila, and divides it only section- 
ally from that genus ; but I see no reason for altering my 
opinion as to the value of its generic separation. I have 
not yet discovered a true Ammopkila with the cell petio- 
lated, and I have captured many hundreds for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining, and I possess also an extensive series 
of foreign specimens, both European and exotic, in which 
this formation never occurs ; and, besides, the M. campestris 
has never yet been found with the wing not petiolated. 
Mr. Curtis's figure is at folio 604 of his beautiful work. 
Early in the year abundant at Blackwater in Hampshire. 

P. 83. Mr, Stephens informs me that the Sphex flavi- 



252 APPENDIX. 

peniiis was purchased by him of Dr. Liiidley with his Col- 
lection. 

P. 98. AsTATA Boops. Tliis insect has been found at 
Blackwater in Hampshire ; it thus appears to be widely 
distributed. 

P. 103. Nysson trimaculatus. Several specimens in 
Battersea Fields, on a currant-bush. The $ stings se- 
verely. A specimen of this sex, which I took, has the 
base of the first segment red. I have a ^ in which the 
third cell is also petiolated, and on the right side it has 
three recurrent nervures, the additional one intervening 
between the other two, and connected with the second 
true recurrent by a transverse nervure, about half-way 
between the submarginal cells and the subdiscoi'dal ner- 
vure. These occasional divarications must be considered 
as monstrosities ; they are of too rare occurrence in this 
tribe to militate against the alary system. 

P. 117. Trypoxylon figulus. I have again taken 
this insect with a spider, this year (1836). 

P. 118. Under all the insects from Trypoxylon cla- 
viCERUM, my observations are recorded up to the present 
period ; it was only thus far that was in type when I re- 
cently resumed printing the work. 



INDEX. 



Page 

Abdomen, structure of the .... 20 

Alyson. Jur. 206 

Kenedii. Curt 207 

lunicornis. Fab 207 

Ammophila. Kir 73 

observations on ... . 74 

affinis. Kir 78 

argentea. Kir 78 

caynpestris. Latr. . . 80 

hirsuta. Scop 77 

sabulosa. Lin 75 

the habits of 77 

viatica. Latr 78 

vulgaris. Kir 76 

Antennae, structure and position 

of 8 

suppositions on their 

uses 9 

Aphrophora spumaria preyed on 

by Giyrytes Fargeii 215 

Apis aptera. Ud 29 

clavicornis, Lin 45 

clypeata. Schreb 132 

simile. Har 29 

Apius Jigtdus. Jur 116 

Aporus. Spin 71 

bicolor. Spin 72 

Arpactus. Jur 220 

campestris. Panz. .. 211 

laevis. Latr 221 

mystacetis. Jur 211 

qiiadrifasciatus. Panz. 214 

tumidus. Panz 220 



Pigc 

Astata. Latr 96 

abd.nninalis. Latr 97 

boops. Schr 97 

observations on ... . 98 

victor. Curt 97 

Authors referred to in the work . 1 

Belhylus femoratus. Fab 40 

villosus. Fab 40 

Blepharipus mediatus. St. F. . . 149 

signatus. St. F. .. 151 

Books upon the Hymenoptera . . 1 

Celia. Shuck 182 

troglodytes. V. d. L 182 

Cemonus. Jur 199 

observations on the no- 
menclature of .... 199 

lethifer. Shuck 201 

liigiibris. Jur 196 

miiiutus. Jur 185 

unicolor. Jur 200 

unicolor. Jur 196 

Ceratocnius striatus. St. F 143 

Ceratophorus proposed as a genus 195 

Cerceris. Latr 232 

arenaria. Lin 233 

remarks on the 

synonymy of 235 
preys on a spe- 
cies of Stro- 
phosomiis . . 235 
aurita. Fab 233 



254 



Page 

Cerceris fasciata. Spin 243 

interrupta. Panz 238 

remarks on the 
synonymy of 239 

labiata. Fab 236 

loeta. Curt : 234 

nasuta. Latr 236 

ornata. Fab 239 

observations on the 

colour of 241 

remarks on the sy- 
nonymy of ... . 243 
quadricincta. Panz. . . 243 

sabulosa. Panz 244 

probably the $ of 

C. 4-cincta 244 

Ceropales. Latr 68 

maculata. Fab 69 

punctum. Fab 56 

variegata. Fab 71 

Clypeus, remarks on the 10 

Collar, form of the 15 

Colour, remarks on 242 

Conspectus of the genera 25 

Corynopns tibialis. St. Farg. ■ . 177 

Crabro. Fab 120 

remarks on St. Fargeau's 

subdivision of 121 

synopsis of the species of 123 

albilabris. Fab 171 

androgynus. Rossi .... 246 

arenarius. Fab 233 

bicinctus, Rossi 219 

bidens. Hal 153 

bidens. Schr 236 

bipunctatiis. Fab 203 

brevis. V. d. Lind 175 

capitosus. Shuck 159 

cephalotes. Fab 135 

cephalptes. Panz 143 

ceraunius, Rossi 94 

cetratus. Shuck 131 

clypeatus. Fab 132 

cribrarius. Latr 126 



Crabro cunicularis, Schr. 
dentipes. Panz. . , 

dimidiatus. Fab 

elongatulus. V. d. Lind. 

exiguus. V. d. Lind. . . 

fossorius. V. d. Lind. . . 

observations on 

frontalis. Panz 

geniculatus. Steph. 

hyalinus. Steph 

labiatus. Fab 

leucostoma. Lin 

leucostoma. Panz 

Lindenius. Shuck 

lugubris. Fab 

luteipalpis. St. Farg. j . 

mediatus. Fab 

minutus. Fab 

murorum, Latr 

mystaceus. Fab 

obliquus. Shuck 

palmatus. Panz 

Panzeri. V. d. Lind. . . 

patellarius. Schr 

patellatus. Panz 

peharius. Schr 

petiolatus. Panz 

pictus. Fab 

podagricus. V. d. Lind. 

observations on 

propinquus. Shuck. . . 

proximus. Shuck 

pubescens. Shuck 

quadrimaculatus. Fab. 
qiiinquecinctus. Fab. . , 

rufiventris. Panz 

sabulostis. Fab 

scutatus. Fab 

scutatiis. Panz 

sexcinctus. Fab 

seicinctus. Panz 

sigiiatus. Panz 

spinipectus. Shuck. . . . 
spinosus. Fab 



Page 
236 
128 
151 
154 
174 
139 
142 
205 
169 
161 
236 
153 
172 
143 
196 
155 
149 
185 
147 
211 
167 
126 
173 
126 
128 
128 
205 
94 
157 
159 
168 
156 
165 
147 
234 
178 
. 205 
. 129 
, 174 
, 137 
. 135 
, 151 
. 163 
. 100 



INDEX. 



255 



Page 

Crabro subpunctalus. Rossi . . 147 

tarsatus. Shuck 133 

tibialis. Fab 177 

transversalis. Shuck. .. 162 

trimaculatus. Rossi . . 102 

vagabundus. Panz 149 

vagus. Lin 145 i 

variafiilis. Schr 239 

vexillatus. Panz 132 

f ^ flavum. Panz 203 

tuiigl.umis. Fab 107 

Walkeri. Shuck 170 

Wesmaeli. V. d. Lind. 164 

xylurgus. Shuck 139 

Crabronidae. Leach 114 

Crossocerus elongattdus. St. F. 154 

exiguus. St. F 174 

gonager. St. F. . . 130 

leitcostoma, St. F. 153 

liiteipalpis. St. F. 155 

podagricus. St. F. 157 

scutatus. St. F. . . 130 

subpunctatus. St. F. 147 

Wesmaeli. St. F. . . 164 

Dinetus. Jur 93 

pictus. Fab 94 

Diodontus. Curt 184 

observations on 184 

gracilis. Curt 190 

insignis. V. d. Lind. . 189 

lupenis. Shuck 186 

minutus. Fab 185 

tristis. V. d. Lind. .. 187 

Dolichurus. Latr 83 

observations on ... . 84 

ater. Latr 85 

corniculus. Spin. . . 85 

Economy and habits, general re- 
marks on the 21 

Evania viaculata. Fab 69 

ptmctum. Fab 56 

variesatd. Fab 71 



Page 
Euspongus laticinctiis. St. Farg. 217 
Eyes, the form and situation of 
the 8 

Formicidae. Leach 28 

Fossores. Latr. 38 

Genera, characters of — should 
not divide the sexes 

(note) 142 

conspectus of the 25 

questions as to the causes 
of the diversity in 
the number of their 

species 23 

Gonatopns mntillarius. Nees. . 36 

Gorytes. Latr 209 

comments on St. Fargeau's 

division of 210 

arenarius. V. d. L. 215, 217 

bicinctus. Rossi 219 

campestris. St. Farg. . . 214 

Fargeii. Shuck 214 

preys on Aphro- 
phora spumaria .. 215 

lavis. V. d. Lind 221 

laticinctus. St. Farg. . . 217 

libitinarius. Curt 215 

mystaceus. Lin 211 

preys on a spe- 
cies of Aphio- 

phora 213 

quadrifasciatus. Fab. .. 215 

synonymy 

corrected 216 

quadrifasciatus. V. d. L. 214 

Spin... 217 

tnmidns. V. d. Lind. . . 222 

Guepe ichneumon. De Geer . . 126 

Habit, explanation of the term . . 3 
Habits, general remarks on the . . 21 
Halictus. species of, preyed on 

by Cerceris ornata . . 243 
Philanthus trianguliim 248 



256 



Page 

Head, form of the 7 

Ilellus pacca. Fab 44 

prisma. Fab 46 

qiiadrigultatus. Fab. .. 44 

sexpunctatus. Fab 44 

Ileterogyna. Latr 27 

Hoplisus quinquecinctus. St. F. 215 

Hymenoptera aculeata. Latr. . . 27 

Ichneumon. Geoff. 76 

multicolor. Oliv. .. 69 

Insects, periodical appearance of 105 

Jurlne's system, advantages of . . 3 

explanation of . . 4 

Lab rum, form and structure of 

the 11 

Larra. Fab 86 

observations on 86 

anathema. Rossi 87 

dimidiata, Panz 89 

dubius. Panz 92 

ichneumoniformis. Fab. . . 87 

picta. Latr 94 

pompilij'ormis. Panz 89 

Donev. ... 97 

sexmaculata. Spin 49 

unicolor. Panz 90 

Larridae. Leach 85 

Latreille, first subdivided insects 

into families 7 

Legs, structure of the 19 

Lestiphorus bicinctus. St. Farg. 219 

Lindenius alhilabris. St. Farg. 172 

brevis. St. Farg 175 

Panzer i. St. Farg. .. 173 

Liris anathema. Ill 87 

hyalinata. Fab 57 

Lyrops. Ill 89 

Mandibles, form, structure, and 

uses of the 12 



Page 

Masaris crabroniforitiis, Panz. 46 

Mellinus. Fab 202 

Arpactus, Fab 211 

arvcnsis. Lin 203 

bipunctatus. Fab. . . 203 

campestris. Fab 211 

cruentatus. Latr 221 

interruptus. Panz. . . 100 

mystaceus. Fab 211 

quadrifasciatus. Fab. 215 

Pz. 214 

rujicornis. Fab 205 

sabulosus. Fab 205 

Mesosternum, structure of the . . 16 
Metathorax, supplies important 

specific characters 15 

Methoca. Latr 34 

ichneumonides. Latr. 36 

Mimesa. Shuck 228 

bicolor. Jur 230 

equestris. Fab 228 

unicolor. V. d. Lind. . . 231 

Miscophus. Jur 91 

bicolor. Jur 92 

Miscus. Jur 79 

observations on 80 

campestris. Latr 80 

Mouth, organs of the 10 

Mutilla. Lin 28 

calva. Vill 30 

dimidiata. Latr 34 

ephippium. Fab 31 

Europaea. Lin 29 

formicaria. Jur 36 

l(£vis. Latr 221 

melanocephala. Fab. . . 34 

nigrita, Panz 30 

rufipes. Fab 32 

sellala. Panz 32 

Mutillidae. Leach 28 

Myrmosa. Latr 33 

atra. Panz 34 

melanocephala. Fab. 33 

nigra. Latr 34 



257- 



Page 
Nature, tlie study of, slioukl liave 
moral and religious effects on 

the mind 24 

Xysson. Latr 99 

dimidiatus. Jur 104 

guttatus. Oliv 103 

interruptus. Latr 101 

observations on 102 

interruptus, var. Oliv... 102 

maculatiis. Ill 102 

nigripes. Spin 102 

scalaris. Ill 101 

spinosus. Fab 100 

observations on . . 101 

trimaculatus. Rossi .... 102 

Xyssonidae. Leach. 95 

Oxybelus. Latr 105 

argentatus. Curt Ill 

bellicosus. Oliv 110 

ferox. Shuck 108 

nigripes. Oliv 109 

nigroaeneus. Shuck... 113 
quatuordecim guttatus. 

Oliv 112 

uniglumis, Lin 107 

Palpi, structure of the 13 

Parasites, St. Fargeau's theory of, 

stated 19, 22 

confuted 19, 22, 210, 213, 215 

Passaloecus. Shuck 188 

corniger. Shuck 191 

gracilis. Curt 190 

insignis. V.d. Lind... 189 

Pelop(eus cnmpressicnrnis. Fab. 225 
viticolor. Fab 225 

Pemphredon. Latr 192 

history of the genus . . 193 
reasons for subdividing 195 

albilabris. Fab 172 

insignis. V.d. Lind... 189 

leucflstnmn. Fab 153 

luctuosus. Shuck. . . 197 



Page 
Pemphredon lugubris. Fab. . . 196 

minuttis. Fab 185 

St. Farg. ..187 
morio. V.d. Lind. .. 198 
considered as the 
type of the genus 
Ceratnphoriis .. 195 

tibialis. Fab 177 

tristis. V. d. Lind. .. 187 

Pepsis arenaria. Ill 77 

Jlavipennis, Fab 83 

lutaria. Fab 78 

iinicolor. Latr 200 

Philantlms. Fab 245 

androgyniis. Curt. . . 247 

apivorus. Latr 247 

arennrius. Panz 236 

interruptus. Panz. . . 238 

lahiatus. Panz 236 

Icetus. Fab 234 

Panz 233 

ornatus. Fab 239 

pictits, Panz 247 

quadriciiictus. Panz. 243 

quadrifasciatus. Panz. 234 

qiiiiiquecinctus. Fab. 234 

Panz. 238 

Sdbulosus. Panz 244 

femicinctus. Panz. . . 239 

triangulum. Fab. . . 246 

observations on 

the habits of 248 

Plujsoscelusnifiventris. St. Farg. 178 

Pison (iter. Latr 85 

Pompilus. Fab 47 

observations on 48 

affinis. V. d. Lind. . . 65 

agilis. Shuck 251 

bifasciatus. Fab 52 

cinctellus. Spin 55 

corniculus. Spin 85 

crassicoiTiis. Shuck. . . 63 

cruentus, Panz 221 

exaltatus. Fab 66 



258 



Pagf 

Pompilus fasciatellus. Spin. . . 67 

f'rontalin. Panz 69 

fuscatus. Fab 58 

fuscus. Lin 64 

fuscus. Latr 61 

gibbus. Lin 62 

giitta. Spin 59 

guttattis. Fab 94 

hircattus. Fab 53 

hyalinatus. Fab 57 

lunicornis. Fab 207 

niger. Fab 50 

remarks on 51 

notatus. Rossi 59 

petiolatus. Y. d. Lind. 54 

pictus. Fab 94 

pulcher. Fab 49 

punctum. Fab 56 

rufipes. Lin 58 

sericatus. Shuck 60 

tumidus. Panz 222 

variegatus. Lin 53 

variegatus. Ill 66 

viaticus. Lin 61 

Pompilidae. Leach 47 

Psen. Latr 224 

ater. Fab 225 

remarks on the synony- 
my of 225 

atra. Panz 225 

atratus. Panz 227 

remarks on the syno- 
nymy of 228 

bicolor. Jur 230 

eqnestris. Latr 229 

pallipes. Spin 225 

rw/a. Panz 229 

serruticoniis. Jur 225 

unicolor. V. d. Lind 231 

St. Fargeau's accuracy in describ- 
ing species 7 

St. Fargeau's subdivision of Cra- 
bro criticised 121 



P»ge 

.St. Fargeau's subdivision of Go- 

rytes not tenable 210 

St. Fargeau's theory of parasites 
stated and confuted 19,210,213,215 

Sapyga. Latr 43 

habits of 44 

clavicornis. Lin 45 

decemguttata. Jur 44 

decipiens. St. Farg 44 

prisma. Kl 46 

punctata. Kl 44 

qnadripunctata. Panz... 44 

sexpunctata, Latr 44 

varin. St. Farg 44 

Sapygidae. Leach 43 

Scolia prisma. Fab 45 

quddriguttata. Fab 44 

quinqnepunctata. Fab 44 

se.rgultatu. Fab 44 

Scoliadae. Leach 38 

Simblephilns diadema. Jur 247 

Sirex pacca. Fab 44 

Solenins vagus. St. Farg. 146 

Species, determination of, by 

colour 241 

Species, the numbers vary in dif- 
ferent genera 23 

Species and varieties, questions 

as to .-. 241 

Sphex. Auct 81 

albomuculata. Schr 66 

anathtma. Rossi 87 

arenaria. Lin 233 

Fab 77 

atrii. Fab 225 

bifasciuta. Fab 52 

boops. Schr 97 

cribraria. Lin 126 

cruentata. Fab 221 

dimidiatu. Chr 76 

eiallata. Fab QQ 

fasciata. Vill 52 

fgidas. Lin 116 

flavipennis. Fab 83 



259 



Page 

Sphex fusca. Lin 64 

Juscata. Fab 58 

gibba. Lin 62 

guttata. Fab 94 

hirsuta. Scop 77 

hyalinata. Fab 57 

leucostoma. Lin 153 

Schr 116 

lutaria. Fab 78 

Panz 76 

tnystacea. Lin 211 

nigra. Fab 50 

notata. Rossi 59 

pallipes. Panz 227 

palmaria. Schreb 130 

patellaria. Schreb 126 

plumbea. Fab 49 

punctum. Fab 56 

quadriguttata, Vill 44 

riifipes. Lin 58 

rvfo-fasciata. De (jeer . . 61 

sabulosa. Lin 75 

spinosa. Vill 100 

unicolor. Panz 106 

vaga. Lin. 146 

vuriegata. Lin 53 

viatica. Lin 61 

De Geer 77 

Sphecidae. Leach 73 

Stemmata, situation of the .... 8 

Stigmus. Jur 180 

ater. Jur 181 

miuutus. Latr 185 

pendulus. Panz 181 

troglodytes. V. d. Lind. 182 

Synonymy, restriction of viii 

Systems, remarks on the futility of 11 

Tachytes. Panz 88 

pompiliformis. Panz. . . 89 

unicolor. Panz 90 

Tegulae 15 

Teiigura Sanvitali. Latr 36 

Thorax, observations on the. ... 14 



Page 

Thyreopus cribrarius. St. F. . . 126 

patellatus. St. Farg. 128 

Thyreus vexillatus. St. Farg. . • 132 

Tiphia. Fab 38 

abdominalis. Panz 97 

femorata. Fab 39 

minuta. V. d. Lind 42 

morio. Fab 41 

villosa. Fab 40 

Tongue, structure of the 13 

Trypoxylon. Latr 114 

atratum. Fab 225 

Panz. .. 227 

aurifrons. Shuck... 117 

clavicerum. St. F. 118 

equestre. Fab 229 

figulus. Lin 115 

observations on 116 
Tubercles, uses and situation of 

the 15 

Valvulae of the tongue 14 

Van der Linden, the first who 
applied the sculpture of the 
Hymenoptem to specific de- 
scription 4 

Variety, the advantages of intro- 
ducing its range into the spe- 
cific description 5 

Variety and species, question of 241 

Vespa arvensis, Lin 203 

campestris. Lin 211 

exultiis. Har 234 

limbuta. Oliv 246 

superbus. Har 203 

triangulum. Fab 246 

tricincta. Vill 203 

uniglutnis. Lin 107 

Wings, observations on the .... 16 
theory of the neuration of 
the 17 

Xylaciis. Shuck 188 



lONDON : 

C. ftOWORTH AND SONS, BF.T.L YAftD, 
TEMPLE B.in, 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



Pl. 1. Fig. 1. The colour of the nervures is always to be 
understood as limited to that upon which it is found, showing 
the extent of its course, and consequently has no reference to 
any other coloured in the same manner : at p. 17 will be found 
a fuller explanation. 

a. The costal nervure (black). 

b. The apical margin (?/e//ow). 

c. The posterior margin (hlack). 

d. The post-costal nervure {yelUnv). 

e. The externo-medial nervure {red). 

f. The anal nervure {blue). 

g. The transverso-medial nervure {yellow). 
h. The radial nervure {red). 
i. The cubital nervure {green). 
k. The discoidal nervure {green). 
1. The subdiscoidal nervure {blue). 
m. The transverso-cubital nervures {blue). 
n. The recurrent nervures {red). 

s. The stigma — the whole space here enclosed is the 
stigma {green). 

1. The costal cell. 

2. The externo-medial cell. 

3. The interno-medial cell. 

4. The anal cell. 

5. The marginal cell. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 

6. The first cubital or submarginal cell. 

7. The second 

8. The third 

9. The fourth 

10. The first discoidal cell. 

1 1 . The second 

1 2. The third 

13. The first apical cell. 

14. The second 

Fig, 2. The dotted parts, upon this figure, show the portion 
of the wing, which has hitherto furnished characters. 

In Plates 2, 3, and 4, I may observe, that the wings drawn 
are those of the types, excepting in Pl. 3, No. 19, where the 
Oxyhelus uniglumis has been used, the type not being British ; 
as also in Pl. 4, No. 29, where the Alyson lunicornis has been 
figured, and at Fig. S^ of the same plate, our species, the 
PhUanthus triangulum, has been used, their types likewise being 
foreign. 

Pl. 2. Fig. G. Pompilus. It must be remembered, that se- 
veral of the species of this genus considerably differ in the 
neuration of their wings from the type, for in some the third 
submarginal cell is much wider towards the marginal, even 
sometimes nearly square, and in the P. nlger it is also occasion- 
ally petiolated. I repeat this here, in case, on referring to the 
plates, the observations under the genera should not be also 
looked to, but which, however, is always desirable. 



S'i? 




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Order-HYMENOPTERA. 



Division II. 
ACULEATA. Latr, 

Tribe I. 
HETEROGYNA. Lair. 

Fam. 1. 
FORMICIDiE. Lea. 

Fam. 2. 
MUTILLID.E. Lea. 

Genus 1. 
MUTILLA. Un. 

1 . Europsea. hin. 

$■ 

2. calva. ViU. 

$' 
$• 
Genus 2. 
MYRJMOSA. Latr. 
1. melanocephala. Fah. 
$■ 
?. 
Genus 3. 
METHOCA. Latr. 
1. ichneumonides, Latr. 
$■ 
$• 
Tribe II. 
FOSSORES. Latr. 

Fam. 1. 
SCOLIADiE. Leu. 

Genus 1. 
TIPHIA. Fab. 

1. femorata. Fab. 

2. mono. Fab. 

$■ 

3. minuta. V. d. I.iud. 

$• 

Fam. 2. 
SAPYGIDiE. Lea. 

Genus 1. 
SAPYGA. Latr. 

1. punctata. Kl. 

$■ 
.$• 

2. clavicornis. Liti. 

$■ 



Fam. 3. 
POMPILIDiE. Leu. 

Genus 1. 
POMPILUS. Fab. 
1 pulcher. Fab. 
$■ 

?• 

2. niger. Fa 6. 

^• 

.. 2- 

3. bifasciatus. Fab. 

$■ 

$• 

4. vanegatus. Lin. 

$- 
?. 

5. petiolatus. V. d. L. 

?• 

6. cinctellus. Spin. 

$■ 

?• 

7. punctum. tab. 

$' 
$• 

8. hyalinatus. Fah. 

$■ 
.?• 

9. rufipes. lAn. 

$■ 
$• 

10. notatus. Rossi. 

$■ 

$• 

11. sencatus. Shuck. 

3- 
?• 

12. viaticus. Lin. 



13. gibbus. Lin. 

$■ 

. ?•• . 

14. crassicornis. Shuck. 

15. fuscus. Lin. 

16. affinis. V. d. Lind. 

i- 

?• 

17. exaltatus. Fab. 

(?• 
?■ 

18. agilis. Shuck. 

?>■ 



19. fasciatellus. Spin. 

i- 
?• 

Genus 2. 
CEROPALES. Lair, 

1. maculata. Fab. 

$■ 

$• 

2. variegata. Fah. 

Genus 3. 
APORUS. Spin. 
1. bicolor. Spin. 
$■ 
?• 

Fam. 4. 
SPHECIDiE. Lea. 

Genus 1. 
AMMOPHILA. Kir. 

1. sabiUosa. Lin. 

(?• 

?• 

2. hirsuta. Scop, 

^• 
. ?• 

3. affinis. Air. 

$' 

2- 

Genus 2. 

MISCUS. Jur. 

1. campestris. Latr. 

?• 

Genus 3. 

SPHEX. ^ur(. 

1. flavipennis Fab. 

$' 

?• 

Genus 4. 

DOLICHURUS. Lair. 

1. corniculus. Spin. 

Fam. 5. 
LARRIDiE. iea. 

Genus 1. 
LARRA. Fab. 
1. anathema, ilowi. 
$' 
2- 
Genus 2. 
TACHYTES. Panz. 
1. pompiliformis. Pad": 



2. unicolor. Pans 

2- 



Genus 3. 
MISCOPUUS. Jur. 
1. bicolor. Jnr. 
$■ 

2- 

Genus 4. 
DINETUS. Jtir. 
1. pictus, Fa6. 
$■ 

2- 

Fam. 6. 
NYSSONID^. Lea. 

Genus 1. 
ASTATA. Lutr. 
1. boops. Schr. 
$■ 

2- 

Genus 2. 
NYSSON. I«tr. 

1. spinosus. Fah. 

$■ 

2- 

2. interruptus. Latr. 

$• 

2- 

3. trimaculatus. Rossi. 

^■ 
2- 

4. guttatus. Oliv. 

<?• 

... 2- 

5. dimidiatus. Jur. 

$• 

2- 

Genus 3. 
OXYBELUS. Lair. 
1. uniglumis. Lin. 



2. ferox. Shuck. 



3. nigripes. O/ir. 

^• 

2- 

4. bellicosus. Oliv. 

$• 

2- 

5. argentatus. Curt. 

$• 
2- 
6. 14-guttatus. Oliv. 

$■ 

. . 2- 

7. nigncornis. Shuck. 

2- 

8. nigroaeneus. Shuck. 

2- 



Fam. 7. 
CRABRONIDiE. Lea. 

Genus 1. 
TRYPOXYLON. Latr. 
1. figulus. Lin. 

'2. aurifrons. Shuck. 

$■ 

?• 
3. clavicerum. St. Farg. 

$' 
?• 
Genus 2. 
CRABRO. Fah. 

1. cribrarius. Lin. 

$• 

. ?• 

2. patellatus. Fanz. 

$■ 

^ ?• 

3. scutatus. Fab. 

$• 

?• 

4. cetratus. Shuck. 

$• 

. ?• 

5. vexillatus. Pujc. 

^• 
$• 

6. tarsatus. Shuck. 

$■ 
$• 

7. cephalotes. Fut. 

^• 
$• 

8. sexcinctus. fafc. 

^• 

$• 

9. xylurgus. Shuck. 

$■ 

2- 

10. Lindenius. Shuck. 

$- 

, $• 

11. vagus. Lin. 

$• 

12. subpunctatus. Rossi. 

$■ 
$• 

13. vagabundus. Pans. 

^• 
$• 

14. dimidiatus. Fab. 

$■ 
$• 

15. leucostoma. Lin. 

$• 
$• 

16. elongatulus. V. d. L. 

$• 
. ?• 

17. luteipalpis. St. Farg. 



18. proximus. Shuck. 

19. podagncus. V. d. L, 

$• 
2- 

20. capitosus. Shuck. 

$• 

2- 

21. hyalinus. Steph. 

$- 

2- 

22. transversalis. Shuck. 

<?■ 

2- 

23. spmipectus. Shuck. 

$' 

.2- 

24. Wesmaeli. V. d. L. 

<^. 

2- 

25. pubescens. SInick. 

$■ 

2- 

26. obhquus. Shuck. 

2- 

27. propinquus. Shuck. 

. , 2- 

28. geniculatus. Steph. 

<?• 
2- 

29. Walken. Shuck. 

$■ 
2- 

30. albilabris. Fab. 

i- 

2- 

31. Panzeri. V. d. Lind. 

$■ 

2- 

32. exiguus. V. d, Lind. 

$' 

2- 

33. brevis. V. d. Lind. 

$■ 
2- 

34. tibialis. Fab. 

$• 
2- 

35. rufiventris. Panz. 

$' 

2- 

Genus 3. 

STIGMUS. Jur. 

1 . pendulus. Panz. 

?• 

Genus 4. 
CELIA. Shuck. 
1. troglodytes. V.d. L. 
$■ 



Genus 5. 
DIODONTUS. Curt. 

1. minutus. Fab. 

2- 

2. luperus. Shuck. 

$' 

3. tnstis. V. d. Lind. 

$• 
?• 
Genus 6. 
CERATOPHORUS. Shuck. 
1. morio. V. d. Lind. 
$• 
$• 
Genus 7. 
PASSALOiCUS. Shvck. 

1. insignis. V. d. Lind, 

$■ 

.. $• 

2. gracilis. Curt. 

$' 

. ?• 

3. corniger. Shuck. 

$' 
$• 
Genus 8. 
PEMPHREDON. Latr. 

1 . lugubris. Fab. 

$' 
$• 

2. luctuosus. Shuck. 

$- 
?• 
Genus 9. 
CEMONUS. Jur. 

1. unicolor. Fab. 

$• 

, ?• 

2. lethifer. Shuck. 

$• 
$• 
Genus 10. 
MELLINUS. Latr. 

1. arvensis. Lin. 

$• 

?• 

2. sabulosus. Fab. 

$' 

2' 

Genus 11. 
ALYSON. Jur. 
1 . lunicornis. Fa 6. 
$• 
$• 
Genus 12. 
GORYTES. Latr. 

1, mystaceus. Lin. 

$■ 
?• 

2. Fargeii. Shuck. 

$■ 
$• 



3. 4-fa8ciatus. Fab. 

?• 

4. laticinctus. St. Farg. 

.^• 
?• 

5. bicinctus. Rossi. 

$■ 
$• 

Genus 13. 
ARPACTUS. Jur. 

1. laBvis. Latr. 

$' 

. $• 

2. tumidus. Panz. 

s- 

Genus 14. 
PSEN. Lair. 

1. ater. Fanz. 

$■ 

2. atratus. Panz. 

?• 

Genus 15. 
MIMESA. Shuck. 

1. unicolor. F. d. Lind. 

$■ 
$• 

2. bicolor. Jur. 

$• 
.$• 

3. equestris. Fab. 

$■ 
?• 

Genus 16. 
CERCERIS. Latr. 
l.arenaria Lin. 
$• 
?• 

2. labiata. Fut. 

^• 

$• 

3. intemipta. Pans. 

^^ 
?• 

4. ornata. Pa&. 

. .?• 

5. quadricincta. Puke. 

^• 
$• 

6. sabulosa. Pans. 

$• 

Genus 17. 
PHILANTHUS. Fah. 
1. triangulum. Fa6. 
^• 



Older— HYMENOPTERA. 



Division II. 
ACULEATA. Latr. 

Tribe I. 
HETEROGYNA. Latr. 

Fam. 1. 
FORMICID.E. Lea. 

Fam. 2. 
MUTILLID^. Lea. 

Gexus 1. 
MUTILLA. Lin. 

1. Europsea. Lin. 

$■ 

$• 

2. calva. Vill. 

S- 
$• 
Genus 2. 
MYRMOSA. Latr. 
1. melanocephala. Fab. 
$' 
?• 
Genus 3. 
METHOCA. Latr. 
1. ichneumonides. Latr. 
$■ 

2- 
Tribe II. 
FOSSORES. Latr. 

Fam. 1. 
SCOLIAD^. Lea. 

Genus 1. 
TIPHIA. Fab. 

1. femorata. Fab. 
$■ 

?• 

2. mono. Fab. 

$■ 

?• ^ 

3. minuta. F. d. Lind. 

$• 
?• 

Fam. 2. 
SAPYGID^. Lea. 

Genus 1. 
SAPYGA. Latr. 

1. punctata. A'/. 

, . .*• 

2. clavicornis. Liu. 

$■ 



Fam. 3. 
POMPILIDiE. Lea, 

Genus 1. 
POMPILUS. Fab. 
1 pulcher. Fah. 
$■ 

?• 

2. niger. Fa 6. 

^• 
$• 

3. bifasciatus. Fa6. 

$• 

4. variegatus. Li«. 

$■ 
2- ^ 

5. petiolatus. V. d. L. 

$■ 
$• 

6. cinctellus. S'pin. 

$■ 

$• 

7. punctuin. tab. 

$■ 

$• 

8. hyalinatus. Fab. 

$■ 
.?• 

9. rufipes. lAn. 

$■ 
$• 

10. notatus. Rossi. 

$■ 

2- , 

1 1 . sencatus. Shuck. 

?• 

12. viaticus. Lin. 

$■ 
$• 

13. gibbus. Lin. 

$■ 

. 2-. 

14. crassicornis. Shuck. 

$• 

2- 

15. fuscus. Lin. 

2- 

16. affinis. V. d. Lind. 

S- 

2- 

17. exaltatus. Fab. 

2- 

18. agilis. Shuck. 

<?• 
2- 



]9. fasciatellus. Spin. 

i' 

Genus 2. 
CEROPALES. Lair. 
1 . maculata. Fab, 

i- 

'2. variegata. tab. 

$• 

Genus 3. 
APORUS. Spin. 
1. bicolor. Spin. 
$• 
?• 

Fam. 4. 
SPHECID^. Lea. 

Genus 1. 
AINIMOPHILA. Kir. 

1. sabulosa. Lin. 

$■ 

2- 

2. hirsuta. Scop. 

$■ 
?• 

3. affinis. Kir. 

$' 
?• 

Genus 2. 

MISCUS. Jur. 

1. campestris. Lair. 

^^ 
$• 

Genus 3. 
SPHEX. Auci. 
1. fiavipennis Fab. 
$• 
$• 
Genus 4. 
DOLICHURUS. Lair. 
1. corniculus. Spiu. 
$• 
$• 

Fam. 5. 
LARRID^. Xc(/. 

Genus 1. 
LARRA. Fah. 
1. anathema. Kossi. 
$- 
2- 

Genus 2. 
TACHYTES. Pum. 

1. pompiliformis. P«»: 

i- 

2. unicolor. Pom;. 

s- 



Genus 3. 
.MISCOPIIUS. Jur. 
1 . bicolor. Jur. 

$■ 

?• 

Genus 4. 

DINETUS. Jur. 

1. pictus. Fab. 

$• 

?. 

Fam. 6. 
NYSSONID^. Lea. 

Genus 1. 
ASPATA. Latr. 
1. hoops. Schr. 

i- 
?• 

Genus 2. 
NYSSON. latr. 

1. spinosus. Fab. 

$■ 

2. interruptus. Latr. 

$• 

2- 

3. trimaculatus. Bnssi. 

$■ 

s- 

4. guttatus. Oliv. 

$■ 

. $• 

5. dlmidiatus. Jki-. 

s- 

Genus 3. 
OXYBELUS. Lair. 

1. uriiglumis. Jin. 

(?• 

2- 

2. lerox. Shuck. 

$' 

2- 

3. nigripes. OZii'. 

^• 

4. bellicosus. 0/(i;. 

^• 

2- 

5. argentatus Curt. 

$■ 

2- 

6. 14-guttatus. 0/(1. 

^• 
• . 5- 

7. nigricornis. .Shuck. 

2- 

8. n:oro£Eneu=. ■'"■.Iiurh. 

^.■ 
2- 



Fam. 7. 
CRABRONID^E. Lf«. 

Genus 1. 
TRYPOXYLOX. Latr. 
1. tigulus. Lin. 

i- 

"2. aurlfroas. 6huck. 
<^- 
?• ^ 

3. clavicerum. 5t. Far^. 

$• 
Genus 2. 
CRABRO. fafe. 

I. cribrarius. Lin. 

$• 

$• 
"2. patellatus. Fa/i:. 

^• 

?• 

3. scutatus. Fab. 

$■ 

?• 

4. cetratus. Shuck. 

5. vexillatus. Pauz. 

$■ 

2- . 

6. tarsatus. Shuck. 

$■ 
?• ^ 

7. cephalotes. Fiifc. 

^• 
$• 

8. sexcinctus. Fa^. 

^• 
?• 

9. xylurgus. Shuck. 

$■ 
$• 
10. Lindenius. Shuck. 

$' 

II. vagus, LjH. 

$■ 

5- „ . 

12. subpunctatus. Rom. 

$' 

$• 

13. vagabundus. Panz. 

s- 
?• 

14. dimidiatvis. Fah. 

15. leucostoma. Lin. 

$■ 
?• 

16. elongatulus. I . d. L. 

$• 

5- 

17. luteipalpis. St. turz- 

i- 

2- 



18. proximus. Shuck. 

$' 
?• 

19. podagricus. V. d.L. 

$' 
2- 

20. capitosus. Shuck. 

$• 
2- 

21. hyalinus. Steph. 

2.- 

22. transversalis. Shuck. 

2- , 

23i spinipectus. Shuck. 
$- 

2- 

24. Wesmaeli. V.d.L. 

2- , 

25. pubescens. Shuck. 

i- 

2- 

26. obliquus. Shuck. 

$' 

2- , 

27. propinquus. Shuck. 

$■ 

2- , 

28. geniculatus. Sieph. 

$- 

• 2- 

29. Walken. Shuck. 

$■ 
2- 

30. albilabris. Fah. 

$■ 

2- , 

31. Panzen. V. d. Lind. 

$■ 

2- ^ 

32. exiguus. V. d. Lind. 

$- 

2- ^ 

33. brevis. V. d. Lind. 

$' 
2- 

34. tibialis. Fab. 

$■ 
2- 

35. rufiventris. Panz. 

$■ 

2- 

Genus 3. 

STIGMUS. Jur. 

1. pendulus. Panz. 

2- 

Genus 4. 
CELIA. Shuck. 
1. troglodytes. V. d. L. 
$■ 

2- 



\ 



Genus 5. 
DIODONTUS. Curt. 

1. minutus. Fab. 

$■ 
$• 

2. luperus. Shuck. 

$• 

5- 

3. tristis. V. d. Lind. 

?• 

Genus 6. 

CERATOPHORUS. Shuck. 

1. morio. V. d. Lind. 

i- 
$• 

Genus 7. 
PASSALffiCUS. Shuck. 

1. insignis. V. d. Lind. 

$' 

., 2- 

2. gracilis. Curt. 

$• 

. 2- 

3. corniger. Shuck. 

$■ 
$• 
Genus 8. 
PEMPHREDON. Latr. 

1. lugubris. Fab, 

$- 

$• 

2. luctuosus. Shuck. 

$- 
?• 
Genus 9. 
CEMONUS. Jur. 

1. unicolor. Fah. 

$■ 
$• 

2. lethifer. Shuck. 

s- 

2- 

Genus 10. 
MELLINUS. Latr. 

1. arvensis. Lin. 

$• 

?• 

2. sabulosus. Fa6. 

^• 
$• 

Genus 11. 
ALYSON. Jur. 
1. lunicornis. fafc. 
^. 

2- 

Genus 12. 
GORYTES. Latr. 

1. mystaceus. Lin. 

$■ 

?• 

2. Fargeu. Shuck. 

$• 

2- 



3. 4-fasciatus. Fa6. 

. , . . ?• 

4. labcinctus. St. Farg. 

2-. 

5. bicinctus. Wojsi. 

^• 
2- 

Genus 13. 
ARPACTUS. Jur. 

1. IjEvis. Latr. 

$■ 

2- 

2. tumidus. Pane. 

^. 
?• 

Genus 14. 
PSEN. Latr. 

1. ater. Panz. 

$• 

2- 

2. atratus. Pans. 

2- 

Genus 15. 
. MIMESA. Shuck. 

1. unicolor. V. d. Lind. 

$• 

. . 2- 

2. bicolor. Jur. 

$' 

2- 

3. equestris. Fah. 

$■ 
2- 

Genus 16. 
CERCERIS. Latr. 

1. arenaria Lin. 

$■ 

2- 

2. labiata. Fab. 

S- 
2- 

3. interrupta. Pans. 

^• 
2. 

4. ornata. Fab. 

^■ 

,. 2- 

5. quadncincta. Pans. 

$■ 

2- 

6. sabulosa. Pans. 

^• 

2- 

■Genus 17. 
PHILANTHUS. Fab. 
1. triangulum. Fah. 
^. 

2- 



4^ 



■^ 



^ 














tV) f.. 



i'iir 



^'; 



jl, V / > 

^'^ ^^- ^f^/ 



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